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Topic: Electron shell

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In the News (Sun 26 May 19)

  How do I read an electron configuration table?
An electron configuration table is a type of code that describes how many electrons are in each energy level of an atom and how the electrons are arranged within each energy level.
The total number of electrons in an energy level is the sum of the electrons in each sub-shell of that energy level.
Use the electron configuration to find that atom's highest energy level and then add up the numbers in superscript to find the number of electrons that are in it.
education.jlab.org /qa/electron_config.html   (493 words)

 uvlp.ca - Ultraviolet lighting products and uv lights fixtures manufacturer in long wave lw and short-wave sw uv light ...
Electrons are subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom at specific distances known as electron shells.
These shells are arranged in layers around the nucleus, the exact number of electrons and their shells depending on the type of atom (element).
This is known as phosphorescence, and occurs because the excited electrons are slow in returning to their original electron shells.
www.uvlp.ca   (0 words)

  Theory of the Electrons   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This structure of the electron shells in the atomic ground states was developed principally by theoretical analyses of an atoms ability to achieve the ground state which is electrically neutral.
The quantisation of emission spectra occurs because of harmonics associated with the orbital radius of the electron and the velocity of light, which is the speed of vibration in a magnetic field, and because the surface area of the sphere of the oscillator must be equally divided.
Complexes of electrons radiate upon attainment of primary and secondary excitation states although energy is retained in the two states of excitation which is then relevant to the next transition (unlike the other energy levels in which acquiesced energy is radiated immediately returning the atom to the ground state).
home.earthlink.net /~kdthrge/sub2.htm   (5293 words)

 Electron Summary
Our understanding of how electrons behave has been significantly modified during the past century, the greatest advances being the development of quantum mechanics in the 20th century and the idea of particle-wave duality, that is, that electrons show either wave-like or particle-like properties.
Electrons in an atom are bound to that atom; electrons moving freely in vacuum, space or certain media are free electrons that can be focused into an electron beam.
The antimatter counterpart of the electron is the positron.
www.bookrags.com /Electron   (7793 words)

 Electron Shells: The properties of electron shells, or orbitals, help determine the c
Electrons captured in an atom don't fly around in circles as they are often depicted, but rather exist in a particular area around the atom.
Electrons "orbit" at quite a distance relative to the nucleus of protons and neutrons.
This pattern is the same for every atom, and electrons could be found in any of the shells, but electrons tend to fall into the available shells with the lowest energy levels.
physics.suite101.com /article.cfm/electron_shells   (433 words)

 Electron configuration and the Pascal Triangle
The common character of theories of atomic constitution has been the endeavour to find configurations and motions of the electrons which would seem to offer an interpretation of the variations of the chemical properties of the elements with the atomic number as they are so clearly exhibited in the well-known periodic law.
A consideration of this law leads directly to the view that the electrons atom are arranged in distinctly separate groups, each containing a number of electrons equal to one of the periods in the sequence of the elements, arranged according to increasing atomic number.
The farther an electron shell is from nucleus, the larger it is.
milan.milanovic.org /math/english/atom/electron.html   (1123 words)

 Quantum Physics - Solid-State Device Theory
Electrons, therefore, do not really exist in their "orbits" as precisely defined bits of matter, or even as precisely defined waveshapes, but rather as "clouds" -- the technical term is wavefunction -- of probability distribution, as if each electron were "spread" or "smeared" over a range of positions and momenta.
An electron "shell" is a region of space around an atom's nucleus that electrons are allowed to exist in, corresponding to the stable "standing wave" patterns of de Broglie and Bohr.
In this notation, the shell number is shown as an integer, the subshell as a letter (s,p,d,f), and the total number of electrons in the subshell (all orbitals, all spins) as a superscript.
www.opamp-electronics.com /tutorials/quantum_physics_3_02_02.htm   (4716 words)

 Electron Configurations & The Periodic Table
Electron shell #1 has the lowest energy and its s-orbital is the first to be filled.
Transfer of the lone 3s electron of a sodium atom to the half-filled 3p orbital of a chlorine atom generates a sodium cation (neon valence shell) and a chloride anion (argon valence shell).
These electron sharing diagrams (Lewis formulas) are a useful first step in understanding covalent bonding, but it is quicker and easier to draw Couper-Kekulé formulas in which each shared electron pair is represented by a line between the atom symbols.
www.cem.msu.edu /~reusch/VirtualText/intro2.htm   (2116 words)

 The Periodic Table of Elements
The capacity of the first electron shell is two electrons and for the second shell the capacity is eight.
As you can see in the illustration, while sodium has three electron shells and lithium two, the characteristic they share in common is that they both have only one electron in their outermost electron shell.
To write the electron configuration of elements, scientists often use a shorthand in which the element's symbol is followed by the element's electron shells, written as a right-hand parentheses symbol ")".
www.visionlearning.com /library/module_viewer.php?mid=52   (856 words)

 Chemical Reactions
The number of electrons metal atoms will lose (and the charge they will take on) is equal to the number of electrons in the atom's valence shell.
For all of the elements in group A of the periodic table, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number.
Thus helium, with two electrons, already has a full valence shell and falls into the group of elements that tend not to react with others, the noble gases.
www.visionlearning.com /library/module_viewer.php?mid=54   (901 words)

 X-rays: Electron Shells
As a simple model, an atom may be considered to be a positively charged nucleus surrounded by shells of negatively charged electrons.
The shells are termed K, L, M, and N (starting from the innermost, most strongly bound shell).
Shells specified by the quantum numbers are labeled as shown on the following table.
www4.nau.edu /microanalysis/Microprobe/Xray-ElectronShells.html   (235 words)

 Grandinetti-Teaching-Chem 121-Course Notes-Multi-Electron Atoms
This is because in addition to the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the positively charged nucleus, there are electrostatic repulsions between electrons.
This is because electrons in the s-orbital have a greater probability of being near the nucleus than a p-orbital, so the s-orbital is less shielded than a p-orbital.
For convenience we often represent the electron configuration of the closed shells with the corresponding noble gas symbol.
www.grandinetti.org /Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/MultiElectronAtoms   (634 words)

The electron is the negatively charged part of the atom that orbits the nucleus of the atom.
The electrons are tightly held in shells that contain its
If it takes 8 electrons to fill a shell but it has fewer than 8 electrons, the atom will let the electrons come and go with very little force.
www.bcae1.com /electron.htm   (0 words)

 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
It is to use this distribution of electrons to predict the shape of the molecule.
Nonbonding electrons need to be close to only one nucleus, and there is a considerable amount of space in which nonbonding electrons can reside and still be near the nucleus of the atom.
The force of repulsion between a pair of nonbonding electrons and a pair of bonding electrons is somewhat smaller, and the repulsion between pairs of bonding electrons is even smaller.
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch8/vsepr.php   (1344 words)

 Specimen Interaction
Caused by an incident electron colliding with an atom in the specimen which is nearly normal to the incident's path.
The transmission of unscattered electrons is inversely proportional to the specimen thickness.
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy: The inelastic loss of energy by the incident electrons is characteristic of the elements that were interacted with.
www.unl.edu /CMRAcfem/interact.htm   (974 words)

 Lessons In Electric Circuits -- Volume III (Semiconductors) - Chapter 2
Since shell level is closely related to the amount of energy that an electron possesses, "leaps" between shell (and even subshell) levels requires transfers of energy.
Thus, the outer electrons are said to be "free," and ready to move at the beckoning of an electric field.
It is difficult to predict the conductive properties of a substance by examining the electron configurations of its constituent atoms.
www.ibiblio.org /obp/electricCircuits/Semi/SEMI_2.html   (5441 words)

 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory is a way of predicting the shape of a molecule based on the number of bonding and lone pairs of electrons in a polyatomic species.
The result of this is that the electron pairs around a given atom are arranged at the vertices of a regular polyhedron, with the number of vertices of the polyhedron being the number of electron pairs.
The repulsion between an electron pair and a single electron is lower than that between electron pairs, and this will affect the shape in a similar way to the presence of the different repulsion between bonding and lone pairs.
www.everyscience.com /Chemistry/Inorganic/Molecular_Structure/b.1026.php   (585 words)

 Molecular Geometry and Electron Domain Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although the two electrons in each bonding pair must remain relatively close together in order to form the bond, different pairs of electrons should arrange themselves in such a way that the distances between the pairs are as large as possible.
We conclude that molecular geometry is determined by minimizing the mutual repulsion of the valence shell electron pairs.
The valence shell electron pairs repel one another, establishing the geometry in which the energy of their interaction is minimized.
cnx.org /content/m12594/latest   (3574 words)

 CHEMystery: Atomic Structure and Bonding: Electron Configurations
The distributions of electrons among the orbitals of an atom is the atom's electronic structure or electron configuration.
The valence shell or the outer shell (the shell with the highest energy level) is the one mainly responsible for how an element reacts to form compounds.
The core electrons are the rest of the electrons, and they are buried deep within the atom and usually do not play a role in chemical reactions.
library.thinkquest.org /3659/structures/electronconfig.html   (740 words)

 The quantum basis of the electron shell structure
The other, uh, plebian, elements, with a number of electrons in the outer shell that either exceeds or falls short of the magic number eight, are unhappy with themselves the way they are and seek to attain the number eight and the stability it represents by combining with other elements.
Is it that each additional electron corresponds with a higher quantum state, so that one electron in the second shell corresponds with the first possible quantum state, two electrons with the second quantum state,...
She describes in a very accessible way the electron clouds and the inert gases and the way the non-inert elements look to combine with others in order to become "inert-like." "The rule of eight" was just a convenient expression I coined for this in the recent discussion.
www.amnation.com /vfr/archives/007533.html   (2475 words)

 Basic Chemistry for Biology a Self Instructional
Two are in the first electron shell, eight are in the second electron shell, and one is in the third electron shell.
Two are in the first electron shell, eight are in the second electron shell, and seven are in the third electron shell.
With their outermost electron shells unfilled sodium and chlorine are not as stable as they would like to be.
homepages.ius.edu /GKIRCHNE/Chem.htm   (3578 words)

 The Periodic Table of Elements
This 3rd electron is forced to spin around the nucleus in a second electron shell because of the repulsive forces between the 3 negatively charged electrons.
When an electron will not fit into an existing level because of repulsive forces between negative charges, the atom will work around this problem by adding the electron to a new shell, more distant from the nucleus than the existing shell (or shells).
In other words, in an atom with 20 electrons (which is the element calcium, Ca) the first 2 electrons are located in the 1st shell, the next 8 in shell #2, the following 8 in shell #3 and the remaining 2 electrons are located in shell #4.
web.jjay.cuny.edu /~acarpi/NSC/4-pertab.htm   (1181 words)

 Chem4Kids.com: Elements & Periodic Table: Periodic Table
All of the elements in a period have the same number of atomic orbitals.
At this time, the maximum number of electron orbitals or electron shells for any element is seven.
The elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbital.
www.chem4kids.com /files/elem_pertable.html   (421 words)

 The Net Equation: Your Online Source for Chemistry Solutions
To write out the electron configuration of an atom, we use the principal quantum number and the letter term for each subshell; a superscript number indicates how many electrons are present in each subshell.
Therefore, to reduce the amount of writing we have to do, it is customary to represent the "buried" electrons by using a noble gas configuration, in which the core electrons are replaced by the symbol of a noble gas in brackets.
The electrons outside the noble gas core are the valence electrons, and they determine the chemical properties of an element.
library.thinkquest.org /C004970/atoms/orbital.htm   (1458 words)

 The Ultimate Primer On Free Radicals -- Basic Cause of Heart Disease, Cancer and other Degenerative Ills
If the two outside electrons are moved away, it becomes Zinc 2+, an ion, and a cation, and has 28 electrons in the shells.
The outer shell of an atom is known as the valence shell.
It is the valence electrons that are primary concern in the study of electricity, because it is these that explain much of electrical theory.
www.chelationtherapyonline.com /technical/p5.htm   (7333 words)

 GCSE Atomic Structure and Periodic Table at Doc Brown's Chemistry Clinic. btaswpb wpbchemhelp
Protons and neutrons are the 'nucleons' or 'sub-atomic' particles present in the minute positive nucleus and the negative electrons are held by the positive protons in 'orbits' called energy levels or shells.
The electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells around the nucleus and with increasing distance from the nucleus.
the 'plum pudding' model in which 'protons' and 'electrons' were scattered or arranged evenly across the atom, were superceded by the model described in the previous picture.
www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk /page04/4_71atom.htm   (2621 words)

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