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Topic: Encomiendas

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  Encomienda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The encomienda system was a trusteeship system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, whereby conquistadors were granted trusteeship over the indigenous people they conquered, in an expansion of familiar feudal institutions that had been established in New Castile during the Reconquista.
The encomienda system was essential to the Spanish government sustaining their control over North, Central and South America, because it was the first major organizational law instituted on a continent where disease, war and turmoil reigned.
The etymology of encomienda and encomendero lies in the Spanish verb encomendar, "to entrust".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Encomiendas   (796 words)

 [No title]
Encomienda tribute and labor continued to be the main source of income for the colonists until the middle of the sixteenth century.
The labor of encomienda Indians was supplemented by that of Indian slaves captured in wars or obtained from Indian slave owners.
Thereafter, or earlier in the absence of an heir, the encomienda reverted to the crown.
www.bradley.edu /academics/las/his/His105/Reading.2   (8866 words)

 CostaSpanishHeritage   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The encomiendas consisted of a grant by the crown of a specified number of Indians living in a particular area.
Encomiendas coincided with haciendas, which were huge plots of land set up by Spaniards in which they lived, housed their Indian workers, and usually farmed their lands.
The original intent of encomiendas was to reduce the abuses of forced labor, but in practice it became a form of enslavement.
www.lclark.edu /~woodrich/costaspanishheritage.html   (1108 words)

 Sociology 350
The encomienda was a system by which indigenous labor was allocated by the colonial authorities to the Spanish settlers.
During the 16th century the encomienda was the basic social organization of labor in Latin America (excepting the family).
Grants of encomienda natives to landlords was opposed by the Catholic church, by those who owned or controlled the mining process and also by the Spanish colonial administrators.
www.unm.edu /~nvaldes/350/encom.htm   (1045 words)

 Mexico - Encomiendas
Granting encomiendas became an institution throughout New Spain to ensure subordination of the conquered populations and the use of their labor by the Spanish colonizers, as well as a means to reward Spanish subjects for services rendered to the crown.
The encomienda was a Spanish institution of Roman origin, and in the New World, the Spanish government established a series of rights and obligations between the encomendero (grantee) and the people under his care.
However, in the most remote areas, encomiendas were often kept throughout the colonial period in complete defiance of the royal decree in order to populate these regions.
www.baja.org /muchobueno/mexico/mexico_encomiendas.htm   (492 words)

 Spanish ‘encomiendas' in Panay
With the Spanish occupation of the Philippines and the passage of the laws of the Indies, Panay was divided into different “encomiendas” in the later part of the 16 th century.
The “encomiendas” were geographical-administrative units put under the charge of certain Spaniards who had rendered service and had proven their loyalty to the Spanish government in the Philippines.
The “encomiendas” were provided with facilities necessary for the maintenance of general health and welfare of the inhabitants.
www.thenewstoday.info /2005/03/11/columns1.htm   (376 words)

 [No title]
He is to establish at least one settlement there; and encomiendas are to be allotted, the most important being reserved for the crown, and one-third of the remainder for the conqueror.
From those encomiendas may be taken such part of the tribute as can conveniently be collected, for their preservation and by way of recognition; and whatever small portion his Majesty may order, and what the lord bishop cites, may be collected.
Thus in all the encomiendas which have this justice and preparation, as soon as it is known what benefits are conferred upon the natives by those ministers of justice, in influencing and governing them, as above stated, authority will be given to the encomenderos to collect the three-fourths of the tribute, as I have said.
www.gutenberg.org /files/13742/13742.txt   (13802 words)

 Ibajay Homepage
The encomienda system is deeply entrenched in the history and culture of South and Central America, and is one of the most damaging institutions that the Spanish colonists implemented in the New World.
This form of feudalism, the encomienda system, was created in May 1493, by the Crown in Castile who reserved the right to grant and remove the encomiendas as seen fit.
The encomienda system did not entail any land tenure by the encomendero; in fact, the land of the Indians was to remain in their possession, a right that was formally protected by the Crown (Chamberlain 3).
www.geocities.com /si-agnon/encomienda.html   (2654 words)

 The Encomienda
However, encomiendas were only taken away from Spanish in extreme cases (Chamberlain 3).
The encomienda itself was a grant of Indians within a geographic region, which were given to an encomendero, the Spaniard who received the grant of Indians.
   The encomienda system did not entail any land tenure by the encomendero; in fact, the land of the Indians was to remain in their possession, a right that was formally protected by the Crown (Chamberlain 3).
www.millersville.edu /~columbus/papers/scott-m.html   (2911 words)

 Salinas Pueblo Missions NM: Architectural History (Chapter 2)
The rights to the tribute collected from the "conquered" pueblos were assigned by the governor, as the agent of the king, to those persons who had entered into an agreement with the provincial government to provide military service in return for those rights.
Encomienda was derived from earlier service arrangements common in Spain during the Reconquest.
In the early days of the encomienda in Mexico, labor could be substituted for tribute by the encomendero, but eventually the abuses of the system became so great that king Carlos I ruled against tribute by labor.
www.nps.gov /archive/sapu/hsr/hsr2d.htm   (1221 words)

 The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898: explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their ...
Appointments and encomiendas must be given to old citizens, or to soldiers who have done actual service; and a list of persons who are to be rewarded for their services is furnished to the new governor.
The entire population of this province is in encomiendas, separated two or three leagues, or even a less distance, from one another; and all these encomiendas are contained within thirty leagues.
Their encomiendas are located among the neighboring islands, there being thirty-two encomiendas with eighteen thousand tributarios.
www.ibiblio.org /pub/docs/books/gutenberg/1/3/7/0/13701/13701-h/13701-h.htm   (18575 words)

 The Encomienda   (Site not responding. Last check: )
However, encomiendas were only taken away from Spanish in extreme cases (Chamberlain 3).
The encomienda itself was a grant of Indians within a geographic region, which were given to an encomendero, the Spaniard who received the grant of Indians.
   The encomienda system did not entail any land tenure by the encomendero; in fact, the land of the Indians was to remain in their possession, a right that was formally protected by the Crown (Chamberlain 3).
muweb.millersville.edu /~columbus/papers/scott-m.html   (2911 words)

 Colombia - The Colonial Economy
Assuming that the land and its inhabitants were entirely at its disposal, the monarchy envisioned the encomiendas as a means of administering humane and constructive policies of the government of Spain and protecting the welfare of the Indians.
Designed to remove the abuses connected with encomiendas and to improve the general treatment of Indians, the laws called for strict enforcement of the existing regulations and freedom for the enslaved Indians, who were placed in the category of free subjects of the crown.
They further provided that encomiendas would be forfeited if the Indians concerned were mistreated; that the tribute paid by Indians being instructed in religion should be fixed and in no case required in the form of personal service; and that public officials, congregations, hospitals, and monasteries could not hold encomiendas.
countrystudies.us /colombia/8.htm   (1339 words)

 Colonial Latin America: Review Sheet 5
Encomiendas and Spanish cities/towns, the two basic social forms of the early colonial years in every part of the Indies, were established very early on, often as the conquest was still in progress; the basic political/social units of indigenous society meanwhile continued to function and evolve.
The encomienda was correspondingly a much more complex organization in the core areas than in the Caribbean, or on the fringes.
By the 1550s the corregimiento system was extended to cover encomienda areas as well, with several encomiendas (former altepetl) coming under a single corregimiento, with either a Spanish town or a small Spanish community in the largest Indian town at its core.
www-personal.umich.edu /~dfrye/colrev5.html   (876 words)

 Confronting the tribal zone: Toward a critical ethnohistory of colonial state formation in San Juan through the system ...
My contention is that the implementation of the system of encomiendas, a colonial set of servile relationships between the Spanish conquistador and the native islanders became a fundamental moment in the development of the colonial state in San Juan.
The encomienda was both a form of labor exploitation linked to an intensive gold mining enterprise as well as a disciplinary apparatus designed to inculcate and thus re-educate the indigenous populations of the island according to catholic dogma and a European value system.
The encomienda became a transitory hybrid structure that incorporated aspects of indigenous forms of social stratification in order to function.
scholarworks.umass.edu /dissertations/AAI3152686   (350 words)

 Table of Contents and Excerpt, Nierman and Vallejo, The Hacienda in Mexico
The encomiendas were of diverse magnitude: some comprised great expanses with thousands of tributaries, and others were only small villages lost in the mountains.
Through the encomiendas was channeled a labor force necessary for the development of mining and agriculture.
The Spanish state, eager for resources, sought the most efficacious means of protecting the routes to the mining operations and did so in part by facilitating the establishment of small settlements devoted to agriculture and stock raising along the length of these routes.
www.utexas.edu /utpress/excerpts/exniehac.html   (2997 words)

 1540-41. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
First viceroy of Peru, Blasco Núñez de Vela, proclaimed the New Laws, with provision for eventual abolition of the encomiendas.
The conquerors rebelled and, led by Gonzalo Pizarro, deposed the viceroy and made Pizarro governor.
La Gasca redistributed encomiendas, but some conquerors remained discontented.
www.bartleby.com /67/899.html   (390 words)

 Chapter 5 Page 85   (Site not responding. Last check: )
And, soon afterwards, each one of the first settlers received as a grant “Indians from the encomienda.” The system, such as it was practiced in the Nuevo Reino de León, was peculiar and was in frank and open opposition against all that was decided by the “New laws” of 1542.
As the years passed and the number of Spanish colonists was growing, those big hunts for new slaves had to go search farther and farther for their seizures and the exasperation, the hate, the just protest and the desire for vengeance were growing, among those nomads thus persecuted and pursued.
This manner “sui generis” of “encomienda” was in reality only a new form of slavery which was being added to the hunting parties of slaves which were sold outside of the kingdom for work in the mines and for the large architectural works and manufacturing; hunts which continued near the encomiendas.
www.library.ci.corpus-christi.tx.us /newkingdom/reinochapter5p85.htm   (845 words)

 Puerto Vallarta - Mexico Magico - PVMirror
Charles I, just the same, rule that encomiendas could be passed on to a son and, after 1555, to a grandson.
The plot to topple Spanish rule, at least as the crown saw it, rang down the curtain on the barbarous encomienda, though it survived, in somewhat modified form, into the eighteen century.
By the time of their demise, in the eighteen century, of the 934 original encomiendas, a mere handful existed outside of Yucatán.
www.pvmirror.com /mexicomagico/triumphsandtragedy-chapter1-37.html   (816 words)

 16th Century Missions
They could also see firsthand the terrible results of colonization attempts, and often spoke out on behalf of the native people who were in their care.
In encomiendas, the Indians were “entrusted” to a settler who, in exchange for work, was supposed to teach Christian doctrine and provide guidance to the Indians.
Las Casas gave up his encomienda and openly proclaimed that the exploitation of Indians by the Spanish was not consistent with the Christian faith.
www.shol.com /featheredprop/theo10.htm   (2225 words)

 Incas and Conquistadors
The natives were required to deliver huge quotas of local produce and precious metals to the Spaniard's house, which were often located many miles away from the native's village.
To appease the moral concerns that this system provoked the Spaniards were required to provide a missionary priest to convert the natives in their encomienda.
Of most concern to the Spanish settlers, however, was the ruling that there were to be no further grants of encomiendas and that existing encomiendas were to revert to the Crown on the death of the current holder.
dspace.dial.pipex.com /town/road/hc09/incas/conquest-1542.html   (385 words)

 Indian Reductions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The regimen of life in the reduction was communal, and the resources of the reduction (including land) untransferably belonged to the reduction.
The majority of the reductions were incorported by the Spanish Crown, although some were given to particular people along the lines of the encomiendas.
A collection of reductions incorporated by the crown received the name corregimiento, which was commanded by a corregidor.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reductions   (516 words)

 The Official Website of Carigara, Leyte - The Birth of the Town..
The encomiendas were the first political divisions in the country; they were the lands and natives entrusted or commended to the care and zeal of deserving conquistadores.
For almost 200 years, the pastoral village of Gara became an encomienda with a Spanish overlord, and after 30 years, the encomienda became the central residence of the Society of Jesus in Leyte with jurisdiction over Barugo, Alangalang, Jaro, Leyte, Ormoc, Camotes Island, Baybay, Canamucan, Cabalian, Limasawa, Panaoan, and Hinunangan.
The exact date of the abolition of the encomienda system is not certain but even as it is withered away, the collection of tributes and cedulas went for the duration of the Spanish regime.
www.carigara-leyte.gov.ph /index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10&Itemid=7   (1501 words)

 History: Spanish Influence in the New World
encomiendas and repartimientos were also large estates, but on these lived many people and slaves.
The Spanish crown entrusted encomiendas and slaves to noble warriors who had done well in battle, and in return, these nobles paid taxes to the crown.
Slavery, as mentioned above, was the key to mass output from the encomiendas and missions.
www.studyworld.com /basementpapers/repce/History/146.htm   (541 words)

 Historical Notes
Grants of encomiendas, in the sense of a system of recruiting Indian laborers both seasonally and as a permanent work force on Spanish farms and haciendas, were made here in early years.
This might be on a perennial (encomienda) or temporary (repartimiento) basis.
By the early seventeenth century most of the haciendas had a core of resident workers, and much of the planting and harvesting was done by salaried Tarahumar migrants.
home.earthlink.net /~dprose/history/san-bartolome.htm   (1646 words)

The Indians of the islands were distributed among Spaniards as laborers to form encomiendas.
In place of slavery, the government awarded encomiendas (land grants) to conquerors who used their Indians as a source of labor and taxes.
The harshness of encomiendas contributed to Indian population decline.
wps.ablongman.com /long_stearns_wcap_4/0,8810,1190463-,00.html   (3224 words)

 Rizal - Wikipedia
Tagalog settlements which carried on trade with the Chinese and Arab traders long before the Spanish conquest.
From the reports of the Encomiendas in 1582-1583, the Encomiendas of Moron (Morong) was under the jurisdiction of La Laguna and, the Encomiendas of Passi (Pasig), Taitay (Taytay) and Tagui (Taguig) belonged to the Province of Tondo.
It was recorded that in 1591, the Encomiendas of Moron and Taitay were under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan Order in the Province of La Laguna; and the Encomiendas of Nabotas (Navotas), Tambobo (Malabon), Tondo, Parañaque, Longalo (Dongalo), Tagui and Pasig were under the jurisdiction of the Augustinians in the Province of Tondo.
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /ri/Rizal.html   (757 words)

 Bogo - Gov't & Politics - Political History
The historical stretch from the founding of Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565 to the start of the 19th century was a period of mass movement of people in the islands that even affected also the movement of peninsulares and non-peninsulares.
The two types of lands in the Philippines, upon the establishment of the colonial administration were the royal encomiendas and the private encomiendas.
Those retained by the crown were called royal encomiendas and those granted to private persons either royal favorites or distinguished men of war were called private encomiendas.
www.geocities.com /bogocebu/polhist1.html   (3107 words)

 History: Spanish Influence in the New World
The Spanish crown entrusted encomiendas and slaves to noble warriors who had done well in battle, and in return, these nobles paid taxes to the crown.
The rest of the people living on the encomiendas were slaves.
Slavery, as mentioned above, was the key to mass output from the encomiendas and missions.
www.cyberessays.com /History/146.htm   (568 words)

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