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Topic: Elliptical galaxy

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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  elliptical galaxy
Giant ellipticals, such as M87, may contain over 10 trillion solar masses in the form of stars, are among the largest of galaxies, and are often found at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies.
Dwarf ellipticals, on the other hand, such as M32 (a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy) may have masses as low as 10 million solar masses and lie at the bottom end of the galactic size range.
It used to be thought that ellipticals were the oldest galaxies, but more recent studies, including computer simulations, suggest that they have formed from collisions and mergers between spiral galaxies.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/E/ellipgal.html   (533 words)

 Elliptical galaxy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This traditional portrait of elliptical galaxies paints them as galaxies where the star formation was over after the initial burst, now shining only with their aging stars.
Dwarf elliptical galaxies are probably not true ellipticals at all; they have properties that are similar to those of irregulars and late spiral-type galaxies.
Elliptical galaxies tend to lie in the cores of galaxy clusters and in compact groups of galaxies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Elliptical_galaxy   (610 words)

 galaxy. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Harlow Shapley encouraged the exclusive use of the term “galaxies.” Billions of galaxies are within the optical range of the largest telescopes; in 1996 analysis of photographs taken from the Hubble Space Telescope increased the estimated number of galaxies from 10 billion to 50 billion.
A typical spiral galaxy is shaped like a flat disk, about 100,000 light-years in diameter, with a central bulge, or nucleus, containing old stars; winding through the disk are the characteristic spiral arms of dust, gas, and young stars (see stellar populations).
Elliptical galaxies have a much greater variation in size, mass, and luminosity than do spiral galaxies; their sizes range from the largest known galaxies of all, with luminosities about 10 times that of the Andromeda Galaxy, to the small dwarf ellipticals, which can contain as few as a million stars.
www.bartleby.com /65/ga/galaxy.html   (860 words)

 Leicester University Physics Department   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In fact, elliptical galaxies are vast collections of stars which remain relatively close together because of the gravitational attraction between them.
Elliptical galaxies are found in a much wider range of masses than their spiral counterparts; 100,000 to 10,000,000,000,000 solar masses according to one estimate!
The galaxy, and its retinue of companions, is around 60 million light years distant - which means that we see the galaxy as it actually appeared 60 million years ago.
www.star.le.ac.uk /edu/Elliptical.shtml   (1139 words)

 Sea and Sky's Cosmic Wonders: Galaxies
Galaxies are defined as large groupings of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity.
Barred spiral galaxies are represented by the letters SB and are arranges into three subgroups according to the openness of the arms.
Elliptical galaxies are represented by the letter E and are divided into seven subgroups according to their shape.
www.seasky.org /cosmic/sky7a07.html   (1136 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The initial velocity of the elliptical was directed perpendicular to the plane of the disk, and its initial speed was large enough for a slightly hyperbolic trajectory.
Figure 2 shows the gas disk at various times during a collision between equal mass galaxies in which the elliptical impacted the disk close to the disk galaxy's nucleus; this is the "axisymmetric" collision case.
The position of the center of mass for the elliptical galaxy is marked by the yellow sphere in the edge-on images.
www.physics.uiuc.edu /Research/CTA/collide/gas/gasflow2.html   (688 words)

 Elliptical Galaxies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Elliptical galaxies constitute approximately 10% of observed galaxies.
Some other examples of elliptical galaxies include M32, which is an E2 dwarf elliptical near the Andromeda Galaxy, and the E6 elliptical galaxy M110, another satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy.
Elliptical galaxies exhibit far less evidence for young stars, gas, or dust than do spiral galaxies, and have larger random motion of stars than in spiral galaxies where the motion is a more ordered rotation.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr162/lect/galaxies/elliptical.html   (257 words)

 Elliptical Galaxy Research at Ohio U.
Elliptical Galaxy Research at Ohio U. The 3D shapes of elliptical galaxies are still not known; knowing them would tell us much about the processes operating during the epoch of galaxy formation.
In addition to containing clues to the shape of the galaxy, the data can also be used to derive absorption line indices as a function of distance from the the galactic center, revealing much about the stellar populations and dynamical history.
Out of some 2100 objects (most of which are galaxies), we find only 63 clear ellipticals, some of which are shown in the illustration at right.
www.phy.ohiou.edu /research/astro/ellipticals.html   (732 words)

 Messier Object 32
M32 is the small yet bright companion of the Great Andromeda Galaxy, M31, and as such a member of the Local Group of galaxies.
Near the center of this galaxy, the sky would be dominated by this object, and full with the members of this galaxy, while at the edges, only one hemisphere would be filled with them, the other showing only few outlying stars and the intergalactic space.
There are remarkable differences between these dwarf galaxies: While M32 is a typical generic elliptical, compact and of high surface brightness, M110 is much more loose, of lower surface brightness, and exposes peculiar structures; now, M110 is often classified as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy instead of elliptical.
www.seds.org /messier/m/m032.html   (1002 words)

 Multiwavelength Messier 87 - Giant Elliptical Galaxy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Messier 87 is a giant elliptical galaxy at the center of the rich Virgo Cluster of galaxies.
This radio galaxy is best known for a jet of gas emanating from the galaxy core and moving at superluminal velocities.
Elliptical galaxies do not generally contain significant amounts of interstellar dust, and therefore are not strong sources of thermal infrared radiation.
coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu /cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/m87.html   (867 words)

 Elliptical Galaxies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Elliptical galaxies do not have arms and are found to be either nearly circular in shape (E0), or extrememly stretched and flattened out similar to that of a cigar (E7).
Hubble divided the elliptical galaxy classification into eight sub-classifications, E0 through E7: E0 - nearly circular, E1 - a little stretched, E2 - elongated, E3 - more elongated and flattened, E4 - even more elongated and flattened, until we reach E7 which is extrememly elongated and flattened.
This is another member of the Virgo galaxy cluster and as you can see, it is a little more stretched and flattened from the previous picture of the E1 galaxy.
1scom.net /~kjblackford/elliptical.html   (264 words)

 Elliptical Galaxies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Elliptical galaxies are also named because of their shapes.
Elliptical galaxies range from circular (remember, a circle is an ellipse!) to long, narrow, and cigar-shaped.
Elliptical galaxies are denoted by the letter E. They are also given a number from 0 to 7.
cas.sdss.org /dr4/en/proj/basic/galaxies/ellipticals.asp   (149 words)

 Astr212, Spring 2005: NGC4436, Anthony Bouvette
Dwarf ellipticals are of special interest because they pose a striking similarity to the galaxy fragments from which larger galaxies are thought to have formed.
By definition, an elliptical galaxy has no disk, but is instead an enormous mass of stars, each with its own particular path, locked in orbit around the central mass of the galaxy.
Ellipticity is a measure of how elongated an elliptical galaxy is. The standard scale used by astronomers ranges from E0 to E7, with the higher numbers representing a larger elongation.
www.calvin.edu /academic/phys/observatory/images/Astr212.Spring2005/Bouvette.html   (898 words)

 APOD: 2004 June 16 - Elliptical Galaxy M87   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Explanation: Elliptical galaxy M87 is a type of galaxy that looks much different than our own Milky Way Galaxy.
M87 is much bigger than an average galaxy, appears near the center of a whole cluster of galaxies known as the Virgo Cluster, and shows an unusually high number of globular clusters.
spiral galaxies, but are ellipsoidal in shape (spirals are mostly flat), have no spiral structure, and little gas and dust.
antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov /apod/ap040616.html   (164 words)

 The Formation of a Giant Elliptical Galaxy
Three of the galaxies fall down a line which can be identified with the primordial filament apparent in the early formation of the dark matter cluster.
The epoch around z=0.4 is marked by a period of intense activity in which many of the galaxies are merging and experiencing strong tidal perturbations resulting in tidal tails from close passes with the cluster center (Fig 4) and is an illustration of the galaxy harassment process (Moore et al.
The giant elliptical is undergoing a major merger while various disk galaxies are throwing off tidal tails resulting from strong tidal interactions with the cluster centre.
www.cita.utoronto.ca /~dubinski/bcg/node5.html   (414 words)

 StarChild: Galaxies
A galaxy is a cluster of stars, dust, and gas which is held together by gravity.
A galaxy may be alone or it may be in a large group of galaxies called a "supercluster".
Elliptical galaxies vary in their shape from round to flattened, elongated spheres.
starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/StarChild/universe_level2/galaxies.html   (335 words)

 Dwarf elliptical galaxy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dwarf elliptical galaxies are very small elliptical galaxies, classified as dE.
A subtype of dwarf ellipticals is called dwarf spheroidal galaxy.
Therefore, many astronomers have taken to using dwarf spheroidal galaxy to refer to this type.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Dwarf_elliptical_galaxy   (206 words)

 Curious About Astronomy? Galaxies
Galaxies with prominent bulges and pronounced spiral arms are classified as "Sb" (M31, M81) or "SBb" (M95, NGC 4725).
Though the origin of lenticular galaxies is still debated the most plausible explanation to date is that the gas and stars that would reside in the galaxy disk have been stripped by interactions with the hot gas in clusters and groups of galaxies.
This irregular class of galaxies is a miscellaneous class, comprising small galaxies with no identifiable form like the Magellanic clouds (the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud are two satellite galaxies of the Milky Way) and "peculiar" galaxies that appear to be in disarray like NGC 1313.
curious.astro.cornell.edu /galaxies.php   (1763 words)

 Chandra :: Photo Album :: 3C295 :: 3C295 in Context
Because the galaxies were discovered before the hot gas cloud, these objects are called galaxy clusters, or clusters of galaxies.
Galaxy clusters are formed through the merger of smaller groups and clusters over billions of years.
Galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the universe.
chandra.harvard.edu /photo/0166/0166_context.html   (417 words)

 APOD: November 6, 1996 - Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4881 in Coma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The giant elliptical galaxy named NGC 4881 on the upper left lies at the edge of the giant Coma Cluster of Galaxies.
Elliptical galaxies are ellipsoidal in shape, contain no spiral arms, contain little interstellar gas or dust, and are found mostly in rich clusters of galaxies.
Elliptical galaxies appear typically yellow-red, as opposed to spirals which have spiral arms that appear quite blue.
www.star.ucl.ac.uk /~idh/apod/ap961106.html   (165 words)

 Elliptical Galaxy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The ellipticals are subclassified by their degree of ellipticity as they appear to the observer.
Ellipticals range in size from the relatively rare Giant Ellipticals, which can be as big as a Megaparsec across with a trillion stars, to the very common dwarf ellipticals which can be as small as a kiloparsec across with a million stars.
Figure: The giant elliptical galaxy M87 at the heart of the Virgo cluster of galaxies.
www.astro.virginia.edu /~jh8h/glossary/elliptical.htm   (118 words)

 Durrell - Intracluster Stars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The name `dwarf elliptical' is actually a bit of a misnomer, as this class of LSB object is not really a fainter version of a true elliptical galaxy, but structurally different.
These small galaxies are of interest to astronomers as it is possible that they (or really, their progenitors) are the `fragments' from which the larger galaxies formed (in the `bottom-up'scenario of galaxy formation).
Although these are the smallest galaxies known, they often have very different star formation histories -- a surprising result as these objects were not expected to be able to hold onto any of the gas needed for stars to form.
cc.ysu.edu /~prdurrel/Research/DwarfGalaxies/DwarfGalaxies.html   (346 words)

 dwarf elliptical galaxy
A dim, low-surface-brightness, gas-poor dwarf galaxy, large numbers of which are found in clusters of galaxies, especially in the vicinity of large galaxies.
Despite their name, dwarf ellipticals are not really fainter versions of true elliptical galaxies, but are structurally distinct.
Dwarf ellipticals are of special interest because it is possible that they are very similar to the fragments from which larger galaxies formed.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/D/dwarf_elliptical.html   (267 words)

 eSky: Galaxies
The largest Local galaxy is M31, the Andromeda Galaxy, which is about 200,000 light years across, a diameter twice that of our own Milky Way Galaxy.
A typical spiral galaxy, adrift in a still and starless void.
A galaxy like this, fairly similar to our own Milky Way Galaxy, can easily be several hundred thousand light years across, and carry thousands of millions of stars.
www.glyphweb.com /esky/concepts/galaxies.html   (155 words)

 E2 Elliptical Galaxy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
M 60 (NGC 4649), the larger galaxy on the right, is classified as an "E2" elliptical galaxy.
M60 is one of the giant elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster of galaxies.
It is the last in a row of 3 (M58, 59, and 60) which comes into the field of view of a telescope pointed to this region of the sky.
www.smv.org /hastings/elip2.htm   (76 words)

 APOD Index - Galaxies: Elliptical Galaxies
Most blue light from spiral galaxies originates from massive young hot stars, in contrast to the red light from the old cool stars thought to compose ellipticals.
M87 is much bigger than an average galaxy, appears at the center of a whole cluster of galaxies known as the Virgo Cluster, and shows a very high number of globular clusters.
In general, elliptical galaxies contain similar numbers of stars as spiral galaxies, but are ellipsoidal in shape (spirals are mostly flat), have no spiral structure, and little gas and dust.
antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov /apod/elliptical_galaxies.html   (375 words)

 Universe Today - It's a Galaxy Eat Galaxy Universe
The destruction of dwarf galaxies is difficult to observe because dwarf galaxies are inherently faint and their light becomes increasingly diffuse as stars get pulled away by a larger galaxy.
The thin band of stars extending from the dwarf galaxy both toward and away from the large elliptical galaxy reveals that the gravity of the elliptical is tidally tearing the dwarf apart.
Stars that are closest to the elliptical galaxy experience a stronger pull than stars in the center of the dwarf galaxy, and stars on the opposite side experience a weaker pull.
www.universetoday.com /am/publish/galaxy_eat_galaxy.html?19112004   (690 words)

Galaxies are large systems of stars and interstellar matter, typically containing several million to some trillion stars, of masses between several million and several trillion times that of our Sun, of an extension of a few thousands to several 100,000s light years, typically separated by millions of light years distance.
The most massive galaxies are giants which are a million times more massive than the lightest: Their mass range is from at most some million times that of our Sun in case of the smallest dwarfs, to several trillion solar masses in case of giants like M87 or M77.
Our Milky Way Galaxy, a spiral galaxy, is among the massive and big galaxies with at least 250 billion solar masses (there are hints that the total mass may even be as large as 750 billion to 1 trillion times that of the Sun) and a disk diameter of 100,000 light years.
www.maa.agleia.de /Messier/galaxy.html   (1771 words)

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