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Topic: Elamite Empire

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  Elamite language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
Elamite was an official language of the Persian Empire from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
Elamite was not related to the neighboring Semitic languages, or Indo-European languages, and although some call Elamite the "sister" to the Sumerian language, the two languages appear to be unrelated.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elamite_language   (372 words)

 Elam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the Old Elamite period, it consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.
Kudur-mabug, apparently king of another Elamite state to the north of Susa, managed to install his son, Warad-Sin, on the throne of Larsa, and Warad-Sin's brother, Rim-Sin (thought to be the biblical Arioch), succeeded him and conquered much of Mesopotamia for Larsa before being overthrown by Hammurabi of Babylon.
Elamite is unrelated to the neighboring Semitic, Sumerian and Indo-European languages.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elamite_Empire   (3228 words)

 Persian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Iran.
Iran's earliest known kingdom was the proto-Elamite Empire, followed by the Median Empire; but it is the Achaemenid Empire that emerged under Cyrus II the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by historians.
Ismail's expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and war with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Persia.
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Persian_Empire   (3786 words)

 Parthia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE.
Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the East and it limited Rome's expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia).
The end of this loosely organized empire came in 224 CE, when the last king was defeated by one of the empire's vassals, the Persians of the Sassanid dynasty.
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Parthian   (2929 words)

 Ghaznavid Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of today's Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187.
Mahmud died in 1030, and his son was unable to control the conquered lands and lost the in 1040.
The Ghaznavid Empire ended in 1149 with the capture of Ghazna by the.
www.bucyrus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Ghaznavid_Empire   (314 words)

 Sassanid dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
With a clear military plan aimed at the revival of the Iranian Empire, Ardashir I, formed a standing army which was under his personal command and its officers were separate from satraps and local princes and nobility.
Other senior officials connected with the army were: Eran-ambaragbed "minister of the magazines of empire," responsible for the arms and armaments of warriors; the marzbans "margraves"-rulers of important border provinces; kanarang-evidently a hereditary title of the ruler of Tus; gund-salar "general"; paygan-salar "commander of the infantry"; and pushtigban-salar "commander of the royal guard".
Although the Kushan empire declined at the end of the 3rd century, leading to the rise to power of an indigenous Indian dynasty, the Guptas, in the 4th century, it is clear that Sassanid influence remained relevant in the north-west of India.
www.americancanyon.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Sassanid_dynasty   (3477 words)

 Persian History- Iranian History
Susa was always the pride and joy of the Elamites and later the Persians, a city that stood for 5000 years until totally sacked and raised to the ground by the Mongols in the 13th C AD, maybe a reason why we have to refer to Mesopotamian texts for the history of Elam.
Shahpour I consolidated a vast empire stretching from the Indian Punjab to the east of Capadocia in Anatolia.
Bahram II is reputed to have seized the Throne by political intrigues, led by the chief priest Kerdir and the nobles.
oznet.net /iran/introduc.htm   (1211 words)

 Untitled Document
1500 — 1722 A.D. Saffavid Empire of Persia
1730 — 1736 A.D. Saffavid Empire of Persia
1794 — 1925 A.D. Qajar Empire of Persia
www.une.edu.au /irsa/History.htm   (880 words)

 History of Iran: Elamite Empire
Elamite history can be divided into three main phases: the Old, Middle, and Late, or Neo-Elamite, periods.
It is noteworthy that during the Middle Elamite period the old system of succession to, and distribution of, power appears to have broken down.
The next 100 years witnessed the constant attempts of the Elamites to interfere in Mesopotamian affairs, usually in alliance with Babylon, against the constant pressure of Neo-Assyrian expansion.
www.iranchamber.com /history/elamite/elamite.php   (1381 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
During this time, the centre of the Elamite power was shifted to the east of their traditional territory and took refuge in the city of Anshan in the Zagros mountains.
Also, the sciences and knowledge of Elam and Mesopotamia, mathematics and astronomy, was transmitted to the Persian Empire by the Elamite scribes who made their language one of the three official languages of the empire.
All dialects are influenced by the language of the Elamites and the Kassites.
heim.ifi.uio.no /peyman/lur.html   (2618 words)

 AncientScripts.com: Elamite
Only starting from the 13th century BCE onward did the Elamite language reappear in the archaeological record, but at this point in time the Elamite had borrowed and adapted the cuneiform script to write their language.
At this time, Elamite, Old Persian, and Aramaic, were the "official" languages used in the Persian court and bureaucracy, while older Mesopotamian languages such as Babylonian and Sumerian continued to be used in literary, religious, and scientific circles.
While important during the early history of the Persian empire, Elamite gradually faded from history after the 5th century BCE as Aramaic became increasingly important as the "international" language of the Persian empire.
www.ancientscripts.com /elamite.html   (986 words)

 History of Iran: Iranologie.com
As a result, Elamite representation has not been very fair or accurate, and only due to the recent scholarship and reading of Elamite inscriptions we can have a good idea of their culture.
The Elamite pottery and crafts is strongly influenced by the Sumerian artifacts, as well as Muhenjudaro and Bactro-Margiana cultural artifacts.
Elamite architecture was the model of Achaemenid palaces, and the court procedure of the Persian court was completely modeled after the Elamite costumes.
www.iranologie.com /history/history1.html   (3409 words)

 A Brief History of Persian Empire
The Assyrian empire was divided between the Medes and the Babylonians.
Cyrus also expanded the Persian empire greatly in the east to the edge of India; but if he was influenced by the new religion of Zarathushtra, it did not quell his desire for imperial conquest.
The immense empire was divided and ruled by the Greek generals of the armies who had conquered it.
www.parstimes.com /library/brief_history_of_persian_empire.html   (7498 words)

 Elam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Elamites called their country Haltamti (in later Elamite, Atamti), borrowed by the neighboring Akkadians as Elam (the regular proto-Akkadian sound change ha to e indicates this word was borrowed prehistorically).
The Elamite language is unrelated to the neighboring Semitic, Sumerian, and Indo-European languages.
After two centuries for which little is known, the Middle Elamite period opened with the rise to power of the Anzanite dynasty, whose homeland probably lay in the mountains northeast of Khuzestan.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/E/Elam.htm   (2625 words)

 HISTORY OF LURISTAN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Under his reign, the frontier of Elam was extended to vast areas of the Middle East and the Elamite language imposed itself with force as the language of literature, while architecture and sculpture became highly developed.
Ever since the foundation of the Achemenid empire, Luristan, and in fact the whole of Kurdistan went into a long period of decline or more precisely "hibernation" since all sorts of political, economical, and cultural development were made to eclipse on behalf of the Persian dominant culture.
mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk /sabga/Edito/histlur.html   (4183 words)

 Iranian Architecture: A short history of high buildings in Iran
During the Median Empire which followed the rule of Elamites residential houses were often built in the low lands whereas the uplands were designated for the royal palaces.
During the rule of the Achaemenids Empire, despite a strong central government and the division of the country into a number of authoritative governorships, roads and road-side resting houses gained increasing importance necessitating greater protection against hazardous incidents.
In the Parthian Empire (or Arsacides), which followed the Achaemenids attempts were made to revive the architectural glamour of the latter dynasty.
www.iranchamber.com /architecture/short_history_highbuildings_iran.php   (1484 words)

 Elamite scripts
The oldest Elamite script, known as Proto-Elamite, first appeared in about 2900 BC in Suse (Susa), the capital of Elam, in south-western Persia (modern Iran).
Old Elamite was a syllabic script derived from Proto-Elamite and was used between about 2250 and 2220 BC, though was probably invented are an earlier date.
The Elamite Cuneiform script was used from about 2500 BC to 331 AD and was adapted from Akkadian Cuneiform.
www.omniglot.com /writing/elamite.htm   (180 words)

 Iranica.com - ELAM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
For example, the Elamites did not impose their language on the Susians; the vast majority of the documents from this period excavated at Susa, most of them juridical or economic texts related to daily life in the name of the sukkalmah or a sukkal, were written in Akkadian.
Elamite relations with Babylonia began to deteriorate during the reign of Humban-haltaæ II (680-75), son of Humban-haltaæ I (688-81), which may explain why his brother and successor, Urtak (674-64), at first maintained good relations with the Assyrian king Aææurbanipal (668-27), who helped him by sending wheat during a famine.
Elamite phonology, however, was quite different from that of Akkadian; for instance, it may have included vowels other than the Akkadian a, i, u, and e and consonant groups unknown to Akkadian, including combinations of three consonants or two consonants at the ends of words.
www.bibliothecapersica.com /articles/v8f3/v8f340.html   (18122 words)

 Iranica.com - GANZABARA
Elamite administrative tablets from the Treasury at Persepolis name four men who held the title treasurer consecutively between 490 and 459 B.C.E., and a fifth man who appears in a comparable administrative role but without a title.
The title is expressed both with the transcribed Iranian form kanzabarra and with the Elamite translation kapnuækir, and the holder of the title is sometimes qualified as treasurer "of Parsa" or "in the fortress," both qualifications referring to Persepolis itself.
If so, the texts imply a regional organization in Arachosia comparable to the one that the Elamite tablets reflect in Persia, with a central treasurer charged with overseeing several local installations, and the vessels on which the texts were written are examples of valuables moved between provincial treasury administrations.
www.iranica.com /articles/v10f3/v10f381.html   (1804 words)

 All Empires - The Elamite Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The end of the Eparti dynasty, which may have come in the late 16th century BC, is buried in silence.
1266 BC), the fourth king of this line, proceeded apace, and his successes were commemorated by his assumption of the title "Expander of the Empire." He was succeeded by his son, Untash-Gal (Untash (d) Gal, or Untash-Huban), a contemporary of Shalmaneser I of Assyria (c.
The old system of regionalism balanced with federalism must have suffered, and the fraternal, sectional strife that so weakened Elam in the Neo-Elamite period may have had its roots in the centrifugal developments of the 13th and 12th centuries.
www.allempires.com /empires/elamite/elamite1.htm   (1361 words)

 Seljuk Turks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
When Malik Shah died in 1092 the empire split, as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves.
In 1118, the third son Ahmed Sanjar, unsatisfied by his portion of the inheritance, took over the empire.
As the dynasty declined in the middle of the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks, which in turn were later conquered by the Ottomans.
www.kernersville.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Seljuk_Turks   (447 words)

 *~*~IRAN * ZAMIN~*~*
Their last king, Anllil-nadin-akhe, was defeated by the Elamite king and was taken prisoner to Susa where he died in 1180, putting an end to the Kassite power in Mesopotamia.
Elamites initially attacked and destoryed Ur, and later invaded Babylonia around 2,000 BCE and founded the Larsa dynasty.
The culture that allowed the foundation of the Elamite Empire created great cities of Awan, Anshan, Simash and especially Susa, the capital of the Elamites.
www.geocities.com /kaotikdreamer/5.HTML   (2413 words)

 Elam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Elamite language is only partly understood by scholars - and there are no modern descendants of it.
1160 BC The Elamites once again rise to power; they drive the Kassite out of Babylonia, and the first Elamite empire arises, but it is very short-lived.
This lead to the end of the Elamite empire.
www.hyperhistory.com /online_n2/civil_n2/histscript0_n2/elam.html   (200 words)

 Susa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Susa (Biblical Shushan, modern Shush,) was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran, located about 150 miles east of the Tigris River in Khuzestan province of Iran.
In historic times, it was the capital of the Elamite Empire.
The city lost some of its importance when Alexander of Macedon conquered it in 323 BCE and destroyed the first Persian Empire, but after Alexander's vast empire collapsed upon his death, Susa became one of the two capitals (along with Ctesiphon) of Parthia.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/S/Susa.htm   (759 words)

 Persian Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This gave rise to the Old Elamite Period (2600 - 1500BC) when there were many struggles between the Elamites and their neighbouring Sumerians, later the Babylonians and Assyrians for Susa, with each side occasionally ceasing Susa for there own.
During the period after Nebuchadnezzar's onslaught, the Elamites would have had military pressure from the re-strengthend Assyrians in the Zagros Mountains and from the Manneans from an area known today as Kurdistan.
The Empire began to crumple, but was mostly restored by the long reign of Shapur II or Shapur the Great.
members.aol.com /robinsash/persia/persia.htm   (1458 words)

 Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck
The economy was primarily based on agriculture, supplemented by crafts, trade, and tribute and plunder from war, though the movement of wealth from the periphery of the empire to the center tended to cause misery and rebellions.
Persian Empire to 500 BC The civilization on the Iranian plateau is very ancient; copper was smelted there about 5500 BC, and Elam in the lowlands lagged only slightly behind Sumer in the development of hieroglyphic writing 5,000 years ago.
The immense empire was divided and ruled by the Greek generals of the armies that had conquered it.
www.san.beck.org /EC6-Assyria.html   (14089 words)

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