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Topic: El Tor

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  El Tor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera.
El Tor was identified again in an outbreak in 1937 but the pandemic did not arise until 1961 in Sulawesi.
El Tor also remains in the body for longer and survives better than other known types.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/El_Tor   (372 words)

 El Tor - InformationBlast
It is distinguished from the classic strain at a genetic level, although both are in the O1 serogroup and both contain Inaba, Ogawa and Hikojima serotypes.
It was first identified in 1905 at a camp in El Tor, Egypt.
El Tor also remains in the body for longer and survives between than other known types.
www.informationblast.com /El_Tor.html   (339 words)

 Tor: An anonymous Internet communication system
Tor is a toolset for a wide range of organizations and people that want to improve their safety and security on the Internet.
Tor aims to make traffic analysis more difficult by preventing eavesdroppers from finding out where your communications are going online, and by letting you decide whether to identify yourself when you communicate.
Tor's security is improved as its user base grows and as more people volunteer to run servers.
tor.freehaven.net   (478 words)

 Tor: Overview
Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet.
Tor provides the foundation for a range of applications that allow organizations and individuals to share information over public networks without compromising their privacy.
Tor hides you among the other users on the network, so the more populous and diverse the user base for Tor is, the more your anonymity will be protected.
tor.eff.org /overview.html   (1176 words)

 The Vibrio cholerae Mannose-Sensitive Hemagglutinin Is the Receptor for a Filamentous Bacteriophage from V. cholerae ...
For infected 1995 to 1996 El Tor strains 150659 and
was 30% that of the mshA gene of the El Tor strain in strain JM191
Relative significance of mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin and toxin-coregulated pili in colonization of infant mice by Vibrio cholerae El Tor.
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/full/66/6/2535   (3560 words)

 TheOnionRouter/TorFAQ - Noreply Wiki
Tor is open source, and you should always check the source (or at least the diffs since the last release) for suspicious things.
Tor is achieving this too: imagine one day down the road the Tor client GUI has a little "help China" button in the corner, which causes the clients to relay a few kilobytes per second for others.
Tor's default exit policy is chosen to be flexible and useful in the future: we allow everything except the specific addresses and ports that we anticipate will lead to problems.
wiki.noreply.org /wiki/TheOnionRouter/TorFAQ   (12262 words)

 Tor SF and Fantasy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Tor Books, an imprint of Tom Doherty Associates, LLC, is a New York-based publisher of hardcover and softcover books, founded in 1980 and committed (although not limited) to SF and fantasy literature.
Books from Tor have won every major award in the SF and fantasy fields, and for the last fifteen years in a row we have been named Best Publisher in the Locus Poll, the largest consumer poll in SF.
Tor and Forge titles are distributed to the trade in the United States by Holtzbrinck/VHPS and in Canada by H.
www.tor.com /tor.html   (431 words)

 Tor Coatings - Providing Practical Solutions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Tor Coatings Limited has great pleasure in announcing that we acquired the business of Blackfriar Paints (Glixtone Ltd) on Friday 10th September 2004.
We are pleased to confirm that Tor Coatings Ltd have acquired the UK Solignum business from Osmose on Thursday 27th May....more 2003 Business of The Year Awards.
Tor have finished as runners up in the prestigious 2003 Business of The Year awards.
www.tor-coatings.com   (161 words)

 Goehring ’98 Examines Cholera Worldwide
El Tor was less severe and didn’t physically incapacitate its host, like the classical strain did, making the host capable of transferring the disease to others through means such as food preparation.
El Tor 0139 is now the more prevalent strain in that region.
But when other El Tor pathogens subsequently enter, the presence of oxygen in the gut signals to them that toxins are already being produced.
www.amherst.edu /~astudent/1997-1998/issue026/f-goehring.html   (997 words)

 Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae | CDC EID
By using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we established that all 40 strains carried the ctxA gene (constituent gene of the CTX prophage) and the tcpA gene (the El Tor type), a constituent gene of the vibrio pathogenicity island.
The CTX prophages in El Tor strains give rise to infectious phage particles (1), but neither of the two CTX prophages integrated at two different sites of the classical genome give rise to phage particles (4).
Genetic hybrids between El Tor and classical biotypes of O1 cholerae were reported among sporadic isolates earlier in Bangladesh (5) and were named the Matlab variants after the place where they were first isolated.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol10no11/04-0682.htm   (970 words)

 Joaquín Sánchez 2004 1355
Strains of Vibrio cholerae El Tor and classical biotypes are causative agents of cholera, and both biotypes produce the virulence factor cholera toxin [CT], which is a powerful enterotoxin considered the main toxin responsible for the profuse loss of fluid that characterizes the disease.
In order to produce CT from the El Tor biotype, both for characterization of the toxin and for eventual use of the toxin in immunization, ways to induce the in vitro expression of the El Tor CT were investigated.
Then it was shown that the functionalities of the classical and El Tor TcpP and TcpH were not substantially different and thus that regulatory differences between the two biotypes were not due to the activity of these proteins butto their levels of expression [22, 23].
www.bionewsonline.com /v/y/joaquin_sanchez_2004_1355.htm   (4737 words)

 Indian Journal of Medical Research: Re-emergence of El Tor vibrio in outbreak of cholera in & around Nagpur
Of the 455 stool specimens, V. cholerae was isolated in 198, Aeromonas in 2 and Plesiomonas in 3 specimens.
Of the 198 vibrio isolates, 152(76.8%) were V. cholerae (El Tor) Ogawa, 4 (2.02%) Hikojima, 3 (1.52%) Inaba and 39 (19.7%) NAG vibrios.
In conclusion, the present outbreak was due to V. cholerae El Tor which seems to have completely replaced O139 serogroup of the previous outbreaks during the last decade.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3867/is_200411/ai_n9466364   (1342 words)

 Glastonbury Tor Maze, a book by Geofffrey Ashe
According to a theory put forward by Geoffrey Russell, they are the principal remains of a maze: not in the sense of a puzzle, but in the sense of a long, twisting, devious approach to a centre.
Made in the remote past for ritual purposes, it spirals round the Tor seven times, and ends - or may be supposed to end - at the summit where the tower now stands.
Philip Rahtz, who excavated the top of the Tor in 1964-6, said of Russell's idea: 'The argument is complex, but it is worth consideration.' And elsewhere: 'If the maze theory were demonstrated to be true, it would clearly be of the greatest relevance to the origins of Glastonbury as a religious centre.'
www.gothicimage.co.uk /books/tormaze1.html   (1488 words)

 THE TOR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A wealth of myth suggests that the Tor was a major centre of Goddess worship; prominent hills such as the Tor were often revered as her seats.
The Tor is said to lie on the great St Michael's Ley, which runs from St Michael's Mount through several major pagan ritual centres.
By walking the lines of the labyrinth up Glastonbury Tor, worshippers would have finally reached the symbolic centre at its summit, where the Goddess was believed to reside.
www.time-scapes.co.uk /Glastonbury/thetor.html   (846 words)

 TheOnionRouter/TorInChroot - Noreply Wiki
Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 (Woody) with a 2.4.18 Debian kernel, but it should be applicable to other Tor versions and most of it will be the same for other Linux distributions.
Running the install within the chroot would be difficult since I would need to install a shell and other commands the makefile used, so I ran it outside, but set the install-time prefix to be different than the runtime prefix.
Another way to compile tor is using special flags to reduce liability on libraries ; however be aware that if another vulnerability comes out in SSL, once you have upgraded SSL you will need to recompile tor.
wiki.noreply.org /wiki/TheOnionRouter/TorInChroot   (896 words)

 Rapamycin and Less Immunosuppressive Analogs Are Toxic to Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans via ...
The TOR (target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway regulates the stability of translation initiation factor eIF4G in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The TOR signaling cascade regulates gene expression in response to nutrients.
TOR kinase domains are required for two distinct functions, only one of which is inhibited by rapamycin.
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/45/11/3162   (4390 words)

 CDC - Class I Integrons and SXT Elements in El Tor Strains Isolated before and after 1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 ...
Rapid spread of the new clone of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in cholera endemic areas in India.
Sharma C, Nair GB, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhattacharya SK, Ghosh RK, Ghosh A. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains isolated between 1992 and 1995 in Calcutta, India: evidence for the emergence of a new clone of the El Tor biotype.
Molecular evidence that a distinct Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strain in Calcutta may have spread to the African continent.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol9no4/02-0317.htm   (1850 words)

 Onion Routing
There is a Tor network of more than a hundred nodes, processing traffic from thousands of unknown users.
The protection of Onion Routing is independent of whether the identity of the initiator of a connection (the sender) is hidden from the responder of the connection, or vice versa.
In mid 2002, design began on a new system that eventually became Tor, which is thus at least a third generation of Onion Routing.
www.onion-router.net   (850 words)

 Genesis of variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: role of the CTX{phi} array and its position in the genome -- ...
RFLP analysis of the pre- and post-O139 El Tor O1 strains VC44 (lane 1) and CO457 (lane 2), respectively, and the Peru epidemic strain C6709 (lane 3).
NotI-digested genomic DNAs of the El Tor strains were subjected to PFGE followed by hybridization with the ctxA gene as a probe.
PFGE-separated NotI fragments of the pre-O139 El Tor strains
mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/full/149/1/89   (5217 words)

 FOCUS - February 22, 2002 - MICROBIOLOGY: Unique Genes Found in 7th Pandemic Cholera Strain
El Tor may live longer in aquatic ecosystems than previous pandemic strains, and it appears to have developed antibiotic resistance.
The researchers assembled a microarray from scratch using all 3,890 genes identified in the sequenced El Tor strain N16961.
Among the few differences, they found overlapping groups of genes shared by El Tor strains but not classic strains, genes shared by strains able to cause epidemic disease, and 22 genes present only in seventh pandemic strains.
focus.hms.harvard.edu /2002/Feb22_2002/microbiology.html   (1015 words)

 February 16, 1996 - On the Quad
By knocking out the genes responsible for El Tor's virulence, and by ingeniously tinkering with the bacteria's ability to swim in the intestine, they have crafted a new decoy strain of El Tor vibrio, one that can provoke an immune response without causing cholera.
Researchers suspected that the El Tor vibrio, which was causing outbreaks in Africa and Europe, was also producing the virulent toxin.
Having discovered the first of El Tor's weapons, Mekalanos' next discovery-of a master gene controlling the expression of cholera toxin-was spurred on by a curious result.
focus.hms.harvard.edu /1996/Feb16_1996/On_the_Quad.html   (1650 words)

 Emerging Infectious Diseases: Cholera in Mozambique, variant of Vibrio cholerae
The classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae O1 are closely related in their O-antigen biosynthetic genes but differ in other regions of the genome.
Our findings that El Tor strains of V. cholerae O1 from Mozambique are carrying the classical prophage shows the presence of genetic materials associated with the classical biotype in Mozambique.
Genetic hybrids between El Tor and classical biotypes of O1 V. cholerae were reported among sporadic isolates earlier in Bangladesh (5) and were named the Matlab variants after the place where they were first isolated.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0GVK/is_11_10/ai_n7577452   (1099 words)

 New Variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor with Attributes of the Classical Biotype from Hospitalized Patients ...
New Variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor with Attributes of the Classical Biotype from Hospitalized Patients with Acute Diarrhea in Bangladesh -- Nair et al.
A Southern blot of BglI-digested genomic DNA was hybridized with the 7.5-kb BamHI fragment of E.
in vitro, in contrast to El Tor strains (20, 29).
jcm.asm.org /cgi/content/full/40/9/3296   (3010 words)

 Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Bengal: El Tor Cholera Vibrio in a New Robe
The Bengal strain is in rapid expansion, replacing the prevalent El Tor and soon may be the predominant agent of cholera worldwide.
The zymovar of 0139 strains was shown to be identical to the zymovar of typical epidemic strains of the El Tor biovar.
www.bioline.org.br /request?oc94020   (886 words)

 i-Tor (nl) (i-Tor)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In alle aan i-Tor gekoppelde informatie kunnen gebruikers zoeken.
Meer informatie over i-Tor en Eclipse is te vinden in het artikel in Reposi-Tor nr.
OSOSS sees its task as ensuring that government organisations are able to share their knowledge and experiences in the field of open standards and open source software.
www.i-tor.org   (547 words)

 Vibrio cholerae-Induced Cellular Responses of Polarized T84 Intestinal Epithelial Cells Are Dependent on Production of ...
PBS-washed classical strain O395 (A) and El Tor strain N16961 (B) were added to the apical chamber after the first three readings were recorded.
The loss of resistance in El Tor strains is not due to Zot, Ace, CT, or HA/protease.
El Tor strains produce CT in vitro only under specialized AKI growth conditions (13).
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/full/69/10/6310   (4387 words)

 Genesis of variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: role of the CTX{phi} array and its position in the genome -- ...
Genesis of variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: role of the CTX{phi} array and its position in the genome -- Nandi et al.
In sharp contrast, in post-O139 El Tor strains
on the genomes of pre- and post-O139 El Tor strains have an
mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/149/1/89   (315 words)

 Molecular Analyses of a Putative CTXphi Precursor and Evidence for Independent Acquisition of Distinct CTXphi s by ...
Plasmid DNA was prepared from C325, classical strain O395 (a negative control), El Tor strain E7946 (a positive control), and Bah-2(pCTX-Kn).
was distinct from the El Tor strains' zot sequence.
cholerae El Tor strains are in red, classical strains are in blue, non-O1 serogroup strains are in fl with the particular serogroup in the superscript, and V.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/182/19/5530   (4764 words)

TOR Minerals seeks to be a leading supplier in key markets worldwide through the continual development of high value, cost-effective products designed to satisfy customer specific requirements.
In line with its initiative the company focuses on strong technical support and flexibility in its plant operation.
TOR Minerals is committed to the stringent Quality Control of its products and has established laboratories at each of its worldwide plant sites.
www.torminerals.com   (110 words)

 The Mannose-Sensitive Hemagglutinin of Vibrio cholerae Promotes Adherence to Zooplankton -- Chiavelli et al. 67 (7): ...
mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) by strains of the El Tor
Despite the fact that O1 strains of the El Tor biotype were not associated with epidemic cholera until the beginning of the
with O1 El Tor strains and are thought to be derived from O1 El Tor (18, 36, 55, 71).
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/67/7/3220   (4211 words)

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