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Topic: Electrolyte disturbance

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  Electrolyte Tests - Definition, Purpose, Description, Measurement of electrolytes, Precautions, Preparation, ...
Electrolytes are positively and negatively charged molecules called ions, that are found within the body's cells and extracellular fluids, including blood plasma.
Electrolyte tests are performed on whole blood, plasma, or serum, usually collected from a vein or capillary.
Electrolyte concentrations are similar whether measured in serum or plasma.
www.surgeryencyclopedia.com /Ce-Fi/Electrolyte-Tests.html   (1713 words)

 Electrolyte disturbance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In physiology, an electrolyte disturbance is an abnormal change in the levels of electrolytes in the body, usually constituting a medical emergency.
The most common cause of electrolyte disturbances is renal failure.
The most serious electrolyte disturbances involve abnormalities in the levels of sodium, potassium, and/or calcium.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Electrolyte_disturbance   (294 words)

In physiology, the primary ions of electrolytes are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate.
Electrolyte drinks containing sodium and potassium salts are used to replenish the body's water and electrolyte levels after dehydration caused by exercise, diaphoresis, diarrhea, vomiting or starvation.
In electrolytic capacitors the chemical effect is used to produce an extremely thin 'dielectric' or insulating coating, while the electrolyte layer behaves as one capacitor plate.
www.mrsci.com /Physiology/Electrolyte.php   (1087 words)

 elete"! Pure Electrolyte Add-In
Rather, a normal water and electrolyte balance, including an intake of other electrolytes such as magnesium, potassium, and chloride, is essential for maintaining the normal function of the body’s systems during physical activity.
There are, however, additional electrolytes that, in conjunction with sodium, are also lost in sweat and this is one of the limitations of salt tablets and many electrolyte-replacement beverages.
Electrolytes and water are assimilated in balance with each other, function in balance collectively, and, as the studies cited above demonstrate, are excreted en masse.
www.eletewater.com /salt.html   (1532 words)

 Hypokalemia Among Patients Receiving Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis -- Shin et al. 125 (3): 974 -- Chest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Electrolyte disturbances may be manifested as minor complaints
the contribution of electrolyte disorders to the mortality of
with occurrence and persistence of electrolyte imbalances, as
www.chestjournal.org /cgi/content/full/125/3/974   (2930 words)

 Canadian Medical Association Journal Volume 166
In the presence of osmotically active substances (e.g., patients with hyperglycemia or those receiving mannitol infusions), an increase in serum osmolality is observed, which results in movement of water out of the cells and subsequently a reduction of the serum sodium level by dilution.
Measurement of urine electrolyte levels is also extremely useful in the assessment of effective arterial blood volume, since patients with volume depletion exhibit low urinary excretion of sodium and chloride (sodium level less than 20 mmol/L, chloride level less than 20 mmol/L).
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in the general hospital population (seen in 2% of patients in hospital).
www.diesis.com /fabrizio/hyponatremia.htm   (3915 words)

 Common - Blood Test Abnormalities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
As with most electrolyte imbalances, the treatment of high blood chloride levels is based on correcting the cause.
When there is a breakdown or destruction of cells, the electrolyte potassium moves from inside of the cell, to outside of the cell wall.
When there is a breakdown or destruction of cells, the electrolyte magnesium moves from inside the cell, to outside of the cell wall.
www.chemocare.com /managing/common__blood_test_abnormalities.asp   (5500 words)

 Section 8 Chapter 7 Disorders of Water and Sodium Balance
Although the precise duration of an electrolyte disturbance cannot be known when it develops outside the hospital (except for psychotic water drinkers, marathon runners, and users of ecstasy) outpatients can be assumed to have chronic hyponatremia.
The electrolyte disturbance is often asymptomatic at sodium levels that may be lethal to a patient with acute water intoxication.
Regardless of the suspected duration or cause of the electrolyte disturbance, active seizures may be resistant to anticonvulsants alone and should be treated with hypertonic saline.
www.acssurgery.com /acsonline/chapters/ch0807.htm   (14193 words)

 Arrhythmias, electrolytes, and ACE inhibitor therapy in the elderly.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
This is due to the frequency of occult and overt cardiovascular disease, reduction in cardiac reserve as a consequence of the aging process, and coexistence of other disorders which provide a substrate for iatrogenic disease.
The last problem is largely due to electrolyte disturbances induced by diuretic therapy for hypertension and heart failure.
The major electrolyte disturbance implicated in arrhythmogenesis is diuretic-induced hypokalemia.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_3440524.html   (276 words)

 Normal Electrolyte Values News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Electrolytes are positively and negatively charged molecules, called ions, that are found within cells, between cells, in the bloodstream, and in other fluids throughout the body.
Electrolyte disturbances were found in 58.3 of patients of those patients 51.4 had one electrolyte disturbance, 31.4 had two electrolytes disturbance, and 17.1 had three electrolyte disturbance.
CONCLUSION Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia were the most common electrolyte disturbance in patients with chronic, stable bronchial asthma.
www.electrolytes-research.info /normal-electrolyte-values.html   (812 words)

 NatureRich Natural Skin Care, Nutritional and Dietary Supplement Products from NatureRich, Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Electrolytes are minerals, such as potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium that carry an electric charge to help the body function at optimum performance.
Electrolytes may help regulate the body’s acid-base balance and are needed to help hydrate and re-hydrate the body.
Dehydration is also the most common causes of fluid and electrolyte disturbance in older adults.
270173.naturerich.net /prodinfo_coconut.cfm   (476 words)

 ENW: Water and Salts: Maintaining the Internal Seas in Harmony - Common Electrolyte Disturbances in the ED  ...
If the patient is significantly dehydrated, has an electrolyte disturbance, or other issues, it may be necessary to admit the patient for gentle rehydration.
Some patients come to the ED labeled as having an electrolyte disturbance, already detected by an earlier lab test, which we are expected to verify and treat accordingly.
Electrolytes, Creatinine, BUN, Glucose, Osmolarity; Urine Osmolarity and Electrolytes.
enw.org /Electrolytes.htm   (4085 words)

 Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in patients with congestive heart failure
OBJECTIVES: To analyze acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities, and to discuss the mechanisms involved in 62 consecutive CHF patients admitted to the authors' hospital.
METHODS: On patients' admission, venous blood was obtained for determination of glucose, urea, creatinine, total proteins, albumin and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate).
Serum anion gap (SAG) was calculated (where SAG = Na - [Cl Forty of 62 CHF patients (64%) had at least one acid-base or electrolyte disturbance.
www.pulsus.com /europe/02_02/elis_ed.htm   (269 words)

 Do urinary tract infections give rise to hyponatraemia? Is this why patients who have been stable on ...
Gerigk et al concluded from a case study of three infants that, “Hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia occurs in young infants with severe acute pyelonephritis in the absence of obstructive uropathy or vesico-ureteric reflux.
Sperl et al also noted that 40% of the children demonstrated electrolyte disturbances in serum ranging from severe to moderate.
A remarkably diverse pattern of electrolyte changes was seen: hyponatremia singly or in various combination was observed most frequently (81%) but even hypernatremia was found.
www.clinicalanswers.nhs.uk /index.cfm?question=323   (769 words)

 Electrolyte Disturbances in Patients With Chronic, Stable Asthma : Effect of Therapy -- Alamoudi 120 (2): 431 -- Chest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Electrolyte Disturbances in Patients With Chronic, Stable Asthma : Effect of Therapy -- Alamoudi 120 (2): 431 -- Chest
Electrolyte Disturbances in Patients With Chronic, Stable Asthma
In this study, the prevalence of electrolyte disturbance in patients
www.chestjournal.org /cgi/content/full/120/2/431   (2618 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Major combined electrolyte deficiency during therapy with low-dose Cisplatin, ...
Severe hypocalcaemia without signs of acute renal failure or electrolyte disturbance occurred within 2 days at the 4th week of treatment and required intensive care treatment.
Prior to the patient's treatment there have been no signs of electrolyte disturbance, up until the third week of treatment electrolytes were stable within the normal range.
However the incompliance of the reported patient might have aggravated the severity of the electrolyte disturbances.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2407/6/128   (2732 words)

· It is important for the balance of electrolytes in your body to be maintained, because they affect the amount of water in your body, blood pH, muscle action, and other important processes.
"Electrolyte balance is maintained by oral intake and hormonal regulation, generally with the kidney as effector.
"Electrolyte drinks (containing salts of sodium and potassium, as well as carbohydrates) are used to replenish the body's fluid and salts levels after dehydration caused by
www.causeof.org /electrolytes.htm   (2342 words)

 eMedicine - Programmed Electrical Stimulation : Article by Hongsheng Guo, MD
In many cases, particularly those of acute and transient causes, including acute myocardial ischemia, electrolyte disturbances, and medication toxicity, EP testing is probably not warranted.
Second, an EPS is not indicated to confirm the causal relationship of a rhythm disturbance when a relationship has already been established based on results from ECG or other noninvasive approaches.
Transient bradycardia with clearly correctable causes (eg, acid-base or electrolyte disturbances, autonomic disturbance, bradycardia and sinus pauses during sleep) does not require an EPS.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic3578.htm   (4455 words)

 HACC Nursing 205 Unit E Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Discuss possible nursing diagnoses related to a disturbance in fluid and electrolyte balance.
Care of the child with disturbance of fluids and electrolytes and gastrointestinal dysfunction.
Care of the child with problems related to fluid and electrolyte disturbance, gastrointestinal dysfunction as available in the clinical setting.
lib2.hacc.edu /nursing/nursing205/syllabus/unite.html   (1024 words)

 Cognitive Disorders and Delirium:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The presence of an underlying cause such as a general medical condition (e.g., hypoxia or electrolyte disturbance), medication, a combination of etiologies, or indeterminate etiology.
The clinical presentation of cognitive disorders and delirium are associated with a high level of distress in patients, family members, and healthcare personnel.
Delirium is associated with a high burden of symptom distress, particularly in relation to delusions, perceptual disturbances, and psychomotor agitation.
www.acor.org /cnet/62772.html   (5716 words)

 Abbott Diagnostics - Glossary - s
A chief electrolyte that regulates the amount of fluid inside and surrounding body cells.
Measuring blood or urine levels of sodium will help to evaluate electrolyte and fluid balance disorders such as those that occur in edema, kidney, and liver or adrenal gland dysfunctions.
A noninvasive diagnostic technique, also known as ultrasonography, in which high frequency sound waves are aimed at a selected body area or organ, with the resulting echoes being converted to images.
www.abbottdiagnostics.com /Glossary/index.cfm?alpha=s   (1013 words)

 AATOD: AATOD's Policies
The focus here is on minimizing the potential for cardiac electrical conduction disturbances being caused by LAAM in patients attending opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programs regulated by CSAT.
These would include diuretics, laxatives, and supraphysiological use of steroid hormones with mineralocorticoid potential, as well as alcohol intake at a level to cause significant fluid and electrolyte disturbance.
These would include diuretics, laxatives, and supraphysiological use of steroid hormones with mineralocorticoid potential, as well as alcohol intake at a level to cause significant fluid and electrolyte disturbance (personal communication, Gregory Hicks, PharmD, Roxane Laboratories, Inc., October 28, 2001; also in ORLAAM PI, 2001).
www.aatod.org /policy_clinical.html   (1340 words)

 magic foundation
Treatment of this kind of disturbance may simply be with supplements of proper electrolytes such as sodium bicarbonate pills or the medication “Polycitra”.
Correcting the imbalance of the acid-base system can often cause a tremendous increase of the appetite and catch up growth as the bones are finally able to properly minimize.
When children have reduced kidney function, in spite of optimization of the acid base balance, electrolyte balance, calcium phosphorous, vitamin D and nutrition their growth still may be suboptimal.
www.magicfoundation.org /www/docs/106/chronic_renal_insufficiency.html   (2234 words)

 The hyponatremic patient: a systematic approach to laboratory diagnosis -- Milionis et al. 166 (8): 1056 -- Canadian ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
common electrolyte disturbance occurring in a broad spectrum
the measurement of serum electrolytes may avoid this problem.
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in the
www.cmaj.ca /cgi/content/full/166/8/1056   (3378 words)

 Methanol test
Methanol is sometimes drunk mistakenly or intentionally as a substitute for grain alcohol (ethanol).
Its presence in blood and body fluids can cause osmolality and electrolyte disturbance leading to toxic effects.
Of greatest concern is the fact that methanol is broken down in the body to formaldehyde, a highly toxic chemical that can damage the optic nerve, causing blindness, and damage the liver and the kidneys, potentially causing death.
www.baylorhealth.com /HealthInformation/1/003563.htm   (537 words)

 ME343   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Emphasis is placed on thorough history taking and physical examination, performance of urinalysis, formulation of diagnostic and therapeutic plans appropriate use of laboratory studies, including renal biopsy.
Basic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of the disease process will be stressed, as well as the practical aspects of diagnosis and therapy.
Exposure to dialysis acute and chronic renal failure, electrolyte disturbance, hypertension, glomerular and interstitial diseases.
rehd.med.upenn.edu /RehdWeb/me343a.php   (2434 words)

 Neonatal Handbook : Intravenous Electrolyte Correction
apart from acid-base balance, electrolyte levels immediately after birth reflect maternal electrolyte status and are therefore only useful as a baseline.
The exception might be a mother who has been water overloaded during labour with the result of both her and the fetus becoming hyponatraemic.
as with all interventions, it is wise to consider the risks vs benefits of correcting any electrolyte disturbance
www.netsvic.org.au /nets/handbook/index.cfm?doc_id=454   (341 words)

 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Pediatric Patients   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
State the normal fluid and electrolyte balance in children
Discusses the various conditions which interrupt normal fluid and electrolyte maintenance with in the body
Discusses nursing care based on the outcome of laboratory results in relation to the various fluid and electrol= yte deficits in children
www.kfshrc.edu.sa /telemedicine/ner/Objectives.mht   (248 words)

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