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Topic: Empiricism


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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  
  Glossary of Terms: Em
Empiricism originated in England in the seventeenth century with Bacon, Hobbes and Locke, when it was a materialist trend, is as much as it directed attention to the observation of Nature as opposed to Holy scripture or introspection.
Empiricism is characterised, on the one hand, by an uncritical attitude towards the categories through which Experience is grasped, and on the other by rejection of the significance of Reason in acquiring knowledge.
The chief defect of Empiricism is that it views experience passively, whereas in order to retain a consistent materialist understanding of experience it is necessary to recognise that it is the practical activity of people changing the world which is the condition and source of knowledge.
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/e/m.htm   (326 words)

  
  Needleman, Inner Empiricism
This empiricism of the senses has been directed toward the outer world--or what is in effect perceived as the "outer world"--organized by categories of logic and the conceptual powers of discursive intellect.
When the "see­er" recognizes that he or she is being changed by the very process of seeing inward, the possibilities of inner empiricism shift to another level and a whole new area of investigation opens up.
At this stage, the science of inner empiricism leads the investigator to the threshold of what may be a spiritual journey.
cogweb.ucla.edu /Abstracts/Needleman_93.html   (3340 words)

  
  Empiricism - MSN Encarta
Empiricism, in philosophy, a doctrine that affirms that all ideas and knowledge are a posteriori, that is, derived from and based on experience, and denies that they can ever be a priori, that is, discoverable without having to rely on the senses.
Directly opposed to empiricism was rationalism, represented by such thinkers as the French philosopher René Descartes; the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza; and the 17th- and 18th-century German philosophers Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Christian Wolff.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant attempted a synthesis of empiricism and rationalism, restricting knowledge to the domain of experience, a posteriori, and thus agreeing with the empiricists, but attributing to the mind a structure of categories into which all sensations had to be incorporated in order for human beings to make sense of them.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761554946/Empiricism.html   (494 words)

  
 Clausen, C. D. --- Rationalism, Empiricism and Christianism
That empiricism is probably the superior of the two philosophical systems in at least a pragmatic or utilitarian sense is indicated by the significant advances in communication, transportation, synthetic intelligence, medical science and agriculture that it has nurtured.
The weaknesses of empiricism are in three directions: 1) its apparent failure to solve moral and ethical questions, 2) the probabilistic nature of knowledge obtained by the empirical approach and 3) from relying on rationalism in dealing with past and future events and in all interpretation.
The failure then is seen not as the failure of empiricism or of its practice but rather the failure of the governments, the statesmen, and the non-scientific community in general to accept the guiding principles of the scientific community as moral directives in everyday life (13).
www.grisda.org /origins/01014.htm   (2379 words)

  
 Empiricism
Empiricism, in the broad sense, is the philosophical outlook that stresses the power of a posteriori reasoning — reasoning from observation or experience — to grasp substantial truths about the world.
Empiricism is usually opposed to rationalism — the view that reason rather than sensation or observation is the source of knowledge.
British Empiricism was a movement in epistemology in the modern period of philosophy.
instruct.westvalley.edu /lafave/empiricism.html   (441 words)

  
 Empiricism - dKosopedia
Empiricism is the the use of empirical data, that is, data collected and compiled from the real world experiences.
Modern science is empirical and in fact the whole purpose of experiments is to create experiences which are reproducible so that they can be relied upon, that is, to make the empirical data consistent and universal.
It's crucial to understand the idea of theory and the reason that theory is always changing is that the empirical data keeps coming in, and there is a continual process of evaluation as the data is collated, categoried, modelled, explained and reexplained.
www.dkosopedia.com /wiki/Empiricism   (139 words)

  
 [No title]
Empiricism is distinguished from the philosophical tradition of rationalism, which holds that human reason apart from experience is a basis for some kinds of knowledge.
Quine’s empiricism is therefore a consequence, and not a presupposition, of naturalized epistemology.
Empiricism is the theory that all knowledge stems from sense experience and internal mental experience- such as emotions and self-reflection.
www.lycos.com /info/empiricism--experiences.html   (541 words)

  
 empiricism
To the Scottish school belongs the merit of being the first, avowedly and knowingly, to follow the inductive method, and to employ it systematically in psychological investigation.
Three principal philosophers are associated with British Empiricism: John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume.
Until the rise of English idealism around 1850, all British philosophy after Locke bears the marks of his empiricism.
www.london-oratory.org /philosophy/philosophies/epistemology/empiricism/body_empiricism.html   (410 words)

  
 Rationalism vs. Empiricism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The dispute between rationalism and empiricism concerns the extent to which we are dependent upon sense experience in our effort to gain knowledge.
I have stated the basic claims of rationalism and empiricism so that each is relative to a particular subject area.
Their claim is even bolder: In at least some of these cases, our empirically triggered, but not empirically warranted, belief is nonetheless warranted and so known.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/rationalism-empiricism   (8930 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Empiricism
Empiricism appears in the history of philosophy in three principal forms: (1) Materialism, (2) Sensism, and (3) Positivism.
Materialism in its crudest shape was taught by the ancient atomists (Democritus, Leucippus, Epicurus, Lucretius), who, reducing the sum of all reality to
conscious states linked by empirical associations and enlarged by inductive processes.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/05407a.htm   (1789 words)

  
 empiricism
Empiricism is a theory which holds that the origin of all knowledge is sense experience.
Often, empiricism is contrasted with rationalism, a theory which holds that the mind may apprehend some truths directly, without requiring the medium of the senses.
Empiricists tend to emphasize the tentative and probabilistic nature of knowledge, while rationalists tend to be dogmatic and assert they have found a method to discover absolutely certain knowledge.
skepdic.com /empiricism.html   (230 words)

  
 Ephilosopher :: Metaphysics and Epistemology :: Empiricism and Physicalism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
I think Popper's opinion is this: empiricism always leads to either idealism or physicalism, which are both silly according to him, therefore, Popper introduces his "objective" theory of knowledge compared to the "subjective" theory of knowledge of empiricism.
Empiricism is the basis for Popper's theory of objective knowledge.
He says that empiricism is a "subjective" theory of knowledge, whereas his own his "Objective" with the existence of the third world (World 3).
www.ephilosopher.com /phpBB_14-action-viewtopic-topic-3128.html   (3772 words)

  
 [No title]
The basic thesis of empiricism is that legitimate human knowledge arises from what is provided to the mind by the senses or by introspective awareness through experience.
As regards empiricism, Peirce notes four methods for "fixing belief," belief being the goal of inquiry, and espouses the scientific or experimental method as the only truly successful method of fixing belief; it leads everyone who employs it ultimately to the same conclusion.
Dewey thought of himself as part of a general movement that was developing a new empiricism based on a new concept of experience, one that combined the strong naturalistic bias of the Greek philosophers with a sensitive appreciation for experimental method as practiced by the sciences.
personal.ecu.edu /mccartyr/american/leap/empirici.htm   (2615 words)

  
 Empiricism Custom Essay samples, Philosophy - Free samples: college essays, admission, argumentive essays - Essay Empire
Empiricism is the philosophical doctrine that all human knowledge comes at first from senses and experience.
Empiricism is contrasted with continental rationalism, epitomized by Rene Descartes.
Empirical is an adjective often used in conjunction with science, both the natural and social sciences, which means the use of working hypotheses which are capable of being disproved using observation or experiment (i.e.: ultimately through experience).
www.essayempire.com /samples/philosophy/empiricism   (481 words)

  
 [No title]
Rationalism is generally opposed to empiricism in that it starts with assumptions and then uses deductive reasoning to see what follows from them.
In spite of Loeb's suggestions, the traditional division between rationalism and empiricism offered by Reid has at least some foundation, and is convenient for understanding the evolut ion of philosophical theories during the modern period of philosophy.
Rationalism is concerned with the impressions made on the intellect, Empiricism with those on the senses.
www.lycos.com /info/empiricism--continental-rationalism.html   (311 words)

  
  Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Empiricism
As a historical matter, philosophical empiricism is commonly contrasted with the philosophical school of thought known as "rationalism" which, in very broad terms, asserts that much knowledge is attributable to reason independently of the senses.
It is differentiated from the philosophic usage of empiricism by the use of the adjective "empirical" or the adverb "empirically".
Empirical is used in conjunction with both the natural and social sciences, and refers to the use of working hypotheses that are testable using observation or experiment.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Empiricism   (4234 words)

  
  Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Empiricism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Empiricism (greek εμπειρισμός, from empirical, latin experientia - the experience), is the philosophical doctrine that all human knowledge ultimately comes from the senses and from experience.
Empiricism is contrasted with continental rationalism, epitomized by René Descartes.
Empirical is an adjective often used in conjunction with science, both the natural and social sciences, which means the use of working hypotheses which are capable of being disproved using observation or experiment (ie: ultimately through experience).
www.hallencyclopedia.com /Empiricism   (1099 words)

  
 Empiricism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Originally, "empirical" was used by the skeptic Sextus Empiricus to refer to those ancient Greek practitioners of medicine who rejected adherence to the dogmatic doctrines of the day, preferring instead to rely on the observation of phenomena as perceived in experience.
It is differentiated from the philosophic usage of empiricism by the use of the adjective "empirical" or the adverb "empirically".
Empirical is used in conjunction with both the natural and social sciences, and refers to the use of working hypotheses that are testable using observation or experiment.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Empiricism   (4919 words)

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