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Topic: Electronegativity


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  Electronegativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond.
Two scales of electronegativity are in common use: the Pauling scale (proposed in 1932) and the Mulliken scale (proposed in 1934).
On this scale, the most electronegative chemical element (fluorine) is given an electronegativity value of 3.98 (textbooks often state this value to be 4.0); the least electronegative element (francium) has a value of 0.7, and the remaining elements have values in between.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Electronegativity   (480 words)

  
 Electronegativity and Polar Bonds   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
At the top of side 2 is a table of electronegativity differences and percent ionic character which you are to use to determine the type of bond between two atoms.
Across a period: the electronegativities generally increase from left to right across a period with the Group VII element having the highest value for the period.
www.chem.vt.edu /RVGS/ACT/notes/electronegativity.html   (369 words)

  
 Chemical Bond Data
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to draw bonding electrons to itself.
An important application of electronegativity is in the prediction of the polarity of a chemical bond.
It's electronegativity leads to the polar nature of the water molecule and contributes to the remarkable properties of water.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/chemical/bondd.html   (569 words)

  
 electronegativity
Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
Fluorine (the most electronegative element) is assigned a value of 4.0, and values range down to caesium and francium which are the least electronegative at 0.7.
Electronegativity increases across a period because the number of charges on the nucleus increases.
www.chemguide.co.uk /atoms/bonding/electroneg.html   (1467 words)

  
 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Electronegativity -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction that an atom has for electrons in a covalent bond.
The Pauling Scale is a widely used, empirical scale of electronegativity values, originally developed by Linus Pauling in 1932.
On this scale, the most electronegative element (fluorine) is given a value of 4.0, while the least electronegative element (francium) is given a value of 0.7.
www.kidsseek.com /encyclopedia-wiki/el/Electronegative   (321 words)

  
 Electronegativity
Electronegativity is useful for all elements on the periodic table but it is most useful for the nonmetals, which are shown here to the right.
The reason for that ties in with the arrangement of electrons and the fact that the atoms are using d orbitals.
Because the electronegativities of chlorine and bromine are only slightly different, the bond between them is slightly polar.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch104-07/electron.htm   (1104 words)

  
 Organic Chemistry/Foundational concepts of organic chemistry/Electronegativity - Wikibooks, collection of open-content ...
Electronegativity is a measure of the strength of this attraction.
Electronegativity is perhaps the most important periodic trend, and it is not related to ionization energy directly -- but its trend is the same, increasing from left to right.
The reverse of electronegativity, the ability of an atom to lose electrons, is known as electropositivity.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Organic_Chemistry/Foundational_concepts_of_organic_chemistry/Electronegativity   (1112 words)

  
 Bond Polarity
Electronegativity is the relative tendency of a bonded atom to attract electrons to itself.
Electronegativity increases across a Period of the Periodic Table, in general, due to increasing nuclear charge and decreasing atomic radius.
The electronegative atom's pull on the bonding electrons is so strong that it pulls the bonding electron off the electropositive atom resulting in two oppositely charged ions which are held together by electrostatic attraction (an ionic bond).
www.ausetute.com.au /bondpola.html   (581 words)

  
 Ionic and Covalent Binding - Electronegativity
Electronegativity is defined as the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself.
The electronegativities of the elements in the first few rows of the periodic table are given in Table 7-5.
The greater the difference in the electronegativity values for two atoms, the greater should be the disparity in the extent to which the bond density is shared between the two atoms.
www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca /esam/Chapter_7/section_4.html   (541 words)

  
 Guide to electronegativity
Some atoms are highly electronegative and steal electrons from any atom it bonds to; other atoms donate electrons to any atom that it bonds to.
If there is a difference in electronegativity between two bonding atoms (a carbon bonded to fluorine for example), you get a separation of charge, or a dipole moment.
It is very important to understand how electronegative atoms attached to carbons form dipoles, as it is essential in the understanding of the reactivity of organic molecules.
www.chemhelper.com /molatt1.html   (366 words)

  
 electronegativity - polar bonds in organic compounds
Fluorine (the most electronegative element) is given a value of 4.0, and values range down to caesium and francium which are the least electronegative at 0.7.
Provided that you understand what happens when electronegative atoms like fluorine or chlorine are attached to carbon atoms in terms of the polarity of the bonds, that's really all you need for most purposes.
Bromine (and the other halogens) are all more electronegative than hydrogen, and so all the hydrogen halides have polar bonds with the hydrogen end slightly positive and the halogen end slightly negative.
www.chemguide.co.uk /basicorg/bonding/eneg.html   (1067 words)

  
 Electronegativity
The importance of electronegativity in solid state chemistry is illustrated by its use as a parameter in structure sorting maps.
Sanderson’s electronegativity scale is based on the principle that the ability of an atom or ion to attract electrons to itself is dependent upon the effective nuclear charge felt by the outermost valence electrons.
Sanderson used his electronegativity scale and concept of electronegativity equalization to calculate partial charges and ionic radii of atoms in ionic-covalent compounds and molecules.
www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu /~woodward/ch754/electro.htm   (1471 words)

  
 Electronegativity
The modern definition of electronegativity is due to Linus Pauling.
Electronegativity values are useful in determining if a bond is to be classified as nonpolar covalent, polar covalent or ionic.
Since the electronegativities of C and S are both 2.5, you have a nonpolar bond.
dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us /webdocs/Bonding/Electroneg-Bond-Polarity.html   (636 words)

  
 Ionic and Covalent Bonds Overview
Electronegativity is how strongly an atom attracts electrons to itself when bonded with another atom.
If the difference in the electronegativity between the two bonded atoms is between 0.5 and 2.1, then the bond formed is considered to be polar covalent.
In this case the atoms with the higher electronegativity will be fully negative (due to the "gaining" of an electron) while the other atom is fully positive (due to its virtual loss of an electron).
chemsite.lsrhs.net /ChemicalBonds/electronegativity.html   (587 words)

  
 Chapter 1: Electronegativity
Electronegativity is defined as the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself.
Electronegativity increases left to right across a row in the periodic table e.g.
Electronegativity decreases as you move down a group in the periodic table e.g.
www.mhhe.com /physsci/chemistry/carey5e/Ch01/ch1-2-2.html   (114 words)

  
 Electronegativity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity is the affinity of an atom for electrons.
Electronegativity is measured on a scale of 0 to 4.
When two atoms with very different electronegativities are covalently bonded, the electrons can be found more often around the atom with the higher electronegativity.
www.delta.edu /bio171/Chapters/3/electorn.htm   (459 words)

  
 electronegativity.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity values generally increase from left to right within the Periodic Table of the elements.
Electronegativity values generally decrease from top to bottom within each family of elements within the Periodic Table.
The degree of "movement or shift" of these electrons toward the more electronegative atom is dependent on the difference in electronegativities between the atoms involved.
library.kcc.hawaii.edu /external/chemistry/electronegativity.html   (215 words)

  
 Grandinetti   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity- the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself.
Electronegativity can be quantified, and there are a number of different approaches to do this.
Using the Electronegativities we can predict whether a given bond will be non-polar, polar covalent, or ionic.
www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu /~grandinetti/teaching/Chem121/lectures/Electronegativity/ENBondPolarity.html   (388 words)

  
 The Covalent Bond   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity increases in a regular fashion from left to right across a row of the periodic table.
As a rule, when the difference between the electronegativities of two elements is less than 1.2, we assume that the bond between atoms of these elements is covalent.
But fluorine is less electronegative when it bonds to semimetals (such as B or Si) or nonmetals (such as C) than when it bonds to metals (such as Na or Mg).
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch8/valenceframe.html   (2269 words)

  
 Electronegativity
Although electronegativity, as a concept dates back to 1809, no one had been able to quantify it until Pauling in 1932.
In order to use electronegativity in your class, you don't have to understand how it came to be, so you can skip this stuff if you want.
Linus Pauling was presented the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances." Here is the presentation speech at the award ceremony in December, 1954 describing his work.
dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us /webdocs/Bonding/Electroneg-development.html   (757 words)

  
 unit02-sect01-les03-lessona   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom to attract valence electrons.
It is possible to use the electronegativity values of the elements in a binary compound to make simple predictions about the type of bonding in the compound.
Use the electronegativity values for sodium and chlorine atoms to predict the type of bonding in a compound that contains these elements.
www.cdli.ca /courses/chem2202/unit02/section01/lesson03/3-lesson-a.htm   (508 words)

  
 Electronegativity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Generally, the electronegativity increases moving left to right across a row, and decreases going down the table.
Notice that this trend is violated by the Group 13 metals for which the electronegativity drops from B to Al as expected, but hen rises slightly going down to Tl.
Using some simple calculations of % ionic and % covalent character, it is possible to show that a difference of electronegativity of about 1.7 is the point where a bond may be thought of as ionic.
neon.chem.uidaho.edu /~honors/electneg.html   (863 words)

  
 Electreonegativity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Electronegativity isa measure of the tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons in a chemical bond.
An atom's electronegativity is used to predict the types of chemical bonds it will form with other atoms.
The difference in electronegativity between two atoms is used as a guide in interpreting whether an atom will lose, gain or share electrons in forming a chemical bond.
dwb.unl.edu /Teacher/NSF/C05/C05Mats/Electronegativity.html   (219 words)

  
 Dear Students   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
ELECTRONEGATIVITY is a property that describes the tendency of an element, in a molecule, to attract shared electrons.
The electronegativity is a property that is related to both the electron affinity and ionization energy of the isolated atom.
Fluorine is the most electronegative element (with an electronegativity value of 4.0 on the scale determined by Linus Pauling).
wine1.sb.fsu.edu /chm1045/notes/Bonding/Polarity/guide.htm   (400 words)

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