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Topic: Elamites

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  The Elamites
Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region.
Elamite history can be divided into three main phases: the Old, Middle, and Late, or Neo-Elamite, periods.
Eventually the Elamites rose in rebellion and overthrew the 3rd Ur dynasty, an event long remembered in Mesopotamian dirges and omen texts.
history-world.org /elamites.htm   (1364 words)

The Elamites were an ancient nation that lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad.
The Babylonians were defeated by the Kassites in 1460 BC and in 1150 BC the Elamites defeated the Kassites.
Elamite served as one of the official languages of the Persian Empire, and was never displaced for official use by Old Persian[?].
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/el/Elam.html   (106 words)

For example, the Elamites did not impose their language on the Susians; the vast majority of the documents from this period excavated at Susa, most of them juridical or economic texts related to daily life in the name of the sukkalmah or a sukkal, were written in Akkadian.
The child born to a union of the king with an Elamite princess, that is, a foreigner, was legitimate.
Elamite relations with Babylonia began to deteriorate during the reign of Humban-haltaš II (680-75), son of Humban-haltaš I (688-81), which may explain why his brother and successor, Urtak (674-64), at first maintained good relations with the Assyrian king Aššurbanipal (668-27), who helped him by sending wheat during a famine.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/History/Elamite/elam_history.htm   (7099 words)

 The Art of the Elamites - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)©
Several centuries later an Elamite king Shutruk-Nakhunte dragged two of the greatest works of Mesopotamian art from the town of Sippar [north of Babylon on, the Euphrates] to Susa: the stele of Naramsin of the Akkad dynasty and that of Hammurabi of Babylon.
Elamite work in glazed earthenware and faience is related to this technique of modelling in a soft material and was of equal if not of greater importance than metal in the decoration of Elamite palaces, temples, and probably also more modest homes.
It is possible, however, that the Elamite rulers did not belong to the same urban tradition as their townspeople, if we are right in ascribing to the kings burial rites which involved cremation in contrast to inhumation in various types of graves for the townspeople.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/art/porada/poradaelam.htm   (10791 words)

 Elam - Crystalinks
This pressure of immigrating Iranians pushed the Elamites of Anshan towards Susa, so that in the course of this period, Susiana became known as Elam, while Anshan and the Iranian plateau, the original home of the Elamites, were renamed Persia proper.
The devastation was however less complete than Assurbanipal boasted, and Elamite rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of III (not to be confused with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Indada, a petty king in the first half of the 6th century).
The Elamites thus became the conduit by which achievements of the Mesopotamian civilizations were introduced to the tribes of the Iranian plateau.
www.crystalinks.com /elam.html   (2564 words)

 [No title]
During this time, the centre of the Elamite power was shifted to the east of their traditional territory and took refuge in the city of Anshan in the Zagros mountains.
Elamite architecture was the model of Achaemenid palaces, and the court procedure of the Persian court was completely modelled after the Elamite costumes.
All dialects are influenced by the language of the Elamites and the Kassites.
heim.ifi.uio.no /~peyman/lur.html   (2618 words)

 Elamite language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elamite was an official language of the Persian Empire from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
Elamite is mostly thought to have no close relation to the neighboring Semitic languages, to the Indo-European languages, or to Sumerian, even though it adopted the Sumerian syllabic script.
In one, an Elamo-Dravidian language family, consisting of Elamite and the Dravidian languages, was carried from Elam to India by eastward migration; this is the view proposed by David McAlpin.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elamite   (649 words)

 Historical Survey of EelamBy K.
While a section of the Elamites remained stationary in Elam even after 2000 BC, a large section, according to the migratory tendency of the early civilized man, another section of them were on the move.
Elamites, described as long-headed from front to back, (dolichocephatic) mixed with short-headed, from front to back (brachycepphalic) Armenoids along their migratory routes and established themselves in India, before the 5th millennium BC.
When the Elamites were identified in India, earlier their distinct ethnicity ignored, but since 19th century, ethnologists identified them Dravidians, based on their language, as the speakers of Tamil.
k.t.rajasingam.tripod.com /his.htm   (3273 words)

 Clarke's Commentary - Jeremiah 49
The polity of the Elamites shall be completely dissolved, and the people dispersed throughout the nations, 34-38.
The Elamites shall be delivered from their captivity in the latter days, 39.
Under Cyrus, the Elamites, collected out of all quarters, were united with the Persians, their neighbours, and became, with them, masters of the east.
www.godrules.net /library/clarke/clarkejer49.htm   (1654 words)

 Visual Arts: The Art of Elamites
A Middle Elamite style of the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries BCE is here represented by a cylinder which can be dated approximately on the basis of similar imprints found on tablets of Nuzi.[9] It shows a carefully engraved scene with several figures.
The second object supposedly of Old Elamite date is a socketed head of a bird or reptile made of silver, perhaps the top of a standard.
I am inclined to call the situla Elamite and to date it in the ninth or eighth century BCE on the basis of the hair style of the principal male figure, which differs from that of King Marduknadinahhe cited by Mme.
www.iranchamber.com /art/articles/art_of_elamites.php   (10549 words)

 Elamite Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Elamites called their country haltamtu or hallatamti which was translated as Elam by the neighboring Akkadians.
The Elamite language is unrelated to the neighboring Semitic languages Sumerian language and Iranian languages and the Elamites themselves were an Alpine people who had migrated to the plateau in prehistoric times.
Elamite served as one of the official of the Persian Empire in ancient times Susa served as one of the four of the empire.
www.freeglossary.com /Elamites   (856 words)

 Elam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the Old Elamite period, it consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.
Two Elamite dynasties said to have exercised brief control over Sumer in very early times include Awan and Hamazi, and likewise, several of the stronger Sumerian rulers, such as Eannatum of Lagash and Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab, are recorded as temporarily dominating Elam.
"Elamite" is mentioned in Acts 2:8 in the New Testament as one of the languages heard at the Pentecost, and the traditional name "Elam" appears as late as 1300 in the records of the Nestorian Christians.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elamites   (3528 words)

 Ancient Iran
By the fourth millennium, the inhabitants of Susiana, the Elamites, were using semipictographic writing, probably learned from the highly advanced civilization of Sumer in Mesopotamia (ancient name for much of the area now known as Iraq), to the west.
Sumerian influence in art, literature, and religion also became particularly strong when the Elamites were occupied by, or at least came under the domination of, two Mesopotamian cultures, those of Akkad and Ur, during the middle of the third millennium.
Elamite civilization developed rapidly from that point, and, by the fourteenth century B.C., its art was at its most impressive.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/Iran.html   (2293 words)

 History of Iran: Elamite Empire
The earliest kings in the Old Elamite period may date to approximately 2700 BCE.
The end of the Eparti dynasty, which may have come in the late 16th century BCE, is buried in silence.
The old system of regionalism balanced with federalism must have suffered, and the fraternal, sectional strife that so weakened Elam in the Neo-Elamite period may have had its roots in the centrifugal developments of the 13th and 12th centuries BCE.
www.iranchamber.com /history/elamite/elamite.php   (1381 words)

Susa was always the pride and joy of the Elamites and later the Persians, a city that stood for 5000 years until totally sacked and raised to the ground by the Mongols in the 13th Century AD, maybe a reason why we have to refer to the Mesopotamian texts for the history of Îlâm.
The Elamites' mountainous land gave them wood, marble, alabaster, lapis lazuli, metal ores, precious stones all of which were sought by the Mesopotamians who were rich agriculturally but short on raw materials.
The love hate relationship that existed between the Elamites and their Mesopotamian neighbors, the Assyrians, heightened circa 647 BC when Îlâm, then a mighty kingdom, fell to Ashurbanipal.
www.arash.com /arash/iran/history/sub.asp?id=17   (730 words)

 Elam (Susiana) in Ancient Southwest Iran   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Khuzestan was the center of their loosely organized federation of states which stretched north into Lurestan, south to Fars and as far as Bushehr on the Gulf.
Susa was always the pride and joy of the Elamites and later the Persians, a city that stood for 5000 years until totally sacked and raised to the ground by the Mongols in the 13th Century AD, maybe a reason why we have to refer to the Mesopotamian texts for the history of Elam.
The love hate relationship that existed between the Elamites and their Mesopotamian neighbors, the Assyrians, heightened circa 647 BC when Elam, then a mighty kingdom, fell to Ashurbanipal.
ancientneareast.tripod.com /Elam_Susiana.html   (329 words)

 Acts 2:9 "Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea
Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, in Judaea and Cappadocia, in Pontus and Asia, (ASV)
Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, (KJV)
Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, (WBS)
bible.cc /acts/2-9.htm   (277 words)

 c. The Elamites. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
A state of more or less constant warfare existed between Sumer and Elam throughout the 3rd millennium (See 2113–2004).
Ibbi-Sin of Ur counterattacked and captured the Elamite king, but despite another invasion in 2017, the Sumerians were unable to maintain control of Elam.
In 1993, Ishbi-Erra (2017–1985) drove the Elamites from Ur, but the kings of Simashki continued to rule Elam.
www.bartleby.com /67/122.html   (761 words)

 12/16/1993 - Museum Exhibit Tells Story of Ancient Elamites   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The cylinder seal, made of agate more than 3,400 years ago by the ancient Elamites, was meant to be used on inscribed documents: rolled across damp clay, it would leave an unalterable impression.
The interpretations of cuneiform tablets, which display some of the earliest forms of the written word, and the existence of materials unavailable to the area show a sophisticated trade network achieved through a system of bartering and exchange.
The exhibit was made possible by a gift from the Hagop Kevorkian Fund and through the cooperation of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
www.upenn.edu /pennnews/features/1993/121693/Elamites.html   (470 words)

 Iranica.com - ELAM
The beginning of the Middle Elamite period is marked historically by the disappearance of the dynasty of the Sukkalmahs and the revival of the royal title "king of Susa and Anshan." The end is conventionally placed at ca.
The strong lowland cultural affinities of the Middle Elamite materials from Anshan, in contrast to the local character of the finds from archeological surveys of the surrounding Ku@r river region, suggest that in the late 2nd millennium the town was an isolated outpost of the kings of Susa (Carter, 1984, pp.
Elamite phonology, however, was quite different from that of Akkadian; for instance, it may have included vowels other than the Akkadian a, i, u, and e and consonant groups unknown to Akkadian, including combinations of three consonants or two consonants at the ends of words.
www.iranica.com /articles/v8f3/v8f340.html   (18122 words)

 The Persian Times
The Elamites became so powerful that in 2004 BC attacked the Sumerian city of Ur and took its king captive.
The Elamite military seeks strong, able-bodied men to fight against the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and the savage Lullibies of the Zagros Mountains.
The Elamite cuneiform is based on Akkadian, the language of a Semitic people who live in Mesopotamia.
www.zoroastriankids.com /persia1.html   (930 words)

 Elam. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Elamites seem to have maintained their independence steadily, despite invasions and counterinvasions.
At the beginning of the 2d millennium the Elamites invaded Babylonia and founded a dynasty at Larsa.
B.C. The Elamite civilization grew strong; there was a literary renaissance and great development of architecture and sculpture.
www.bartleby.com /65/el/Elam.html   (358 words)

 Elymais (Elam)
In 2900 BC the Elamites had already developed a pictographic written language of their own, well before the Mycenaean and Minoan Greeks had even begun to think about creating inventories using their Linear A and B scripts.
The widespread disruptions and invasions of the twelfth century sapped Elamite strength, and by the eighth century Elymais had been absorbed by the rapidly expanding power of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Throughout their history the Elamites were known as fierce warriors specializing in the use of the bow.
www.seleukids.org /Elymais.html   (871 words)

 New Page 1
Standing as it did between the Indus valley to the east and the ancient civilization of Sumer to the west, Susa became a focal point for trade.
Although the history of the time is murky, the third millennium B.C. seems to have been marked by frequent warfare between Elamites and Mesopotamian forces from Akkad, who eventually overran and occupied Susa.
Elamites were renowned for their metalwork, exemplified in the three-inch gold statuette - thought to represent a king at worship, bearing a sacrificial goat, which was unearthed beneath a temple in Susa from about 1200 B.C. Then came the Aryans from a land according to the Avesta called Aeria Veich, or Iran Veich.
home.att.net /~tabriz/newpage1.htm   (965 words)

 Babylonia and Elam: the Evidence of the Calendars
In my presentation today I will outline the Elamite calendar in a wider perspective: the study of a local calendar is not a local matter because reckoning time involves politics, cultural influences and social dynamics (in Elam also sociolinguistics).
The Elamite month-names still survive at Susa in royal and votive inscriptions, while in Anšan they were used together with the Babylonian logograms for administrative purpose.
We have to suppose periods in which autonomy was emphasized by the political choice of using the Elamite calendar and periods in which Babylonians conquered Elam imposing their own calendar.
www.elamit.net /elam/chicago.htm   (3451 words)

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