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Topic: Eleventh century

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  Gregory VII and the Politics of the Spirit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The eleventh century marked the official division between the Eastern Christian Churches, what is today known as Eastern Orthodoxy, and the Catholic Church of the West claimed by Roman Catholicism and critiqued by the churches of the Reformation.
The eleventh century was a period of profound change and creativity in the understanding of ecclesiastical as well as civil law.
In the centuries that followed, as canon lawyers scoured earlier sources to provide a legal basis for papal authority, the Church came to be viewed less as a spiritual fellowship than as a hierarchical and juridical corporation composed of clergy and bishops and pope.
www.firstthings.com /ftissues/ft9901/wilken.html   (5118 words)

 Levantia - An eleventh century noblewoman
This outfit is predominantly based upon pictoral sources of the eleventh century, with reference to tenth century literary sources.
That style continued through into the eleventh century, but by the tenth century the height of fashion for women of the high aristocracy decreed a large drop of almost three-quarters of a metre at the cuff.
This v-neck with lapels and back-flap came to be the height of fashion no later than the early eleventh century, possibly based upon a Persian style known to have existed in the tenth century.
www.levantia.com.au /clothing/zoste.html   (536 words)

 Quilting - Eighth to Thirteenth Century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
From the eleventh through the fifteenth centuries, these garments were worn under chain and plate armor, as protection from cold and chafing, and had little need for decorative stitching.
If records are proof of importance, then domestic quilting of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries does not seem to have had the same standing as quilted armor over the same period.
Towards the end of the thirteenth century, a few references to quilted bedding are thinly scattered and not very descriptive, but where they do exist, they seem to imply that quilts as bed covers, far from being rare, were an accepted kind of furnishing.
www.kateryndedevelyn.org /qultmidl.htm   (1153 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
For we of the eleventh century, hard- headed, close-fisted, grasping, shrewd, as we were, and as Normans are still said to be, stood more fully in the centre of the world's movement than our English descendants ever did.
Still, the overmastering strength of the eleventh century is stamped on a great scale here, not only in the four spans of the nave, and in the transepts, but chiefly in the triumphal columns of the croisee.
The greatest poem of the eleventh century was the "Chanson de Roland," and of that the Church took a sort of possession.
xroads.virginia.edu /~Hyper/Adams_Mont/ch01.txt   (3110 words)

 Voyage of Bran-Historical Background
My investigation is based upon texts which cannot be later than the eleventh century of our era, and may be as early as the eighth or seventh century, in the form under which their substance has come down to us.
In the second century, Conn, the Hundred-fighter, is the centre of an extensive cycle, dealing mainly with his wars against Mog Nuadat of Munster, and the consequent partition of Ireland into two portions known as Leth Moga and Leth Cuinn.
In the next three centuries (6th, 7th, and 8th) the main interest of Irish history lies in the efforts of the Irish race to organise Christianity within and propagate it outside Ireland, and in the manifestation of the effect produced upon the Irish world by the revelation of Romano-Greek culture.
www.as.wvu.edu /english/clc/vob/bcritc1.html   (2651 words)

 AllRefer.com - Romania - Transylvania, Walachia, And Moldavia From The Eleventh Century To The Seventeenth Century | ...
AllRefer.com - Romania - Transylvania, Walachia, And Moldavia From The Eleventh Century To The Seventeenth Century
The Romanians assert that they are the descendants of Latin-speaking Dacian peasants who remained in Transylvania after the Roman exodus, and of Slavs who lived in Transylvania's secluded valleys, forests, and mountains, and survived there during the tumult of the Dark Ages.
reference.allrefer.com /country-guide-study/romania/romania16.html   (359 words)

 Charles M. Radding | Legal Theory and Practice in Eleventh-Century Italy | Law and History Review, 21.2 | The History ...
In the course of the twelfth century, she argues, legal practitioners developed their own kinds of expertise that, though less bookish, might have had a practical significance equal to, if not greater than, the learning produced in the schools.
It is easy to show—indeed, it is well understood—that the legal profession in Italy began to undergo a further transformation of learning by the middle of the eleventh century, or perhaps a hundred years earlier than the examples Reynolds herself cites.
In addition, while she seems to see learning filtering down from the schools to practice, the situation in the eleventh century permits us to glimpse a process by which legal practice led to a more formal "bookish" learning that in turn found its audience among legal professionals.
www.historycooperative.org /journals/lhr/21.2/comment_radding.html   (1869 words)

 MFA-The Koran Collection at the Topkapi Palace Library
From the eleventh century onwards, a more rounded type of script was used in the writing of the Koranic text.
This script began to be characterised in the first ten years of the tenth century when a calligrapher named Ibn al-Muqla used the length of the letter alif as a proportional guide At the beginning of the eleventh century another calligrapher named Ibn al-Bawwab created a freer naskhi.
The Koran of the eleventh century written by Abul Kas²m Ali b.Abdullah b.al-hussein al-Baghdadi, vizier to the Seljuk sultan Turul Bey (H.S.89), and preserved in the Palace Library today, is an important example of the period's Koranic gilding with its frontispiece, illuminated surah heading, surah titles and marks in the gilt style of the Seljuks.
www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr /~history/Ext/Koran.html   (1649 words)

 Mercenaries in Byzantine Armies
Mass desertions of the eleventh century, most significantly at Mantzikert, has taught the Byzantines that it is best if all mercenary units are kept to manageable proportions.
They are employed from the late eleventh century to the mid-twelfth century in large numbers, and again in the mid-thirteenth century.
Georgian mercenaries are occasionally recorded in the twelfth century, being present, for instance, among the Byzantines fighting in Italy in the 1150s, and auxiliary contingents are later loaded to the Empire by King George IV (1212-23).
www.geocities.com /TimesSquare/Labyrinth/2398/bginfo/social/merc.html   (1103 words)

 Christian History Handbook: Medieval: Lecture Fifteen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The term "cardinal" which began to be used in the sixth century derives from the term for pivot or hinge, "card", meaning that a member of the clergy belonging to one church was extended as by hinges to serve in another.
Also from the eighth century the other four cemetery churches in Rome continued each to be served by a college of seven priests drawn from the clergy of the titular churches.
Churches and the clergy in the eleventh century were under the control of the Emperor and the kings of Europe, and the Papacy itself was now subject to the Emperor.
www.sbuniv.edu /~hgallatin/ht34632e15.html   (5315 words)

 Aspiring Spaniard's Guide: Castles in Spain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Alcazar of Segovia, the capital of Segovia Province, central Spain, was built in the late eleventh century by King Alfonso VI of Castilla (1072-1109) on a site to the west of the town above the confluence of the Eresma and Clamores rivers, Alfonso based his castles in part on the Moorish Alcazar of Toledo.
Rebuilt in the 1333s and expanded a century later, this castle was severely damaged by fire in 1862 but was restored later in the century.
Marked by its striking keep with decorative bands and hanging turrets, Fuensaldaña Castle, in Valladolid Province, north central Spain, was built in the mid-fifteenth century by the treasurer of King Juan II of Castilla (1406-1454), whose tower in the Alcazar of Segovia is characterized by similar turrets.
www.geocities.com /thalaric1/history/castles/castles.html   (649 words)

 Record-Keeping in Eleventh-century Worcester   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
During the course of the eleventh century, Worcester's scribes compiled no fewer than three cartularies which preserve records of benefaction and customs due to both the cathedral and priory.
LW is a collection comprised of 176 assorted texts, the majority of which are pre-conquest records that had been compiled in the first quarter of the eleventh century.
Initial composition of this section of the manuscript was dated by Ker to the last decade of eleventh century.
individual.utoronto.ca /emrecordkeeping/WhatisN-M.html   (2095 words)

 Medical Records, Patient Outcome, and Peer Review in Eleventh-Century Arab Medicine
It was not until the 20th century that clinical records were routinely used as a tool to assess the quality of medical care, to educate physicians, and to evaluate the outcome of therapy
Because of the increasing significance of medicolegal issues and their implications, the medical record has become an important means of evaluating the quality and outcome of patient care and of identifying errors and deficiencies in patient management with the subsequent legal responsibilities.
Several manuscripts of this book were copied in the 12th and 13th centuries, edited and published by Al-Baz Al-Arini in Cairo in 1946, and reprinted in Beirut in 1981.
www.kfshrc.edu.sa /annals/173/96-194hm.html   (1026 words)

According to a recent article by Professor Amos Fing of the Cultural Ethical University of the Midwest (in Watertown, South Dakota), the eleventh century AD was "the most boring, uneventful period that the planet Earth has ever experienced subsequent to the time of the dinosaur".
In the eleventh century, attempts at alchemy were prevalent, and always totally unsuccessful.
Although he believed alchemic conversions to be possible, he feared that, if lead were converted to gold, the benevolent (as he perceived it!) structure of eleventh century society would be forever disrupted, and that a classless and (in his view) corrupt society would ensue.
clifty.com /scott/eleventh.html   (1542 words)

 The icons of Macedonia
In the middle of the eleventh century, icons executed in fresco-technique and depicting important arch-priests of the church were painted on the walls of the icon and proskomide in the cathedral church of St.
The icons 'hung' on the walls of the church of St. Panteleimon, Nerezi, are to be found in the north chapel and in the proskomide, while the frescoes painted on pillars, with rich stucco-work frames, form a whole together with the iconostasis.
Such fresco-icons decorated with rich marble or stucco-work frames are to be found in the church of the Mother of God Kyriotisa in Constantinople, late eleventh century, in the church of the Mother of God in Samara in the Peloponnese, late twelfth century, and others.
www.macedonia.co.uk /mcic/cultureandart/art/icons.htm   (770 words)

 How accurate is the statement that the eleventh century saw ‘a great religious revival’ in England, and to ...
Below is a short sample of the essay "How accurate is the statement that the eleventh century saw ‘a great religious revival’ in England, and to what extent were the Norman responsible?".
While it is true that Pope Gregory VII saw William as a model king, it is likely this judgement was chiefly based on the conquest's papal backing and the fact that William was among the least hostile to him among the monarchs of Europe rather than any personal zeal for reform.
That the Norman rule of the later eleventh century did see church reform is, however, undeniable.
www.coursework.info /i/5467.html   (687 words)

 10. Equipment in Arabic Alchemy in the Eleventh Century
Century was transferred from Arabic alchemy and was not in any measure more advanced as Berthelot had imagined.
One is that the contents of the Summa were derived from previously-existing Arabic works on alchemy: the other, that in the 200 years or more that elapsed between the writing of the 'Ainu-s-San'ah in Baghdad and the compilation or editing of the Summa in Spain little or no progress in alchemy occurred.
Stapleton, Henry, E.; Rizkallah F. o, Alchemical Equipment in the eleventh century A.D., Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta), 1, 1905, pp.
www.gabarin.com /ayh/Summa/summa10.htm   (2559 words)

 Eleventh century Madan Kamdev temple in need of conservation:- - India News - Webindia123.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Archaeologists were excited when the thick foliage around the temple was cleared in 1977, revealing ruins of dozens of temples, made of brick and stone, believed to belong to the 11th or the 12th century, besides rare sculptures.
Archaeologists say Madan-Kamdev temple has striking resemblance to the famous 10th-11th century Khajuraho temples in central Madhya Pradesh state.HN Dutta, Director of ASI, Assam, said it is only a matter of time before further excavations at the site could reveal an important ancient town.
But of late, visitors say the centuries old temple is in crying need of conservation.
news.webindia123.com /news/showdetails.asp?id=67971&cat=India   (439 words)

 [History] > 11th Century - Kaph - The Great Schism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The "Conscience of the Church" is its supreme authority and the infallible guidance to proclaim the truth of Salvation, as was the case for centuries for the Western Church, too.
Exactly the same phenomenon is seen in the description of the Sixteenth Century Reformation, where both the event and the reason for it appear on Spoke 16.
The link between the Eleventh Century and the idea of the Yoke caused me to recall the words of Christ from Matthew 11 which are in in stark contrast to the yoke recomended by Rehoboam's younger counsellors:
www.biblewheel.com /History/C11_Schism.asp   (1338 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The oldest section of the existing building is its crypt, begun in the early eleventh century.
Then, later in the century the bases of the west facade towers including three portals (far right of the bulding) were added.
Early in the fourteenth century the lower walls of the transept (the cross-volume, center in the photo) and nave (section to the right of the transept) were built.
www.wfu.edu /~titus/auxcath.htm   (274 words)

Iconoclasm (Eikonoklasmos, "Image-breaking") is the name of the heresy that in the eighth and ninth centuries disturbed the peace of the Eastern Church, caused the last of the many breaches with Rome that prepared the way for the schism of Photius, and was echoed on a smaller scale in the Frankish kingdom in the West.
The Paulicians, as part of their heresy held that all matter (especially the human body) is bad, that all external religious forms, sacraments, rites, especially material pictures and relics, should be abolished.
But as late as the eleventh century Bishop Jocelin of Bordeaux still had Iconoclast ideas for which he was severely reprimanded by Pope Alexander II.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/07620a.htm   (6640 words)

 Levantia - Tableware   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
These pieces of eleventh and twelfth century sgraffito- and splash-ware pottery were reproduced by Alex de Vos from documentation supplied.
Matched sets of spoon and fork are known from as early as the fourth century, and seem to have become more widespread in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, yet even then confined to the higher levels of society.
In the first decade of the eleventh century a noblewomen married to the Doge of Venice, Maria Argyropoulina, outraged Venetian clergy by her habit of using a fork.
www.levantia.com.au /dailylife/tware.html   (247 words)

 Canadian Slavonic Papers: History of Ukraine-Rus'/From Prehistory to the Eleventh Century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
He pointedly states that after the initial steps that were taken in the eighteenthth century (Gottlieb S. Bayer was the first to provide scholarly background), A. Schozer canonized the Normanist theory in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Above all, the anti-Normanist opposition, which emerged only in the second half of the nineteenth century, was backed up in such an unscholarly way, especially in the works of I. Ilovaiskii in the 1870-1880s, that this side was widely discredited.
Although the system seemed to be firm during the father's reign, the independence of the holders would give birth to a temporary collapse of the state in the eleventh century.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3763/is_200303/ai_n9192641   (1093 words)

 DragonBear: Strutt's Dress & Habits of England
The Saxon Tunic as worn in the eighth Century.
The Saxon Mantles as worn in the eighth century.
Armour of the Twelfth Century from Monuments in the Temple Church London.
www.dragonbear.com /strutt.html   (519 words)

 Eleventh century church events   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Brewing for centuries, rupture finally comes to a head with the fissure that has lasted to this day.
• A century and a half of weak popes ends by the middle of the century, and papal authority begins to increase.
By the middle of the century, polyphonic singing replaces Gregorian Chant, the harp arrives in Europe, and the first German Christmas carol is written.
chi.gospelcom.net /centuries/cnt11.shtml   (346 words)

 Simon Keynes: Anglo-Saxon History: A Select Bibliography, Section Q   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The composite vernacular tract on 'The Saints of England' (B595) afford some indication of the cults which were up and running in the early eleventh century, and is complemented by the evidence of calendars and litanies (B430, B431).
The hagiography generated in the tenth century is obviously central to our understanding of the making of kingdoms (whether the kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons, or of the English), the establishment of particular cults at particular churches, and the promotion of monastic reform.
Mildthyth, daughter of Merewalh and Eormenburh, was abbess of Minster-in-Thanet in the early eighth century.
www.wmich.edu /~medinst/research/rawl/keynesbib/biblioq.htm   (8726 words)

 The Eleventh Century -- from the Millennial Year 1000 to the Year 1100
The scholasticism of the previous century goes into a decline.
The fourteenth century sees the Papacy at Avignon in France and the start of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
The century ends with the death of Chaucer in 1400.
www.elon.edu /sullivan/4-centuries.htm   (257 words)

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