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Topic: Electron multiplying CCD

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  Nikon MicroscopyU: Optical System and Detector Requirements for Live-Cell Imaging
According to the Rayleigh criterion (a conservative estimate), resolution is equal to a constant (0.61) multiplied by the wavelength of illumination and divided by the objective numerical aperture.
For imaging multiply labeled fixed cells (and in some cases, living cells), objectives that are well corrected for chromatic aberration throughout the visible light spectrum (ranging from 400 to 700 nanometers; termed apochromats) and having a flat imaging plane (referred to as plan or plano) are considered ideal.
The rectangular CCD image sensor in a digital camera with no intermediate magnification factor does not capture the entire field of view as visualized through the microscope eyepiece; rather it is limited to a range between 30 and 80 percent, depending upon the chip dimensions.
www.microscopyu.com /articles/livecellimaging/imagingsystems.html   (7561 words)

  Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Digital Imaging in Optical Microscopy - Concepts in Digital Imaging - Electron ...
The amplified electron output from the MCP is accelerated by a high potential difference onto a phosphorescent screen that converts the electrons to photons, which are subsequently relayed to the CCD surface through an optical relay lens or direct fiber optic coupling.
The electron multiplying CCD incorporates a structural enhancement to amplify the captured signal before the charge is transferred to the on-chip amplifier, which has the effect of reducing the read noise, relative to signal, by the value of the multiplication gain factor.
Electron multiplying CCD cameras are able to detect even single-photon events when the on-chip multiplication is utilized to elevate the signal above the read noise level, and it must be recognized that any level of unsuppressed dark current is significant since it is subject to being multiplied along with the signal.
www.olympusmicro.com /primer/digitalimaging/concepts/emccds.html   (3619 words)

  Electron-multiplying CCD - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There is a dispersion (variation) in the number of electrons output by the multiplication register for a given (fixed) number of input electrons (shown in the legend on the right).
The probability distribution for the number of output electrons is plotted logarithmically on the vertical axis for a simulation of a multiplication register.
In each stage the electrons are multiplied by impact ionization in a similar way to an avalanche diode.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Electron-multiplying_CCD   (581 words)

 Charge-coupled device   (Site not responding. Last check: )
CCDs are used in digital photography and astronomy (particularly in photometry and optical and UV spectroscopy).
Those electrons are shifted along the CCD by regular electronic pulses and "counted" by a circuit which dumps the electrons from each pixel in turn into a capacitor and measures and amplifies the voltage across it, then empties the capacitor.
CCDs with several rows of pixels shift the charge down in the fashion of a vertical shift register and only the last row is read out in a horizontal shift register.
wapipedia.org /wikipedia/mobiletopic.aspx?cur_title=CCD   (1077 words)

 Hamamatsu: Education in Digital Imaging - Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs)
By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the electron multiplying CCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure.
The unique feature of the EMCCD is an electron multiplying structure (in effect, a charge amplifier) positioned between the end of the shift register and the output node, which is often referred to as the multiplication register or gain register (see Figure 3).
As discussed, electron multiplication gain can be used to overcome any readout noise, although it is desirable to minimize this factor because at some level, increasing gain results in a limitation of sensor dynamic range (as illustrated in Figure 5(b)).
learn.hamamatsu.com /articles/emccds.html   (4278 words)

 Imaging - Technology | Intevac
The core imaging sensor is an electron bombarded CMOS sensor, which is based on use of a GaAs photocathode derived from Generation-III image intensifier technology in proximity focus with a high resolution, backside-thinned, CMOS imager anode.
The electrons emitted by the photocathode are directly injected in the electron bombarded mode into the CMOS anode.
However, with Intevac's development of the Transferred Electron (TE) photocathode, a high-performance imaging sensor with the desired "single photon level" sensitivity in the eye-safe band became a reality.
www.intevac.com /imaging/technology   (530 words)

 CRTT : 12th International Symposium 2002: Abstracts received
Electron multiplying CCD technology for ultrasensitive detection of chemiluminescence
However, the EMCCD is an imaging sensor with photon counting ability, achieved by way of a unique electron multiplying structure built into the silicon, rather than the incorporation of an image intensifier tube.
Importantly, the camera sensitivity is not limited by the restricted quantum efficiency otherwise imposed by intensifier tubes of ICCDs, enabling the combined advantages of both tunable amplification and the unimpaired harnessing of the higher/broader QE curves of the CCD chips.
www.lumiweb.com /sym2002/abstracts/abstracts_late/coates_electron.html   (236 words)

 PI/Acton Library - Merits of Various Types of CCDs for Spectroscopy Applications
Recent developments in CCD detectors for spectroscopy have produced a bewildering range of options, from the standard, front-illuminated CCD with its moderate quantum efficiency and limited wavelength coverage, through the broadband open-electrode device with relatively good quantum efficiency and wavelength coverage, to the ultimate sensitivity of the back-illuminated CCD.
Electron-multiplying CCDs are said to unite the detection capabilities of an intensified CCD with the inherent advantages of a CCD for imaging applications.
The readout noise, an effect of the readout electronics of the sensor and analog-to-digital converter, is always present and increases with readout speed.
www.piacton.com /library/application/ccd_type.aspx   (1907 words)

 Photometrics - Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A CCD that has been uniformly reduced to a thickness of approximately 10 µm so that an image can be focused on the back of the parallel register (where there is no gate structure).
Electrons exiting the microchannel plate (MCP) are accelerated by a constant voltage and strike the screen, where they are converted back into light photons for detection by a CCD.
In CCD imaging technology, the measure of the signal quality at a given pixel, expressed as the ratio of the measured signal to the overall noise at that pixel.
www.photomet.com /library_glossary.html   (3944 words)

 Scientific CCD cameras grow in sophistication - optics.org
CCD cameras may be a popular tool for scientfic imaging, but lots of technical jargon and a wide range of models can make it very difficult to select the most suitable product.
The cause of the confusion is that different parts of the camera system, namely the CCD image sensor and the camera's electronics, often have a different DR. The important point to remember is that it is the weaker value of the two that ultimately dictates the true DR of the camera.
CCD noise/dark current This refers to spurious electrons that are generated in the CCD chip by thermal and other effects in the absence of any illumination.
optics.org /articles/ole/8/2/3/1   (1793 words)

 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Research Laboratory-DERBI2   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A key advantage of using an Electron Multiplying CCD is that the intensification of the low light signals occurs within the CCD itself via an electron multiplying register, eliminating the need for additional rotating optical components.
This is achieved via an electron multiplying register, which quickly intensifies an incoming signal before it is affected by readout noise from the output amplifier of the CCD.
The Electron Multiplying CCD will be easily spun on a rotating platform based on existing gyroscope designs currently in use on sounding rockets.
esp.sr.unh.edu /mirl/DERBI2/derbi2.html   (666 words)

 Intensified charge-coupled device - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
An intensified charged-coupled device (ICCD) is a CCD that is fiber-optically connected to a micro-channel plate (MCP) to increase the sensitivity.
In ICCD Cameras a photo-cathode in front of the MCP converts photons to electrons which are multiplied by the MCP.
After the MCP a phosphor screen converts the electrons back to photons which are fiber-optically guided to the CCD.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/ICCD   (138 words)

 Laser Focus World - Sensitive CCDs see the light
The output signal from the gain register is fed into a conventional CCD output amplifier with a readout noise of a few electrons root mean square (rms), which increases with readout rate but is independent of signal level.
However, as the signal is multiplied by a suitably high gain before reaching the output amplifier, the resultant noise is effectively reduced as it is divided by the gain.
For imaging applications that require reasonably low readout noise (approximately 2 electrons rms), long exposure times, low dark current, and a wide field of view at high resolution, such as for astronomy applications, a conventional CCD with a large-area format should be used.
lfw.pennnet.com /Articles/Article_Display.cfm?Section=Articles&Subsection=Display&ARTICLE_ID=147447   (1634 words)

 New Full-Color Video Camera Captures Sharp Underwater Images in Extreme Low Lighting Conditions
The electron multiplying CCD enhances the incoming signal by a factor of one thousand.
The Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) architecture differs substantially from a conventional CCD.
A low light CCD only captures images in light conditions equivalent to a nighttime quarter moon, equivalent to 10-2 lux.
www.prweb.com /releases/2006/7/prweb415109.htm   (587 words)

 CCD Camera captures color video in near total darkness Product News Network - Find Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Incorporating back-illuminated, electron-multiplying CCD or EMCCD, IK-1000A is single photon sensitive for use in overcast starlight conditions.
Incorporating a back-illuminated electron-multiplying CCD or EMCCD, a technology previously found only in scientific cameras, the IK-1000A is certain to have a profound influence on the future of video surveillance, extending night-time color video capabilities to military, aviation, public utility, coastal ports and other high-value asset security applications.
The 1/2-inch CCD (658 x 496) delivers 420 TV line resolution with a maximum sensitivity of 1m Lux @ F1.2 or approximately 30X that of a standard low-light camera.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0PIL/is_2005_Nov_9/ai_n15786302   (642 words)

 EMCCD Papers   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The advent of Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) technology and it's ability to overcome previous hurdles in low-light fluorescence microscopy, such as phototoxicity to live cells, photobleaching of fluorophores and exposure time restrictions, has resulted in a significant resurgence of interest in use of confocal spinning disk techniques for live cell microscopy.
The back-illuminated Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) camera stands to be one of the most revolutionary contributions ever to the burgeoning fields of low-light dynamic cellular microscopy and single molecule detection, combining extremely high photon conversion efficiency with the ability to eliminate the readout noise detection limit.
The back-illuminated Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) camera is having a profound influence on the field of low-light dynamic cellular microscopy, combining highest possible photon collection efficiency with the ability to virtually eliminate the readout noise detection limit.
www.emccd.com /papers.htm   (1241 words)

 Ccd device patent invention
[0003] In a typical CCD imager, signal charge representative of incident radiation is accumulated in an array of pixels in an image area.
A CCD imager 1 comprises an image area 2, a store section 3 and an output or read-out register 4, each of these components being found in a conventional CCD imager.
The charge detected at circuit 6 is thus a multiplied version of the signal charge collected in the output register 4.
www.freshpatents.com /Ccd-device-dt20061019ptan20060231738.php   (1341 words)

 Electron-multiplying CCD   (Site not responding. Last check: )
An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) is a charge-coupled device in which a gain register is placed between the shift register and the output amplifier.
In the gain register the electrons are multiplied by impact ionization similar to a avalanche diode.
EMCCDs show a similar sensitivty as Intensified CCDs (ICCDs) do.
www.wapipedia.org /wikipedia/mobiletopic.aspx?cur_title=Electron_multiplying_CCD   (131 words)

 Color Video Camera captures images in low-light conditions., Toshiba America Inform
February 28, 2006 - Imaging system IK-1000 employs electron-multiplying CCD technology for low-light applications, where incoming signal is multiplied by factor of 1,000 to allow for min illumination with full color reproduction down to 0.25 mlux in color at 50 IRE.
The incoming signal is multiplied by a factor of one thousand, allowing a minimum illumination with full color reproduction down to 0.25 mlux (1/1000 lux) in color at 50 IRE.
Toshiba's electron multiplying technology results in a super-sensitive camera that is 1000 times more sensitive than a conventional color CCD.
news.thomasnet.com /fullstory/478369   (836 words)

 Electron multiplying CCD performance
The full thesis can be downloaded with high quality figures using the links on the
Calculating the probability distribution for the output electrons
Results using model 1 for the gain stages
www.mrao.cam.ac.uk /research/OAS/theses/rnt/node59.html   (50 words)

 Catalina Scientific - Imaging Products
Apogee has been manufacturing cooled, cost-effective CCD cameras since the mid 1990's.
Dalsa, a world leader in imaging technology, has expanded the original SMD line of cameras to include CMOS as well as CCD detectors that can provide up to 150 frames per second at 1K x 1K resolution to over to 7000 frames per second with a sub-array readout.
An EMCCD (electron-multiplying CCD) is very low-light sensitive and can be gated, so EMCCDs are a practical alternative to an expensive ICCD (intensified CCD).
www.catalinasci.com /imaging.cfm   (345 words)

 Catalina Scientific - Echelle Spectrographs
The SE 100 and SE 200 are echelle-type spectrographs that represent a new approach to spectrograph design for use with 2-dimensional CCD imaging arrays.
The CCD detector becomes an array of many thousands of pixels, which sample wavelengths in a range from about 190nm up to 1100nm in one image.
Three basic dispersion modules are available for both spectrographs that are appropriate for most applications, but we have additional modules that meet a variety of requirements.
www.catalinasci.com /se200.cfm   (493 words)

 Electron-multiplying CCD - Definition, explanation
An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD, also known as an L3Vision CCD or L3CCD) is a charge-coupled device in which a gain register is placed between the shift register and the output amplifier.
In the gain register the electrons are multiplied by impact ionization similar to an avalanche diode.
In an EMCCD this noise is superimposed on many thousands of electrons rather than a single electron; the devices thus have negligible readout noise.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/e/el/electron_multiplying_ccd.php   (460 words)

 Photonic Science Cameras - Visible
The FDI is a high resolution, high speed, digital imaging camera using a 1392 x 1040 interline CCD.
The CoolView VHR is a high resolution CCD camera which has 4000x2672 pixels and interline transfer architecture which allows the CCD to operate without a shutter and at 100% duty cycle.
The CoolView ImageStar Back Illuminated is a high resolution (1024x1024 pixels) deeply cooled CCD camera with Back-Illuminated Frame Transfer sensor giving (very) high QE and good well depth for applications requiring a very high sensitivity detector. /cameras_v2.html   (357 words)

 Vision Systems Design - Microscopy tracks microtubule changes
Microtubules are dynamic protein polymers that run from the center of a biological cell to the outer cell wall.
Standard CCD cameras are limited in their sensitivity.
The digital Andor iXON EM camera uses a Marconi 512 × 512-pixel CCD sensor similar to the Roper Scientific Photometrics Cascade camera; however, the iXON uses a stack of five Peltier coolers to cool the sensor down to ±90°C. This essentially eliminates the dark-current noise, leaving only the clock-generated random noise common to all cameras.
vsd.pennnet.com /Articles/Article_Display.cfm?Section=Articles&Subsection=Display&ARTICLE_ID=196764   (1785 words)

 Image Intensifiers
The EL4 is utilised with an electron multiplying CCD sensor.
The time is passed where an image intensified camera is needed for low light imaging with their effected problems like image intensifier life time degeneration or burn in due to overexposure.
The electron multiplying CCD is not effected with lifetime degeneration and burn in.
www.proxitronic.de /prodnew/prodnew.htm   (145 words)

 Andor iXon DV 865 Electron Multiplying CCD camera
Andor's iXon 865 Electron Multiplying CCD camera (EMCCD) is the most sensitive UV to NIR detector ever.
Containing the L3VisionTM Frame Transfer CCD sensor from E2V, it utilizes a unique electron multiplying structure that is built into the silicon.
This enables charge from each pixel to be multiplied on the sensor before it is read out.
www.scitech.com.au /cameras/microscopy/DV865.htm   (133 words)

 Optical microscope reveals single proteins - optics.org   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The light activates fluorescence in a small percentage of the molecules, and the team then imaged the result via total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy onto a single-photon-sensitive electron multiplying CCD camera.
Inside whole cells the team has imaged vinculin (a cytoskeletal protein) at focal adhesions, actin within a lamellipodium (a projection on the mobile edge of a cell) and the distribution of the retroviral protein Gag at the plasma membrane.
"By correlating a PALM image showing protein distribution with an electron microscope image showing cell structure of the same sample, it becomes possible to understand how molecules are individually distributed in a cellular structure at the molecular scale.
optics.org /articles/news/12/8/14/1?rss=1.0   (646 words)

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