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# Topic: Electrostatic force

###### In the News (Mon 25 Mar 19)

 Coulomb's law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In physics, Coulomb's law is an inverse-square law indicating the magnitude and direction of electrostatic force that one stationary, electrically charged object of small dimensions (ideally, a point source) exerts on another. This formula says that the magnitude of the force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the charges of each object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force resulting from magnetic field between moving charges can be thought of as a manifestation of the force from the electrostatic field but with Einstein's theory of relativity taken into consideration. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Coulomb_force   (737 words)

 Electrostatics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the forces exerted by a static (i.e. Because of the electric field's relationship to and interaction with magnetism, electrostatics is a subfield of electromagnetism. The electric field (in units of volts per meter) is defined as the force (in newtons) per unit charge (in coulombs). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Electrostatic   (1349 words)

 Electrostatic chuck with diamond coating - Patent 5166856 The electrostatic chuck of claim 4 and further including means for developing an electrostatic force for holding said wafer against said second layer of diamond. The electrostatic chuck of claim 14 wherein said means for developing an electrostatic force includes means for applying a dc voltage potential between said at least two conductors. In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an electrostatic chuck for supporting a wafer, comprising a conductive body; a layer of diamond coating at least a portion of the conductive body; and means for developing an electrostatic force to hold the wafer against the layer of diamond. www.freepatentsonline.com /5166856.html   (3421 words)

 Unified Force Theory The gravitational force is mathematically related to the electrostatic force and electromagnetic force. The strong force between the electrons at one Compton wavelength compared to the electrostatic force between the electrons is equal to 861.023, or 2pi/a times greater. As in the case of the electron, the ratio of strong force between protons at one Compton wavelength to the gravitational force between protons is equal to the ratio of the mass associated with the Aether to the mass of the proton: www.16pi2.com /unified_charge_theory.htm   (1411 words)

 Voltage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Between two points in an electric field, such as exists in an electrical circuit, the difference in their electrical potentials is known as the electrical potential difference. This difference is proportional to the electrostatic force that tends to push electrons or other charge-carriers from one point to the other. At a time in physics when the word force was used loosely, the potential difference was named the electromotive force or emf—a term which is still used in certain contexts. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Voltage   (1013 words)

 Spin and Energy - Free? - The Industrial Physicist Rigorous theory predicts that electrostatic torque is the natural consequence of electrical action-at-a-distance force acting on an asymmetric distribution of charges residing on the surface of the conductors. Even though the concept of electrostatic potential was justified at the time for integrating electric and magnetic phenomena, the experimental verification of postulated electrical quantities, including the electrostatic force, received little or no attention. The identification of a rotational force—that in the absence of a restoring force could lead to spin—has far-reaching implications and invites investigation of systems of all size scales where the electrostatic force is the dominant operative force. www.aip.org /tip/INPHFA/vol-9/iss-5/p23.html   (1443 words)

 Force Interactions This converging E force field vector is perpendicular to and in phase with the normal B force vector of the magnetic line and the axial B vector force does not contribute to the orbital action of the charges. Thus, inertial force is seen to be a mutual interaction between the particle and the prime radiation of the space surrounding the particle. All force "fields" and lines of force in space with heretofore unknown causes, are manifestations of, and are caused by matter’s interference interactions (shadowing), mixing, sinking and sourcing, with specific sub-spectra of the prime radiation. home.netcom.com /~sbyers11/ForceInteract.htm   (11383 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) If an experimenter is attempting to determine G empirically by measuring the force between two masses, he or she should be aware of this effect and account for the nature of the path between the masses, if possible. Electrostatic Gravity Background An electrostatic force F takes the form of a charge Q multiplied by a voltage gradient E. E may alternatively be denoted as a voltage/distance term EMBED EQUATION , resulting in the expression for the force EMBED EQUATION . In the MKS unit structure, F is the force in newtons, Q is the charge in coulombs, V is in volts (electrical potential relative to another electrical potential), and r is a distance in meters. members.aol.com /tigermfs/g.doc   (7291 words)

 Electrostatic Energy and Force   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) Since the only source of energy in this closed system is the electrostatic energy of the charged bodies, the mechanical work of moving the body must be equal and opposite of the electrostatic work done in moving it. This states that the electrostatic force on a body is the negative gradient of the electrostatic work done on it. The components of the electrostatic force in Cartesian coordinates are simply the negative of the directional derivatives of the electrostatic work. www.pages.drexel.edu /~zt27/force.htm   (562 words)

 Single electron tunneling detection by electrostatic force Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) methods are used to measure the charge on this dot. When the charged probe is brought into this range discrete tunneling events are observed in both the amplitude and phase of the electrostatic force signal.(Fig 1) Single electron tunneling events are detected as an approximate 0.3 nm abrupt change of the probe oscillation amplitude. The amplitude and phase of the EFM signal is changed due to the abrupt decrease of the electrostatic force and force gradients acting on the metallic dot. www.foresight.org /conferences/mnt9/Abstracts/Williams   (382 words)

 The Chemical Bond - An Electrostatic Interpretation of the Chemical Bond Thus the perpendicular forces of attraction exerted on the nuclei are zero (Fig. The two components of force along the bond add together while the two perpendicular components cancel at both A and B. It is obvious that all of the charge elements which are in the general region between the two nuclei will exert forces which draw the two nuclei together. More charge density is transferred to the antibinding regions, and the force exerted by this charge density, acting in concert with the increase in the force of nuclear repulsion, outweighs the attractive force exerted by the charge density in the binding region. www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca /esam/Chapter_6/section_1.html   (3208 words)

 Electrostatic Forces of this type are the result of an electrostatic field that exists around each charged particle or object. This electrostatic field, and the force it creates, can be illustrated with lines called "lines of force" as shown in Figure 4. This leads us to the law of electrostatic attraction, commonly referred to as Coulomb's Law of electrostatic charges, which states that the force of electrostatic attraction, or repulsion, is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them as shown in Equation 1-1. www.tpub.com /doeelecscience/electricalscience27.htm   (562 words)

 COULOMB’S LAW-DIELECTRIC-ELECTROSTATIC FORCE-RELATIVE PERMITIVITY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) The magnitude of the force of attraction or repulsion between two electric charges at rest was studied by Charles Coulomb. The electrostatic force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of charges. The electrostatic force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. www.citycollegiate.com /coulomb1_XII.htm   (252 words)

 Unified Field Theory All of the forces are due to the electrostatic attraction between electrons and protons. It has been said that the strong nuclear force must be much stronger than the electrostatic force to keep the protons in the tiny nucleus together. Thus the magnetic force is merely the action of the electrostatic force between the dipoles which permeate space. ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/frankhu/gravity.htm   (3066 words)

 THE ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL From the definition of the electrostatic potential in terms of the potential energy (eq.(3)) it is clear that the potential energy of a charge q under the influence of the electric field generated by charge q' is given by The electrostatic potential V is related to the electrostatic field E. If the electric field E is known, the electrostatic potential V can be obtained using eq.(4), and vice-versa. The first step in the calculation of the total electrostatic potential at point P due to the annulus is to calculate the electrostatic potential at P due to a small segment of the annulus. teacher.pas.rochester.edu /phy122/New_Lecture_Notes/Chapter25/Chapter25.html   (1845 words)

 The basic forces in Nature This is the force that acts at small distances within an atoms nuclei and maintains the stability of this nuclei in spite of their tendency to fly apart because of the Coulomb repulsion due to similar charged particles. It is the exclusive force between electrons and neutrinos, but the same force (albeit much weaker than the electric or strong nuclear force) exists even between two protons. However, at a longer distances both the nuclear forces are reduced to zero, and only the electrostatic and the gravitational forces remain of importance. www.desc.med.vu.nl /Forces_us.htm   (476 words)

 Magnetic Fields and Lorentz Force - Flaw in Relativistic Theory According to the relativistic view of electrodynamics, the force on a particle with charge q and velocity v in a magnetic field B, i.e. In view of this lack of a physically relevant definition of the velocity v in the Lorentz force, it is therefore not surprising that the derivation of the relativistic electrostatic force in the corresponding reference frame is actually also incorrect as it violates the law of charge conservation: On the other hand, it is hard to believe that the apparent velocity dependence of the electrostatic force observed in accelerators for instance is not real, so one would have to assume the existence two components which are identical for the near field but are different in the indicated sense for the far field. www.physicsmyths.org.uk /lorentzforce.htm   (608 words)

 NUCLEAR GRAVITATION FIELD THEORY CHAPTER 3 The two forces of interest are the Electrostatic (Coulombic) Repulsion of the protons in the nucleus and the “Strong Nuclear Force” (of attraction) that holds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus together. The Electrostatic Repulsion Force is not a function of the mass of the nuclei. In accordance with Newton’s Law of Gravity, the gravitational force between two objects, which is an attractive force, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the center of gravities of each of the two objects. www.gravitywarpdrive.com /NGFT_Chapter_3.htm   (1929 words)

 Imaging the Electrostatic Potential of Transmembrane Channels: Atomic Probe Microscopy of OmpF Porin -- Philippsen et ... Above the OmpF pore, the average microscopic force is counterbalanced at positions changing by ~3 and 5 Å when the salt concentration is varied from 300 to 100 mM and from 300 to 50 mM, respectively. The heights of the difference maps are a direct estimate of the electrostatic force between porin and AFM probe. Pashley, R. Hydration forces between mica surfaces in Li, Na, Na and Cs electrolyte solutions: a correlation of double layer and hydration forces with surface cation exchange properties. www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/82/3/1667   (4912 words)

 electrostatic force   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) is: the force that acts on a charged body due to its location in a static electric field. is exemplified: by the force (described by Coulomb's law) that one charged particle exerts on another by virtue of the electric field that it creates. Two particles with charge of the same sign repel one another, and two particles with charge of the opposite sign attract one another. www.rdg.ac.uk /physicsnet/units/flap/glossary/EE/ELSTATFR.HTM   (97 words)

 Electrostatic Potential In the case of the Coulomb force, a direct demonstration can be made to show that it is a conservative force. Since force is proportional to the electric field, it follows that the (stationary) electric field can be expressed as the gradient of the ``electrostatic potential'', denoted by Since the electrostatic force is conservative, the energy of a particle at some point is independent of the path it took to get there. www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Sciences/Physics/Electromagnetism/Electrostatics/ElectrostaticPotential/Electrostatic/Electrostatic.htm   (747 words)

 Resonant Frequency Shift of Torsional Acutators due to Electrostatic Force We have investigated the effect of natural frequency shift in single-crystal silicon, rectangular, electrostatic torsion actuators due to the electrostatic force. The electrostatic actuator was fabricated by using ultra-thin silicon wafer, SU-8 thermal compression bonding, and deep reactive ion etching. An analytical model was proposed to simulate the effect of natural frequency shift due to the electrostatic force. www.nsti.org /Nanotech2004/showabstract.html?absno=388   (202 words)

 Worked example 1: Electrostatic force between three colinear point charges What is the magnitude and direction of the total electrostatic force acting on a third particle of charge acting on charge 3 is the algebraic sum of the forces exerted by charges 1 and 2 separately (the sum is algebraic because all the forces act along the Thus, the magnitude of the total force acting on charge 3 is farside.ph.utexas.edu /~rfitzp/teaching/302l/lectures/node15.html   (159 words)

 THE ELECTROSTATIC FORCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) The electrostatic force is only associated with spiral field configurations consisting of a single wave in orbit. It is caused by radial impulses and does not operate on the polar axis, since it is not caused by polar twisting, as in the case of the magnetic force. Depending how each spiral is flipped relative to the other, the force will be a series of net attractive impulses, or a series of net repulsive impulses. zyx.org /ELECTROSTATICS1.htm   (93 words)

 Electrostatic Force Microscopy with the Nano-R™ AFM The Electrostatic Force Microscope is a modified AFM where the cantilever is connected to an independently controlled bias. The bias is used to create an electrostatic field between the tip and the substrate. The forces involved with EFM are typically larger than those with MFM (since we can control the applied voltage to some extent) which allows more freedom with the tip sample spacing. www.pacificnanotech.com /electrostatic-microscopy_single.html   (908 words)

 NUCLEAR GRAVITATION FIELD THEORY CHAPTER 8 The largest stumbling block to proving that the “Strong Nuclear Force” and Gravity are one and the same force is overcoming the Electrostatic Repulsion of the protons in the nucleus. The “Strong Nuclear Force” is the force that holds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus together. This force is a very strong, short ranged force that overcomes the “Electrostatic Repulsion Force” of the positive charged protons tending to break the nucleus apart. www.gravitywarpdrive.com /NGFT_Chapter_8.htm   (3762 words)

 The Electric Force   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) Yes -- the electric force is like an invisible spring, but as the charges move farther apart, a weaker spring pulls them together. No, the force, or pull, depends only on where you put it, not on the velocity. But an electron's motion depends on both the force on the electron and its velocity, which are often in different directions. www.colorado.edu /physics/2000/waves_particles/wavpart2.html   (244 words)

 Gravitational Force -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics The gravitational force between two bodies of masses m and M offset by a vector distance r is given by Like the electrostatic force, it is an inverse square law. showed that the gravitational force on a body of mass m from a spherically symmetric body of total mass M whose center is located a distance r away is equivalent to the force on m from a point mass M located a distance r away. scienceworld.wolfram.com /physics/GravitationalForce.html   (137 words)

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