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Topic: Eisenhower Doctrine


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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

  
  Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East, by Salim Yaqub. Introduction.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
But the Eisenhower Doctrine also sought to contain the radical Arab nationalism of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and to discredit his policy of "positive neutrality" in the Cold War, which held that Arab nations were entitled to enjoy profitable relations with both Cold War blocs.
Examining the doctrine at some length and in its entirety is the best way to illuminate its underlying political dynamics, which tend to remain obscured when the policy is treated too briefly or as a series of discrete case studies.
Takeyh is correct, however, in stressing that the Eisenhower Doctrine did not represent a fundamental repudiation of Britain's policies and role in the Middle East.
uncpress.unc.edu /chapters/yaqub_containing.html   (6674 words)

  
  Foreign policy doctrine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Richard Nixon's justification for the phased withdrawal of the United States from Vietnam, for example, came to be called the Nixon Doctrine.
The purpose of a foreign policy doctrine is to provide general rules for the conduct of foreign policy.
"Doctrine" is usually not meant to have any negative connotations; it is especially not to be confused with "dogma".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Foreign_policy_doctrine   (184 words)

  
 Eisenhower Doctrine - Sidebar - MSN Encarta
The foreign policy of United States president Dwight D. Eisenhower was most notable for its efforts to contain the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
In 1957 Eisenhower pledged assistance to any Middle Eastern state against “overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism.” This policy, excerpted here, became known as the Eisenhower Doctrine.
Eisenhower never formally invoked the doctrine, but he came close to using it when he sent Marines to Lebanon in 1958.
encarta.msn.com /sidebar_1741501354/Eisenhower_Doctrine.html   (138 words)

  
 KWCC Biography - Eisenhower
Eisenhower reached the rank of colonel only in March 1941, yet three months later he was named chief of staff of the Third Army, and in September of the same year was promoted to brigadier general.
While a dramatic gesture, Eisenhower's trip to Korea had far less to do with the ending of the war six months later than the death of Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and the leaked consideration by the U.S. administration of bombing and blockading the Chinese mainland, and perhaps even the employing of nuclear weapons.
Eisenhower sent troops into Lebanon in July of 1958, to stabilize its political situation and warn off the ambitious Egyptian dictator, Gamal Nasser.
korea50.army.mil /history/biographies/eisenhower.shtml   (1193 words)

  
 Eisenhower, Dwight David. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Eisenhower’s impressive performance in the 1941 army maneuvers led to his assignment in Washington, D.C. as chief of operations (1942) and preceded his meteoric rise to the top as Allied military commander of World War II.
Eisenhower was sought as a nominee for presidency of the United States in 1948 but rejected the offers made him.
Eisenhower soon fulfilled his campaign pledge when an armistice was signed (July, 1953) in Korea after he threatened to use nuclear weapons.
www.bartleby.com /65/ei/EisenhoDD.html   (948 words)

  
 CNN Cold War - Profile: Dwight David Eisenhower
Eisenhower assumed his post in 1951 but decided to run for the presidency a year later and retired from the Army.
Eisenhower refused to publicly criticize Sen. Joseph McCarthy, whose anti-communist campaign resulted in the firing of civilian employees and charges against Army and civilian officers.
Eisenhower also worked for the creation of the South Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO, 1954), the inclusion of West Germany in NATO in 1955, and the end of four-power occupation and the restoration of Austrian sovereignty.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/eisenhower   (621 words)

  
 Dwight David Eisenhower
Eisenhower, actively encouraged by his parents and brothers, saw education as a way to better himself and became as much of a scholar as he was an athlete.
Eisenhower devoted himself to energizing his staff, building a solid relationship with the British ally, and managing Operation BOLERO, as the buildup of resources for the ultimate invasion of Europe was dubbed.
Eisenhower discovered that handling coalition warfare involving the three armed services of two nations in a campaign launched on hostile soil by amphibious landings, where logistical and administrative support did not previously exist, was even more complex than he had imagined.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/brochures/ike/ike.htm   (8182 words)

  
 National Park Service - The Presidents (Dwight Eisenhower)
Eisenhower remained in the United States during World War I, and established as well as commanded the tank training center at Camp Colt, Gettysburg, Pa. During peacetime, he gained a reputation for his staff and planning work and held a series of overseas and stateside assignments, including service under Gens.
Late in 1957, Eisenhower was temporarily hospitalized with a mild stroke.
Eisenhower labeled his domestic program as "Dynamic Conservatism" or "Modern Republicanism." Working with majority Democratic Congresses except for the first 2 years, he emphasized a balanced budget, but favored expansion of social-welfare legislation while also encouraging the decentralization of Federal projects through cooperation with business and State and local governments.
www.cr.nps.gov /history/online_books/presidents/bio34.htm   (1441 words)

  
 Truman Doctrine, Eisenhower Doctrine, Rosenberg Case   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The doctrine has been criticized for committing the United States to the support of unworthy regimes and for taking on greater burdens than it was safe to assume.
The doctrine was intended to check increased Soviet influence in the Middle East, which had resulted from the supply of arms to Egypt by communist countries as well as from strong communist support of Arab states against an Israeli, French, and British attack on Egypt in October 1956.
The doctrine was subsequently invoked to assist governments in Jordan and in Lebanon, where two battalions of U.S. Marines were landed near Beirut (Bayrût) on July 15 and 16, 1958, to prevent Communist intervention in a rebellion then in progress in that country.
www.owlnet.rice.edu /~mwfriedm/terms/corin_26.html   (617 words)

  
 Eisenhower Doctrine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to Congress on January 5, 1957 stated the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the Middle East.
The doctrine largely failed on that front, with Nasser's power quickly ritcomes in neighboring Arab countries including Iraq and Saudi Arabia, but in the meantime Nasser's relationship with the Soviet leaders deteriorated, allowing the US to switch to a policy of accommodation.
The Eisenhower Administration also said the area as being influential for future foreign policy for not only the United States but also its allies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eisenhower_Doctrine   (325 words)

  
 Channel 4 - History - Dwight D Eisenhower   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The text of the presidential news conference of 7 April 1954 when Eisenhower first espoused the domino theory of international politics: ‘You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly.
The text of Eisenhower’s message to Congress on 5 January 1957, in which he outlined his ‘doctrine’.
On this website, you can listen to some of these – from 1950-1, when Eisenhower was considering and actually running for president, and from 1955, when he discussed what he seems to have considered sensitive issues with Nixon, members of his staff, politicians, foreign leaders and journalists.
www.channel4.com /history/microsites/H/history/e-h/eisenhower5.html   (572 words)

  
 Dwight David Eisenhower — Infoplease.com
Eisenhower served in the Philippines from 1935 to 1939 with Gen. Douglas MacArthur.
With his wartime rank restored by Congress, Eisenhower returned to private life and the role of elder statesman, with his vigor hardly impaired by a heart attack, an ileitis operation, and a mild stroke suffered while in office.
Dwight David Eisenhower: Presidency - Presidency Eisenhower was sought as a nominee for presidency of the United States in 1948 but...
www.infoplease.com /ipa/A0760618.html   (702 words)

  
 Dwight Eisenhower
President Eisenhower's first task upon assuming office was to fulfill his campaign promise to end the Korean War.
During the meeting, Eisenhower proposed the policy of "open skies." Under this program, the airspace of each country would be open to be photographed by the air forces of the others.
In 1957, Eisenhower outlined what became known as the "Eisenhower Doctrine," under which the United States would aid any country threatened by Communist aggression or subversion.
www.multied.com /Bio/people/Eisenhower.html   (439 words)

  
 Commentary Magazine - Epistles from the Eisenhower Age   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Eisenhower administration on the whole was not a bad administration so far as its policies and achievements were concerned: very little that was undertaken by the government of the United States might have been better had we in 1952 placed our destinies in anyone else's hands.
...Eisenhower," says Adams, did not avoid the "double-standard argument" which pointed to the United Nations' failure to punish Russia for its invasion of Hungary but he disapproved of the comparison: "There can, of course, be no equating of a nation like Israel with that of the Soviet Union...
...THE EISENHOWER administration on the whole was not a bad administration so far as its policies and achievements were concerned: very little that was undertaken by the government of the United States might have been better--or even different-had we in 1952 placed our destinies in anyone else's hands...
www.commentarymagazine.com /Summaries/V35I3P54-1.htm   (4308 words)

  
 Dwighty D Eisenhower
Eisenhower was interested in attending the Naval Academy, but was told that he was too old (he had just passed his 20th birthday) and was ineligible.
In 1954, Eisenhower refused a request from the French for US intervention to save their troops fighting in Vietnam, at Dien Ben Phu.
During the last year of the Eisenhower Presidency, especially during the second of Eisenhower's battles with physical illness, there was a feeling that the country was rudderless, and lacking a strong leader.
www.historycentral.com /Bio/presidents/eisenhower.html   (773 words)

  
 H-Net Review: Daniel C. Williamson on Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Eisenhower and Dulles hoped that the rise in American popularity, in tandem with the brutal Soviet suppression of the Hungarian revolt of 1956, would induce most Arab states to declare their willingness to participate in the Eisenhower Doctrine.
Yaqub explains that the period from the official launch of the Eisenhower Doctrine in March 1957 until the early summer of that same year saw the brief heyday of the administration's plan.
If the deficiencies of the Eisenhower Doctrine were masked by the apparently pro-Western trend of events in the first half of 1957, Yaqub argues that Washington's failed attempt during the second half of the year to overthrow the increasingly leftist Syrian government was the first clear defeat of the doctrine.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=94671095034430   (2577 words)

  
 Eisenhower Presidential Chronology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Eisenhower and Nixon defeat Stevenson and Kefauver by nine million votes in presidential election.
Eisenhower Doctrine established to resist Communist aggression in the Middle East.
Eisenhower travels on a goodwill mission to 19 nations in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia.
www.nps.gov /eise/chrono2.htm   (330 words)

  
 SparkNotes: The Cold War (1945–1963): Eisenhower and the Cold War: 1954–1960
Eisenhower began to favor using the CIA instead of the military because covert operations didn’t attract as much attention and cost much less money.
Eisenhower and the Dulles brothers authorized the coup in Iran when the Iranian government seized control of the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
Eisenhower condemned the attack on Egypt and exerted heavy diplomatic and economic pressure on the aggressors.
www.sparknotes.com /history/american/coldwar/section6.rhtml   (1782 words)

  
 Modern History Sourcebook: TASS: Statement on the Eisenhower Doctrine, January 14 1957
Dwight D. Eisenhower, on January 5 addressed a special message to Congress on the policy of the United States in the Middle East countries.
President Eisenhower's message runs counter to the principles and the purposes of the United Nations and is fraught with grave danger to peace and security in the Middle East area.
The aggressive trend of this programme and its colonialist nature with regard to the Arab countries are so obvious that this cannot be disguised by any nebulous phrases about the love for peace and the concern claimed to be shown by the United States for the Middle East countries.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1957tass-eisenhower.html   (1468 words)

  
 Presidential Papers, Doc#63 To James Prioleau Richards, 9 March 1957. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower
In January Eisenhower had appointed Richards to a new position (with the rank of Ambassador) in which he would help implement Middle East policy.
On this same day Dulles would tell the Ambassador that the basic purpose of the program was "to help the states in the general area of the Middle East, at their request, to maintain their national independence against the encroachments of international communism" (State, Foreign Relations, 1955 - 1957, vol.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. To James Prioleau Richards, 9 March 1957.
www.eisenhowermemorial.org /presidential-papers/second-term/documents/63.cfm   (736 words)

  
 This Day in History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The "Eisenhower Doctrine," as the proposal soon came to be known, established the Middle East as a Cold War battlefield.
Eisenhower did not ask for a specific appropriation of funds at the time; nevertheless, he indicated that he would seek $200 million for economic and military aid in each of the years 1958 and 1959.
The "Eisenhower Doctrine" received its first call to action in the summer of 1958, when civil strife in Lebanon led that nation's president to request U.S. assistance.
www.historychannel.com /tdih/tdih.jsp?category=coldwar&month=10272953&day=10272970   (421 words)

  
 Reagan doctrine - SourceWatch
The Reagan Doctrine was championed by the conservative Heritage Foundation and its foreign policy analysts, along with others on the right sympathetic and influential with the Reagan administration.
Initial hints of this Reagan Doctrine surfaced in the president's February 1985 State of the Union Address when he affirmed, 'We must not break faith with those who are risking their lives--on every continent from Afghanistan to Nicaragua--to defy Soviet aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth.
Breaking with the doctrine of 'Containment,' established during the Truman administration--President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy was based on John Foster Dulles' Roll-Back strategy from the 1950s in which the United States would actively push back the influence of the Soviet Union.
www.sourcewatch.org /index.php?title=Reagan_doctrine   (1273 words)

  
 Bush doctrine - SourceWatch
More accurately attributed as the "Wolfowitz doctrine", and detailed in the National Security Strategy Document (National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction) promulgated by the junior Bush's administration, it promotes use of unilateral preemptive force and persuasion rather than honest multi-lateral cooperation.
By pre-empting against a sordid regime with unbridled hegemonic ambitions that had launched two aggressive wars against its neighbors, the invasion was intended to end the costly duel with Saddam Hussein that had run for over a decade.
The Bush Doctrine was intended to be America's definitive strategy for dealing with a world of terrorism.
www.sourcewatch.org /index.php?title=Bush_doctrine   (883 words)

  
 Presidential Papers, Doc#39 To Harry S. Truman, 15 February 1957. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower
I feel that your attitude is in the high tradition of non-partisanship on foreign policy matters of grave national concern.
For background on the joint resolution, known as the Eisenhower Doctrine, see Galambos and van Ee, The Middle Way, no. 2155.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. To Harry S. Truman, 15 February 1957.
www.eisenhowermemorial.org /presidential-papers/second-term/documents/39.cfm   (204 words)

  
 Dwight David Eisenhower
After the war, Eisenhower served as army chief of staff from Nov. 1945 until Feb. 1948, when he was appointed president of Columbia University.
With his wartime rank restored by Congress, Eisenhower returned to private life and the role of elder statesman, with his vigor hardly impaired by a heart attack, an ileitis operation, and a mild stroke suffered while in office.
Dwight David Eisenhower: Presidency - Presidency Eisenhower was sought as a nominee for presidency of the United States in 1948 but...
www.factmonster.com /ipka/A0760618.html   (595 words)

  
 Eisenhower Doctrine
In January 1957 made a speech in Congress where Eisenhower recommended the use of American forces to protect Middle East states against overt aggression from nations "controlled by international communism".
This new foreign policy became known as the Eisenhower Doctrine.
These two cases created a great deal of anti-Americanism in the Middle East and in 1959 it was decided that the Eisenhower Doctrine should be brought to an end.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /COLDeisenhower.htm   (180 words)

  
 Eisenhower Doctrine --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The doctrine was intended to check increased Soviet influence in the Middle East, which had resulted from the supply of arms to Egypt...
Eisenhower was also extremely worried about the economic burden of conventional rearmament.
Includes fact sheets on Eisenhower's life and administration, a section on World War II, and information on the construction of the Interstate Highway System.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9032160?tocId=9032160&query=eisenhower   (831 words)

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