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Topic: Elder Futhark Script

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  Elder Futhark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) are the oldest form of the runic alphabet, used by Germanic tribes for Proto-Norse and other Migration period Germanic dialects of the 2nd to 8th centuries for inscriptions on artefacts (jewellery, amulets, tools, weapons) and rune stones.
In Scandinavia, the script was simplified to the Younger Futhark from the late 8th century, while the Anglo-Saxons extended it to the Futhorc from the time of the invasion of England.
Elder Futhark inscriptions were rare, with very few active literati, in relation to the total population, at any time, so that knowledge of the runes was probably an actual "secret" throughout the Migration period.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elder_Futhark   (1515 words)

 Runic alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, the fact that the younger Futhark has sixteen runes, while the Elder Futhark has twenty four, is not fully explained by the some six hundred years of sound changes that had occurred in the North Germanic language group.
The genesis of the Elder Futhark was complete by the early 5th century, with the Kylver Stone being the first evidence of the futhark ordering as well as of the p rune.
Elder Futhark inscriptions number around 350, about 260 of which are from Scandinavia, of which about half are on bracteates.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Runic_alphabet   (3445 words)

 Constructed script - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A constructed script (also artificial script, neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script.
The Elder Futhark and Ogham are likewise assumed to have been designed by a single individual each.
In the rare cases where a script evolved not out of a previous script, but out of proto-writing (the only known cases being the Cuneiform script, Egyptian hieroglyphs, the Chinese script and arguably the Mayan script), the process was nevertheless a gradual evolution of a system of symbols, not a creation by design.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Artificial_script   (518 words)

An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is term for new writing systems specifically devised by specific known individuals, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture like a natural script.
Some scripts have more users and have been adopted by the schools to be taught to the young.
The Cherokee syllabary, N'Ko, the Fraser alphabet, and the Pollard script were invented to allow certain spoken languages that did not already have writing systems to be written.
www.foolswisdom.com /~sbett/wikipedia.htm   (1073 words)

 Æ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Both classical and present practice is to write the letters separately, but the ligature was used in medieval and early modern writings, in part because æ was reduced to a simple long vowel (IPA [eː]) in late Latin.
In some medieval scripts, the ligature was simplified to ȩ, the letter e with a tail hanging to the left, e-caudata.
The same phoneme is represented in Finnish and Swedish by the letter ä, and in German by a-umlaut (ä).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/%c3%86   (941 words)

The origins of the futhark alphabet a) The Latin or Roman theory b) The Greek theory c) The Futhark as parent of the European alphabets d) The Etruscan theory IV.
The Elder Futhark a) The Runestaves of the Elder Futhark b) The numbers of the runes c) Names of the runes and their meaning VI.
Futharks were in use from an unsure point in time, some historians say as early as 200 B.C., in some cases till the early Middle Age.
wave.prohosting.com /jutamago/Runes/runehtml.html   (2641 words)

 Runic Alphabets   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Runes are also called Futhark, which actually is an analogue to our "alphabet", in that f, u, th, a, r, and k are the first 6 Runic letters, while alpha and beta are the first 2 Greek letters.
The Elder Runes, used mostly for magic purposes, contain many personal names and their lexicon is sometimes hard to understand, though the language is clear.
Though the origin of Futhark is unknown, its connection with the alphabets of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean (Greek and Italic) is doubtless.
indoeuro.bizland.com /project/script/runic.html   (515 words)

 Runic alphabet - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes, mainly in Scandinavia and in rural Sweden until the early 20th century (used mainly for decoration as runes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars).
The most likely candidates for the origins of runic scripts are the 5th to 1st century BC Northern Italic alphabets, Lepontic, Rhaetic and Venetic, all closely related to each other and themselves descended from the Old Italic alphabet.
A somewhat modified form of the Elder Futhark was used in the Ultima series of computer games, including extensively in Ultima V, adding some letters to make a complete one-to-one corrsepondence with the English alphabet (plus a few runes to represent some common two-letter combinations).
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Runes   (3390 words)

The ancients used tally marks (one scratch for 1, three scratches for 3, four with a diagonal strike-through for five, etc)until the Roman script became prevalent, then roman numerals were common until the modern arabic number forms emerged.
Runes are an alphabetic script used by the peoples of Northern Europe from the first century c.e.
Runes fell into disuse as the Roman alphabets became the preferred script for most of Europe, but their forms and meanings were preserved in inscriptions and manuscripts.
www.geocities.com /kd7krh/runes.html   (839 words)

 Mystic Guides - Third Aett Rune Information
The Elder Futhark is divided into three groups or families called aettir (plural).
The Elder Futhark is the oldest set of runes numbering twenty-four.
However, runic script may be read from left to right or from right to left, even on the same artifact.
www.mysticguides.com /thirdaett.htm   (246 words)

Known as the Elder Futhark (The name "Futhark" is derived from the first six letters of the runic alphabet), the runes are devided into three sets of eight letters, each named after a particular Norse god.
The Elder Futhark is an ancient set of Norse runes, and for the use of divination, can be painted or carved onto small stones or pieces of wood, or anything close to nature.
Rune scripts are sets of runes inscribed or painted on various objects such as paper, leaves, stones, wood, or whatever suits you.
fairwind_00.tripod.com /Runes.html   (616 words)

 Historical Alphabets
The Meroïtic script was used in the Kingdom of Kush, from the 2nd century BCE onwards until the 5th century CE, in an area of the Nile Valley stretching from Philae in Nubia to near Khartoum in Sudan.
The Futhark of 24 letters is called "Elder Futhark", and was used mostly before the 9th century CE.
In England, the Anglo-Saxons brought Futhark from continental Europe in the 5th century CE and modified it into the 33-letter "Futhorc" to accommodate sound changes that were occurring in Old English, the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons.
www.seansgallery.com /pages/h_alphabets.htm   (2019 words)

 The Rune School - Courses: INTRO-02 Lesson 7
The oldest true runic alphabet is known as the Elder Futhark taking its name from the (sounds of) its first letters, ie F-U-TH-A-R-K. It is a 24 character script.
It is very clear that the ordering of the runes in the Elder Futhark is deliberate but a number of authors propose alternative arrangements.
Many of the patterns we find within the Elder Futhark were undoubtedly known to the ancients, but this is not always the case.
www.runeschool.org /courses/intro_02/07_efuthark.htm   (1361 words)

 The Futhark - MASSIVE Forums
The Elder Futhark was known as early as 200 A.D. One theory is that they originated among the Germanic tribes living north of the Black Sea.
The word "futhark" is, in fact, a conglomeration of the first 6 letters of the runic alphabet: F-U-TH-A-R-K. The Elder Futhark consists of 24 runes.
The name consists of a letter denoting the futhark that the rune belongs to ('e' for Elder Futhark, in this case), followed by a digit for the aett the rune is found in, then a digit for the position of the rune in the aett, then finally, the letter(s) that the rune most often represents.
forums.massivehq.com /showthread.php?t=1535   (2522 words)

 Bjorn-gil Felag; Rancho Cucamonga, California
The word "rune" is defined by ideas of secrecy, mystery, whisperings, and confidentiality, and they were taught to a chosen few in their infancy, thus lending credit to their magical nature.
Realize also that the runic script is easily adaptable to religious purposes such as vocations, maledictions, and protections, adding even further credit of their naturalism.
Ranging in an area from Vínland to Romania, and from the Arctic to North Africa, the oldest "survivor" which scholars have yet obtained and verified, is found on a corner-stone of a building within the ancient city of Trevium, another is risted onto a spearhead from Norway, circa 175 CE.
members.tripod.com /~kewelristar/tru/futhark.html   (1008 words)

 Rune, The Futhark
There is many kinds of Futhark runes around but the one we are interest in are the elder Germanic Furthark runes.
The futhark originally consisted of 24 letters, beginning with F and ending with O, and was used by the northern Germanic tribes of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Northern Germany.
This form of the runes is known as the Elder, or Germanic Futhark.
www.viking-folklore.com /vikingstory-page/rune-the-futhark.html   (394 words)

 Freyas Braids - Handcrafted Jewelery
The Elder Futhark is the oldest known form of runes.
This script was found on the now-famous helmet of Negau (ca.
This should serve to satisfy casual curiosity and is not to be taken as the definitive essence of the runes.
www.freyasbraids.net /articles.htm   (1388 words)

 Runic alphabets / Runes / Futhark
Elder Futhark is thought to be the oldest version of the Runic alphabet, and was used in the parts of Europe which were home to Germanic peoples, including Scandinavia.
Younger Futhork or "Normal Runes" gradually evolved Elder Futhark over a period of many years and stabilized by about 800 A.D., the beginning of the Viking Age.
It was the main alphabet in Norway, Sweden and Denmark throughout the Viking Age, but was largely though not completely replaced by the Latin alphabet by about 1200 as a result of the conversion of most of Scandinavia to Christianity.
www.omniglot.com /writing/runic.htm   (848 words)

 The Runic Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Similarities to other scripts such as Latin and Greek have suggested far-reaching influence, which is undeniably likely as is the nomadic nature of human evolution.
The original inscriptions covered here are known as the ELDER FUTHARK script, so named by the arrangement of the first letters, Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raido, and Kaunaz.
One familiar with the Runic scripts can translate carvings from times BC into their correlating languages, though they read from right to left.
runicguide.com   (1212 words)

 The Ultimate Runic alphabet Dog Breeds Information Guide and Reference
However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes, mainly in Scandinavia, in rural Sweden until the early 20th century (used mainly for decoration as Dalecarlian runes, and on Runic calendars).
The Elder Futhark, used for writing proto-Norse (urnordiska), consist of twenty-four runes, often arranged in three rows of eight.
Named after the Swedish province Dalecarlia (see Dalecarlian language), the Dalecarlian runic script is an alphabetic script influenced by both long-branch and short-twig runes.
www.dogluvers.com /dog_breeds/Futhark   (2937 words)

 Rune Meanings - The Elder Futhark
I work with the "Elder Futhark", the runic alphabet which is a composite of the runic symbols most commonly used in northern Europe.
The names of the runes of the Elder Futhark are speculative recreations of what linguists call "proto-Germanic", which stems from "proto-Indo-European".
The Elder Futhark, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, and the Younger (or Scandinavian) Futhark are the most frequently seen versions of the runic alphabets in use today.
www.sunnyway.com /runes/meanings.html   (1218 words)

 The Environmental Bond Rune Script
We were studying bind rune scripts, possibly the most powerful form of runic magick, and this bind rune script birthed itself.
Rune scripts are a series of runes set to form a sequence of events.
In a rune script, one event happens and then the next, and the "used" rune becomes inactive.
www.tween-the-shadows.com /magick/environmental_bond_rune_script.html   (1253 words)

An origin in the Greek script was proposed over a century ago on the strength of the known Gothic expansion into south-eastern Europe.
The Roman script is an obvious candidate for the fuþark's origins, since interaction between the Roman Empire and various Germanic peoples took place from at least the first century BC - for example, the Suebi who helped Vercingetorix resist Caesar.
The North Italic script was relatively free in direction, and the individual letters sometimes had variant forms which do correspond quite well to certain runestaves, while the script overall was just about as 'crude' in execution as the earliest runic efforts.
www.kami.demon.co.uk /gesithas/runes/origins.html   (1576 words)

 THE RUNES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Elder Futhark, which I have used, and is the most popular and familiar, dates back to about 300 BC.
The Mediterranean scripts of Italy and Greece incorporated influences from the Middle East, especially the Phoenicians, while the runes evolved into their eventual forms (Younger, Elder and Anglo-Saxon Futharks) in northern Europe.
The written word is tide-up with the spoken language, and together, the spirit of a culture remains alive within both the script and the spoken word of a Folk.
www.balderrising.org /runes.htm   (4893 words)

 Runes, Rune, meanings
In this section, we are referring to the traditional, Elder Futhark script, which comprises of 24 symbols or letters.
In the case of the “Blank” or the “Unknowable” Rune, as this is an invention of the 1980’s and not a true part of the Elder Futhark, we will not be using this in interpretation or in the Rune casting techniques listed in this site.
Those who wish to use it however, are welcome to, but we feel it disturbs the symmetry of the original 24, and would suggest that if you purchased a set that has this piece, to keep it aside as a spare.
www.rune-scripts.arollo.com /runes-meanings.htm   (2277 words)

 Dave Leigh - Runes
It is also true that often a single rune was used to represent the object for which it was named, or even just the syllable (as in using the "M" rune in place of "mon" in the name "Solomon").
Incidentally, the word futhark comes from the pronunciation of the first six runes, just as the English word alphabet is derived from the names of the first two letters of the Greek aphabet (alpha and beta).
The letters that were left were not enough to represent the spoken language, so they took to modifying the sounds of some of the letters by adding dots to them (thus a K could become a G, or a T become a D).
www.cratchit.org /dleigh/alpha/runes/runes.htm   (1292 words)

 [No title]
In general, the Elder Futhark is probably the best known and used alphabet within contemporary Paganism.
It is also interesting to note that in 1639 AD, in Iceland, a law was passed which forbade the use of the futhark on pain of death - specifically written as punishment by death by burning.
The Theban alphabet is probably one of the most widely recognized alphabet besides the Elder Futhark within Paganism.
www.fortunecity.com /greenfield/tigris/567/id120_m.htm   (2769 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The oldest commonly used Runes are the Elder Futhark.
Futhark being the equivalent to the word alphabet, and so-called by the order of the first six Runes.
It is thought that this blank Rune was added to commercial sets so that if a Rune was damaged, the owner could carve a new one.
www.lycoszone.com /info/runes.html   (616 words)

 Freya Runestones - History and Mythology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Finally, it is said, he peered down into the very depths of his being where he saw the runic characters and "seized" them.
Just as the word "alphabet" comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha and beta, similarly the Norse alphabet is called "futhark" after the sound of the first six characters.
The 24 runes of the Elder Futhark are the oldest, most commonly used system as well as the most sophisticated magically.
www.freyarunes.com /history.html   (459 words)

 Origins of the Runes
There are many other variants, but the Elder, Anglo-Saxon, and Younger Futharks are the most well-known.
Translation of runic inscriptions is therefore extremely difficult, and complicated by the fact that rune masters sometimes wrote cryptic puzzles or in secret script.
The upper rune rows are the Elder Futhark variants.
www.sunnyway.com /runes/origins.html   (1222 words)

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