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Topic: Endemic (epidemiology)


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In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

  
  Encyclopedia: Endemic (epidemiology)
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems (Last 2001).
In epidemiology a susceptible individual (sometimes known simply as a susceptible) is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease, if they are exposed to the infectious agent.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Endemic-(epidemiology)   (1016 words)

  
 Endemic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope.
In ecology, an organism being " endemic " means exclusively native to a place or biota.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be " endemic " in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Endemic   (166 words)

  
 Endemic goitre   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Endemic goitre is a type of goitre that is associated with dietary iodine deficiency.
Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute A research organization dedicated to surveying and researching the distribution, populations, habitat, threats to and methods for rehabilitation of Taiwan's endemic, rare and endangered species, and to providing ecological education.
Epidemiology An occurrence of a disease or disorder in a population at the frequency expected in a given time period.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Endemic_goitre.html   (442 words)

  
 Endemic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Endemic in biology and ecology means exclusively native to a place or biota.
Islands are especially likely to develop endemic forms because of their geographical isolation; remote island groups, such as Hawai'i and the Galapagos, have large numbers of endemic species.
Pouget, Delphine Impact of Rusa deer on the endemic vegetation of a rainforest habitat in New Caledonia.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Endemic.html   (556 words)

  
 Endemic - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
For instance, AIDS is said to be endemic in Africa.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be " endemic" in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.
New occurrences of the endemic labrisomid fish Paraclinus walkeri Hubbs, 1952 in Bahia de San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /endemic.htm   (237 words)

  
 Epidemiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Epidemiology is a powerful means by which science answers important questions, concerning causes of disease, from population information (such as location and rate of increase in disease incidence).
Contrast sporadic with endemic disease (don't use the words sporadic or endemic, or their derivatives, to define these terms except in indicating which term you are talking about).
An endemic disease is one which is always present in a population and therefore which has a prevelance which never drops to zero.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol2045.htm   (1071 words)

  
 Epidemiology Focus Group Report   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
In the past, as control and eradication were attempted largely through attacks on the vectors, epidemiology was concerned solely with transmission; illness and death due to malaria were largely ignored as research topics.
Epidemiology lies at the intersection between the laboratory sciences and control, in that tools developed by them have to be assessed in the field.
As far as epidemiology is concerned, two main lines of research seem to constitute priorities: first, a better understanding of the mechanisms which favor the emergence and spread of resistance to each drug; second to identify criteria which would allow better choice of first and second line modes of treatment.
www.niaid.nih.gov /dmid/malaria/malafr/epidemio.htm   (3363 words)

  
 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHAGAS DISEASE
In endemic countries, it is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by the parasite, excluding Mexico and Nicaragua, from which adequate data are not available.
In endemic areas it is closely associated with typical "social" diseases such as malnutrition, diarrhoea, tuberculosis and other parasitic disease that both limit, and more limited by, the general context in which they occur.
In some endemic regions, such as the state of São Paulo, Brazil, where the vectorial transmission was controlled through an intensive and continuous Public Health Programme, blood transfusion is now the main route of transmission.
www.dbbm.fiocruz.br /tropical/chagas/chapter4.html   (2272 words)

  
 IDD Newsletter Feb 1992
Epidemiology of Endemic Goiter in the Former Yugoslavia
Endemic goiter with varying degree of thyroid enlargement was diagnosed in 2,745 persons (1.2% of the total population) including 411 children under the age of 14.
Endemic goiter was diagnosed in 28%, with II degree goiter being prevalent (Kolomiytseva index 4.01%).
www.people.virginia.edu /~jtd/iccidd/newsletter/idd292.htm   (11787 words)

  
 Chapter 15 Epidemiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Epidemiology = the study of how diseases are transmitted through populations.
Endemic = disease is always present in a population or particular geographical area.
Plague is endemic among wild rodents in 15 western states (gophers, chipmunks, packrats, prairie dogs, ground squirrels).
www.science.siu.edu /microbiology/micr201/chapter15.html   (2991 words)

  
 Endemic (ecology) - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
A species that is endemic is unique to that place or region, found naturally nowhere else.
Sandstone rockhouses of the Eastern United States, with particular reference to the ecology and evolution of the endemic plant taxa.
The Endemic Pleistocene Deer of Crete (Mededelingen Der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Wetens)
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /endemic_(ecology).htm   (335 words)

  
 Epidemiology | Classical Swine Fever   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Considering that wild boar and domestic pigs are equally susceptible, endemic CSF in wild boar is an important reservoir of virus for domestic pigs.
CSF is endemic in the other countries where it is controlled by vaccination.
Endemic infection of wild boars in the EU poses a major risk for outbreaks in domestic pigs.
www.vet.uga.edu /esp/Renato_Lima/epidemiology.htm   (634 words)

  
 Virtual Naval Hospital: Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare: Chapter 28   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
The epidemiology of the equine encephalitides in humans is closely tied to the ecology of these viruses in naturally occurring endemic foci.
For endemic meningoencephalitic disease that occurs outside biowarfare theaters, the geographical locale and the patient’s travel history are of pre-eminent importance in diagnosing an arboviral encephalitis.
Eastern equine encephalitis in Panama: The epidemiology of the 1973 epizootic.
www.vnh.org /MedAspChemBioWar/chapters/chapter_28.htm   (13033 words)

  
 Epidemiology of Measles --- United States, 2001--2003
To characterize the epidemiology of measles in the United States during 2001--2003, CDC analyzed data reported by state and local health departments.
This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that no endemic measles virus is circulating in the United States; however, imported measles cases continue to occur and can result in limited indigenous transmission.
Lack of endemic transmission also is demonstrated by the limited secondary transmission from imported cases.
www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5331a3.htm   (1772 words)

  
 Endemic Cretinism - Clinical   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
The three characteristic features of neurological endemic cretinism in its fully developed form are extremely severe mental deficiency together with squint, deaf mutism and motor spasticity with disorders of the arms and legs of a characteristic nature.
Myxedematous endemic cretinism in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Four inhabitants aged 15-20 years : a normal male and three females with severe longstanding hypothyroidism with dwarfism, retarded sexual development, puffy features, dry skin and hair and severe mental retardation.
The role of autoimmunity in the etiology endemic cretinism remains controversial.
www.thyroidmanager.org /Chapter20/20_cretinism.htm   (2135 words)

  
 Endemic goiter with iodine sufficiency: a possible role for the consumption of pearl millet in the etiology of endemic ...
Endemic goiter with iodine sufficiency: a possible role for the consumption of pearl millet in the etiology of endemic goiter1 -- Elnour et al.
Endemic goiter with iodine sufficiency: a possible role for the consumption of pearl millet in the etiology of endemic goiter
A deficiency in the etiology of endemic goiter ( 1, 8, 35).
www.ajcn.org /cgi/content/full/71/1/59   (4132 words)

  
 Prevalence of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Related Vascular Diseases in Southwestern Arseniasis-Endemic ...
Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of microvascular disease in endemic and nonendemic areas was 20.0% and 6.0%, respectively, for diabetics, and 8.6% and 1.0%, respectively, for nondiabetics.
The prevalence odds ratios of diabetes in the endemic area in comparison with the nonendemic area were consistently greater in women than in men for all age groups, as shown in Figure 1.
Prevalence odds ratios for macrovascular diseases among diabetics and nondiabetics in the endemic area and diabetics in the nonendemic area, compared with nondiabetics in the nonendemic area, by age and sex.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/2003/5457/5457.html   (4352 words)

  
 National epidemiology of endemic fungal inefctions in children   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Background: The national incidence and epidemiology of endemic fungal infections in children have not been fully reported and have only been discussed in smaller case studies.
Describe the national epidemiology of endemic fungal infections in children, including the burden to the pediatric population and who is affected.
Recognize endemic fungal pathogens as a health burden among children in endemic regions of the United States and apply the new knowledge in the clinical setting.
apha.confex.com /apha/132am/techprogram/paper_89147.htm   (409 words)

  
 Dermatobia - Epidemiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
The botfly is endemic from central Mexico, through to Central America and South America, but a few cases have been reported from Nigeria as well.
Cases reported in Canada and the United States occur in travellers who return from these endemic areas.
The flies are found in the forest and jungle areas especially around rivers and streams, and along the coastal areas of the above countries.
www2.provlab.ab.ca /bugs/webbug/parasite/botepid.htm   (165 words)

  
 Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru -- Baisley et al. 59 (5): 710 -- American ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru -- Baisley et al.
Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru
Results suggested that endemic transmission of ORO virus in this region has been ongoing during many decades, and that people are at considerable risk of infection.
intl.ajtmh.org /cgi/content/abstract/59/5/710   (389 words)

  
 Mathematical modelling in epidemiology - Result for Mathematical modelling in epidemiology - Meaning of Mathematical ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Whenever we are modelling anything mathematically, whether in epidemiology or otherwise, we would be wise to remember that a mathematical model is only as good as the assumptions on which it is based.
An infectious disease is said to be endemic (epidemiology) endemic when it can be sustained in a population without the need for external inputs.
Notice that this relation means that for a disease to be in the endemic steady state, the higher the basic reproduction number, the lower the proportion of the population susceptible must be, and vice versa; a mathematical basis for a result that might have been intuitively obvious.
www.mauspfeil.net /Mathematical_modelling_in_epidemiology.html   (1409 words)

  
 1998 GIS Conference: Geographic Information Systems and Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Tropical Western Atlantic Region
In endemic areas and beyond, ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness that affects persons of all ages and socioeconomic groups.
Ciguatera is the predominant fish poisoning in the endemic tropical regions of the Pacific and the Caribbean (5).
The social and economic impacts of ciguatera in endemic regions are the avoidance of the consumption and sale of seafood.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /gis/conference98/proceedings/html/stinn.html   (3232 words)

  
 ENDEMIC (ECOLOGY) :: FACTS AND INFORMATION
This article is about the ecological meaning of "endemic".
Islands are especially likely to develop endemic forms because of their geographical isolation; remote island groups, such as Hawai'i and the
Endemics can also develop in other biologically isolated areas, such as the highlands of
www.splammer.com /?req=endemic_(ecology)   (209 words)

  
 Clonorchiasis: Epidemiology
Endemic areas for Clonorchis sinensis are in Asia including Korea, China, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
The incidence in China and Japan has been decreasing in recent decades, but Hong Kong still has a very high incidence, as well as the adjacent Kwangtung Province of South China where fish farming is a major industry.
Although it may persist in immigrants for decades, the disease has not become endemic in the United States because suitable intermediate hosts are lacking in America.
clonorchiasis.blogspot.com /2004/05/epidemiology.html   (384 words)

  
 Workshop on Mathematical Epidemiology: Abstracts
In contrast to the first model we have shown that it is possible for an endemic equilibrium to exist but not be locally stable and limit cycle behaviour consisting of regular patterns of HIV incidence about this level can occur.
The ordinary differential equations for the SIS, SIR epidemic, and SIR endemic models are presented and the behavior of their solutions are explained.
Changes in the population size must be included in an epidemiology model when the disease-related deaths or disease-reduced reproduction are significant.
www.pims.math.ca /activities/epid.abstracts.html   (4389 words)

  
 Epidemiology
As an interesting side note, Chagas disease is also the leading cause of cardiac faliure for men age 20-40 in Brazil due to population and workforce movements into areas infested with the insect vector.
As transmission by the Reduuvid bug is beginning to be controlled through programs to eliminate vectors in endemic areas, blood transfusions have proved to be a significant route of transmission of Chagas' disease and, arguably, one of the hardest routes to control.
In addition, any area that receives immigrants from endemic areas or any area that is endemic for Chagas' disease has a higher risk of transmission through blood transfusion.
www.brown.edu /Courses/Bio_160/Projects1999/trypanosomes/Epid1.html   (1147 words)

  
 Molecular Parasitology-Epidemiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
The Molecular Parasitology - Epidemiology Group is closely interwoven with the Molecular Diagnostic Group with shared staff and publications.
Our mission and vision is to learn to understand this parasite and its interaction with the human host, by studying the molecular biology which supports the parasite's survival, and the epidemiology of infection on a molecular level.
Recently using longitudinal samples in highly endemic areas, we were able to capture the dynamic of infection and to develop a hypothesis how immunity develops in individuals living in endemic areas ( see Biennial Report 01/02).
www.sti.ch /molpar.htm   (478 words)

  
 WHO | Changing epidemiology of Polio prompts tactical shift in world’s largest public health initiative
Immunization campaigns will be revised in 93 countries where polio transmission has already been stopped in order to commit more resources to the remaining seven polio-endemic countries, and six countries considered at high risk of reinfection.
This shift in tactics will accelerate the accomplishment of global eradication by focusing on the endemic areas while protecting the substantial investments that have been made in these areas which are now polio-free.
The seven remaining polio endemic countries are (from highest to lowest burden of disease): India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Egypt, Afghanistan, Niger, and Somalia.
www.who.int /mediacentre/releases/2003/pr39/en   (1341 words)

  
 Maskun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maskun is a medical condition (also called achromatopsia) characterized by a low cone count or lack of function in cone cells; these are the light receptors responsible for colour perception.
It is endemic on Pohnpei and was described by Oliver Sacks in Island of the Colourblind.
Sacks went there with a Norwegian who had maskun, and the book narrates his experiences on the island.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Maskun   (246 words)

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