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Topic: Electrical double layer


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  Electrical double-layer capacitor - Patent 5072335
In producing an electrical double-layer capacitor cell, when the polarizing electrode (61,71) is formed by sintering to the collecting electrode (11,21) obtained by sintering a conductive powder into plate-like form, the contact resistance between the collecting electrode (11,21) and the polarizing electrode (61,71) becomes extremely small.
An electrical double-layer capacitor cell as defined in claim 3, wherein the boundary surface between the collecting electrode and the polarizing electrode of each of said unitary bodies is uneven.
The object of the present invention is to diminish the internal resistance of an electrical double-layer capacitor cell by decreasing the contact resistance between the collecting electrode and the polarizing electrode in an electrical double-layer capacitor cell.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5072335.html   (1343 words)

  
 Patents in Class 361/505
The electrical properties and high-temperature characteristics of an electrolytic capacitor are rendered satisfactory by addition of a compound with an unsaturated bond-containing chain which serves to absorb hydrogen gas generated by re...
A double layer capacitor and a method for producing the same wherein the double layer capacitor comprises a conductive coating based on binders of the melamine resin type such that the conductive coating is present at the interfaces betw...
An electric double layer capacitor which includes a polarization electrode and an electrolyte capable of forming an electric double layer on the surface of the polarization electrode, wherein the solvent in the electrolyte is an organic...
www.freepatentsonline.com /CCL361-505.html   (1963 words)

  
 ELECTRICAL DOUBLE LAYER
The electrical double layer describes the variation of electric potential near a surface, and has a large bearing on the behaviour of colloids and other surfaces in contact with solutions.
The earliest model of the electrical double layer is usually attributed to Helmholtz (1879).
Helmholtz treated the double layer mathematically as a simple capacitor, based on a physical model in which a single layer of ions is adsorbed at the surface.
www.websters-online-dictionary.org /definition/english/el/electrical+double+layer.html   (364 words)

  
 ELNA AMERICA, INC.
The electric double-layer capacitors (DYNACAP) have an inherent polarity.
The lifespan is approximately doubled when the temperature is reduced by 10°C. The capacitor should be placed as far as possible from heat sources.
When electrical double-layer capacitors (DYNACAP) are used on double-sided circuit boards, use caution that the interconnect pattern does not cross the location where the capacitor is attached.
www.elna-america.com /tech_doublelayer_cautions.php   (860 words)

  
  WIMA
The double layer itself consists of ions which, when voltage is applied, attach to the positive or negative electrode corresponding to their opposite poles and create a dielectric of only a few angstrom.
WIMA double layer capacitors are available in the standard capacitance range of 100 F to 300 F with a rated voltage of 2.5 VDC and the highest discharge current.
An ideal case for the use of double layer capacitors as an energy buffer is to be found in photovoltaic conversion.
www.wima.com /EN/article_supercap.htm   (2217 words)

  
 Electrochemistry Group Electrical Double Layer
This gives rise to a region called the electrical double layer.
In this model he assumed that no electron transfer reactions occur at the electrode and the solution is composed only of electrolyte.
Many modifications and improvements have been made to these early models with the latest approaches using numerical modelling to follow the redistribution effects as the electrode potential is varied.
www.cheng.cam.ac.uk /research/groups/electrochem/JAVA/electrochemistry/ELEC/l9html/dl.html   (537 words)

  
 United Van Lines | Moving Tips | Packing Tips
Use a double layer of newspaper for a good outer wrapping.
Place a two- or three-inch layer of crushed paper in the bottom of a carton for cushioning.
A double layer of newspaper serves well as an outer wrapping.
www.unitedvanlines.com /mover/moving-aids/packing-tips.htm   (2013 words)

  
  Laboratory of Electrical Double Layer and Electrode Kinetics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Theoretical problems of electrical double layer structure on ideally polarizable electrodes and reversible adsorption of ions and neutral organic molecules on electrodes are considered, and also the specific features of kinetics of multistep electrochemical processes limited by mass transfer, electron transfer and chemical reaction.
The adsorption properties of 2D condensed layers formed by organic surfactants are under study, with special attention to the role of molecular structure, temperature, and coadsorption of foreign species.
B.B.Damaskin, V.A.Safonov, Coadsorption of tetraalkylammonium cations and halide anions on the uncharged surface of mercury electrode.
www.elch.chem.msu.ru:8081 /des.htm   (318 words)

  
 biology - Electrical double layer
The electrical double layer describes the variation of electric potential near a surface, and has a large bearing on the behaviour of colloids and other surfaces in contact with solutions.
The earliest model of the electrical double layer is usually attributed to Helmholtz (1879).
Helmholtz treated the double layer mathematically as a simple capacitor, based on a physical model in which a single layer of ions is adsorbed at the surface.
www.biologydaily.com /biology/Electrical_double_layer   (166 words)

  
 Electrochemistry E
Large surface area electrodes are used resulting in large double layer capacitance, and much of the storage capacity is due to the charging/discharging of the double layer.
The electrical current is passed trough an electrolytic cell and oxidation/reduction reactions occur at the electrodes.
The capacitance of the double layer is even larger than that of the oxide covered electrode because the "dielectric" in the double layer is only a few molecular layers of the solvent.
www.corrosion-doctors.org /Dictionary/Dictionary-E.htm   (6143 words)

  
 Untitled
The double layer model is used to visualize the ionic environment in the vicinity of a charged surface.
The double layer is formed in order to neutralize the charged surface and, in turn, causes an electrokinetic potential between the surface and any point in the mass of the suspending liquid.
The particle’s mobility is related to the dielectric constant and viscosity of the suspending liquid and to the electrical potential at the boundary between the moving particle and the liquid.
www.chemistry.nmsu.edu /studntres/chem435/Lab14/double_layer.html   (1250 words)

  
 Title page for ETD etd-12252006-024053   (Site not responding. Last check: )
As EDL is the layer that “connects” the electrode to the “bulk”, all electrode mediated transport and redox reaction depends on the structure and dynamics of the ions in the EDL.
Thus the ion dynamics in the EDL are critical to a wide range of physical and biological phenomena such as electrochemical reaction, flow in channels of nanofluidic devices, wetting of fluids; to biology, for example, folding and function of proteins, conformation change of DNA and ionic flow through cell membranes.
EDL polarization is the ion accumulation or depletion in the EDL due to the potential of the metal surface.
scholar.lib.vt.edu /theses/available/etd-12252006-024053   (485 words)

  
 Electrochemistry D
(The diffusion layer is not to be confused with the diffuse layer.) While the concept of the diffusion layer is related to the concept of the hydrodynamic boundary layer, the two are not identical and neither is their thickness.
The structure of the diffusion layer can be assumed to be relatively simple in the presence of a large excess of supporting electrolyte, which is usually the case in electroanalytical applications and in electrode kinetics research.
An example is the diffusion layer at the cathode surface during electroplating of copper from a solution containing a small amount of copper chloride and a large concentration of sulfuric acid.
www.corrosion-doctors.org /Dictionary/Dictionary-D.htm   (2066 words)

  
 The Electrical Double Layer
The model which gave rise to the term 'electrical double layer' was first put forward in the 1850's by Helmholtz.
The attracted ions are assumed to approach the electrode surface and form a layer balancing the electrode charge, the distance of approach is assumed to be limited to the radius of the ion and a single sphere of solvation round each ion.
The overall result is two layers of charge (the double layer) and a potential drop which is confined to only this region (termed the outer Helmholtz Plane, OHP) in solution.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/sciences/Chemistry/Electrochemis/Electrochemical/ElectricalDouble/ElectricalDouble.htm   (549 words)

  
 Soil sodicity-Box 2
The counter-ions are influenced by two equal but opposing forces – the electrical force attracting the positive ion to the negative surface, and the diffusive or thermal forces (responsible for Brownian motion) which tend to move the cations away from the surface.
The thickness of the diffuse double layers decreases with an increase in the electrolyte concentration – in this case, the double layer is said to be compressed.
The diffuse double layer is thinner when calcium ions (with a double positive charge) balance the negative charge rather than ions such as sodium that have a single positive charge.
www.science.org.au /nova/035/035box02.htm   (753 words)

  
 I. Langmuir's Ball Lightning Tube
This spectacular and beautiful electrical discharge which gives promise of leading to a grater understanding of vacuum phenomena was produced in the research laboatories of the General Electric Company, by Dr. Irving Langmuir, C.G. Found, and A.F. Dittner, prominent Americal physicists.
This, together with a positive layer around the reddish arc, forms what is called an "electric double-layer"; that is, two invisible sheaths extremely close to each other, the inner one bearing a positive while the outer a negative space charge.
At these points on the double layer the negative sheath is indented, and when sufficient tungsten accumulates, this indentation becomes sharp and will extend into the arc until the globules tear away.
www.eskimo.com /~billb/freenrg/balllg1.html   (1856 words)

  
 Polymer gel electrolyte, secondary cell, and electrical double-layer capacitor Number:7,088,572 from the United States ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
An electrical double-layer capacitor comprising a pair of polarizable electrodes and an electrolyte between the polarizable electrodes, wherein the electrolyte is a polymer gel electrolyte comprising: an electrolyte solution containing a plasticizer with at least two carbonate structures on the molecule and an electrolyte salt, and a matrix polymer.
The electrical double-layer capacitor of claim 1, wherein the polymer gel electrolyte consists essentially of the plasticizer with at least two carbonate structures on the molecule, the electrolyte salt, and the matrix polymer.
The electrical double-layer capacitor of claim 4, wherein some or all of the hydrogen atoms on the plasticizer of general formula (1) having at least two carbonate structures on the molecule are substituted with halogen atoms.
www.linkgrinder.com /Patents/Polymer_gel_ele_7088572.html   (5946 words)

  
 Stanford Microfluidics Laboratory
Electric fields can be used to generate bulk fluid motion (electroosmosis) and to separate charged species (electrophoresis).
The interface is called an electrical double layer (EDL) and is typically 1 to 20 nm thick.
On the left, is the start-up of an electroosmotic flow in a nanoscale channel where the EDL is on the order of channel height (e.g., and 100 nm channel).
microfluidics.stanford.edu /bioanal.htm   (542 words)

  
 Electrochemistry Encyclopedia --- Electrochemical capacitors
The electrical contact to the inner surface foil was by means of a conducting electrolyte solution (or originally by ordinary water itself) in which was immersed a conducting metal electrode for electrical contact.
The concept and model of the double layer arose in the work of von Helmholtz (1853) on the interfaces of colloidal suspensions and was subsequently extended to surfaces of metal electrodes by Gouy, Chapman, and Stern, and later in the notable work of Grahame around 1947.
The reason for this is that the separation of charges in electrochemical double layers is on the order of 0.3-0.5 nm instead of 10 to 100 nm with oxide-film dielectrics (electrolytic capacitors) or 1000 nm with very thin mica or polystyrene dielectric-film hardware capacitors.
electrochem.cwru.edu /ed/encycl/art-c03-elchem-cap.htm   (4612 words)

  
 connection between zeta-potential and ion activity in double electrical layer
The high stability of such sol to aggregation can not be explained by a repulsion of particles at overlapping double diffuse electrical layers of crystallites of a metatitanic acid because of high concentration of electrolytes in a mother solution.
Let's discover connection between activities of a cation and anion in an equilibrium diffuse double electrical layer, then from a principle of detail equilibrium follows, that in the same relation cations and the anions will be sorbed and on a surface of a solvate layer of colloid particles.
This equation will be valid and for a flat double electrical layer, since a view of the first three members of equation (3.3.) does not influence the solution.
www.new-physics.narod.ru /htmeng/43000e.htm   (817 words)

  
 Electric double-layer capacitor patent invention
The electrical double-layer capacitor of claim 1 which is characterized in that the ionic liquid is a quaternary ammonium salt or a quaternary phosphonium salt.
The electrical double-layer capacitor of any one of claims 1 to 4 which is characterized in that the pore radius distribution peak is in a range of 4.5.times.10.sup.-10 to 7.0.times.10.sup.-10.
The electrical double-layer capacitor of claim 1 which is characterized in that the ionic liquid has a concentration in the liquid electrolyte of from 0.5 to 2.0 mol/L. The electrical double-layer capacitor of claim 1 which is characterized in that an activated carbon is the activated form of a synthetic resin.
www.freshpatents.com /Electric-double-layer-capacitor-dt20060810ptan20060176646.php?type=claims   (324 words)

  
 The Electric Glow Of The Sun
In the electrical model, the Sun is the "anode" or positively charged body in the electrical exchange, while the "cathode" or negatively charged contributor is not a discrete object, but the invisible "virtual cathode" at the limit of the Sun's coronal discharge.
In the lexicon of astronomy, this is the "heliopause." In electrical terms, it is the cellular sheath or "double layer" separating the plasma cell that surrounds the Sun ("heliosphere") from the enveloping galactic plasma.
A common mistake made by critics of the electric model is to assume that the radial electric field of the Sun should be not only measurable but also strong enough to accelerate electrons toward the Sun at "relativistic" speeds (up to 300,000 kilometers per second).
www.rense.com /general64/glow.htm   (1790 words)

  
 AnsellPro.com /CE Manufacturing Quality, Clean Process Manufacturing Detail
The electrostatic contact potential induced electrical double layer is the most predominant of the electrostatic forces on small particles.
With conductors, only the surface layer carries contact charges, although if the materials in contact are semiconductive or insulative, as glove materials are, the charge may permeate into the bulk of the two materials.
If a thin liquid layer is left behind, as a result of the surface tension of the liquid/glove, the total adhesion force of the remaining particles is increased immensely.
www.ansellpro.com /ce/manufacturingQuality_cpmDetail.asp   (1091 words)

  
 SThe Electric Double Layer
Development of a nett charge at the particle surface affects the distribution of ions in the surrounding interfacial region, resulting in an increased concentration of counter ions (ions of opposite charge to that of the particle) close to the surface
The liquid layer surrounding the particle exists as two parts; an inner region (Stern layer) where the ions are strongly bound and an outer (diffuse) region where they are less firmly associated
Within this diffuse layer is a notional boundary known as the slipping plane, within which the particle acts as a single entity
www.silver-colloids.com /Tutorials/Intro/pcs17.html   (135 words)

  
 Ceramic engineering - Zeta potential, electrical double layer
Ceramic engineering - Zeta potential, electrical double layer
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