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Topic: Endocarp

  Fruit - LoveToKnow 1911
In the melon the epicarp and endocarp are very thin, while the mesocarp forms the bulk of the fruit, differing in texture and taste in its external and internal parts.
5), andc., where the seed is protected from injury in the mouth or stomach of the animal by the hard endocarp; or the hips of the rose (fig.
The endocarp is usually hard, form ing the stone (putamen) of the fruit, which encloses the kernel or seed.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Fruit   (9027 words)

 Nut Photos
The endocarp is the inner layer of the fruit wall or pericarp.
The endocarp protects and aids in the dispersal of the vulnerable seed, especially when it is swallowed by a hungry herbivore.
In true nuts, the hard, indehiscent layer surrounding the seed is the ripened ovary wall or pericarp and the outer husk is composed of involucral tissue (or fused calyx tissue) that is not part of the ovary wall (pericarp).
waynesword.palomar.edu /ecoph8.htm   (3273 words)

 Fruit - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
The outermost layer is called the exocarp; the middle layer is the mesocarp; and the inner layer, the endocarp.
A drupe develops from an ovary with a single carpel and is characterized by an edible exocarp and mesocarp and an inedible, hard endocarp, or pit that encloses a single seed.
Almonds also are classified as drupes, but in almonds, the fleshy exocarp and mesocarp wither at maturity, and the endocarp, or shell, is cracked to obtain the edible, meaty, seed.
encarta.msn.com /text_761576964___13/Fruit.html   (1029 words)

 Menispermaceae [Draft]
20a.         Inflorescences corymbose; endocarp densely spiny; herbaceous vines.....
Drupes 1–3, subellipsoidal, style-scar slightly terminal; exocarp fleshy; endocarp slightly fleshy with a median dorsal and ventral ridge and flattened lateral wings; condyle inconspicuous.
Drupes obovate, slightly flattened; endocarp dorsally ornamented with 7 or 8 rows of transverse ridges.
hua.huh.harvard.edu /china/mss/volume07/Menispermaceae-K_edited.htm   (9865 words)

The endocarp is the inner layer of the pericarp or the adaxial face of the hypothetical carpellary leaf.
The membrane is hypothetically the adaxial surface of the infolded carpellary leaf.
The central axis is derived from the floral axis, and the margins of the carpellarly leaf are attached to it.
aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu /syllabi/422/422lab3.htm   (1202 words)

 Digimorph - Syagrus flexuosa (Coco Do Vaquiero)
The longitudinal fibres are only visible because the outer husk of the fruit (the smooth skin or exocarp, and parts of the pulp or mesocarp) has been removed; originally, the fruit was smooth just like a coconut harvested directly from the tree.
As one dives into the internal structure of the fruit (Figure 1), the first layer to appear directly underneath the fibres is the endocarp, which is traversed by fibrovascular bundles visible as fl voids in the otherwise nearly white tissue.
The endocarp provides mechanical protection of the seed, allowing the actual seed coat to become rudimentary; it is barely discernable in the CT images and only present as a thin brown envelope covering the nutritional tissue of the seed, the endosperm.
www.digimorph.org /specimens/Syagrus_flexuosa   (706 words)

 Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters: Fruits
A fleshy fruit with a stony endocarp, as in Prunus.
A berry with a leathery nonseptate rind derived from an inferior ovary, as in Cucurbita.
A berry-like fruit, adnate to a fleshy receptacle, with cartilaginous endocarp, as in Malus.
www.ibiblio.org /botnet/glossary/a_xi.html   (841 words)

 Citrus fruits
The edible pulp (endocarp) is held in a peel (pericarp) quite thick and not edible, except for the kumquats.
The internal part (albedo) with white color is composed of layers of cells generally bigger, and less compact that, near the endocarp, form a cellular tissues less dense with intercellular spaces with irregular shape.
The endocarp is subdivided in segments with radial disposition (segments), each of them originated by a embryonic leaf ; each segment is covered by a membrane that contains many multicellular big club shape vesicas linked with a membrane through stalk.
www.contentotrade.com /Terpene/eng/l'agrume.htm   (1886 words)

 collection, handling, storage and pre-treatment of Prosopis seeds in Latin America
These holes permit the seed to leave the threshing chamber as they are released from the endocarp, but they are not large enough to permit the intact endocarp containing the seed to pass.
When the endocarp has been broken, the seed is released from the threshing chamber through the 5/16-inch (0.794-centimeter) holes and the endocarp through the 1/8-inch (0.318-centimeter) wide slots.
A small gravity separator removes the endocarp tissues, which are of the same size as the seed.
www.fao.org /docrep/006/q2180e/Q2180E18.htm   (565 words)

 It's All About Coffee
Humid processing: it is the mechanical disposal, using water, of the epicarp, the disposal of the mesocarp through fermentation or other methods, and the washing followed by drying.
Fermentation process: technological treatment to soften the mucilaginous mesocarp attached to the endocarp so that it may eventually be removed through washing.
Washing: technological treatment to remove, using water, the remains of the mucilaginous mesocarp from the endocarp's surface.
www.aboutcoffee.net /2003/02/coffee-and-processes-in-producing.html   (1780 words)

 American Journal of Botany, 41, 3, March, 1954   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Abstract: The first evidence of sclereid initiation in the Rubus endocarp is a slight elongation of the inner epidermal cells parallel to the locule surface when the floral bud is very small.
Endocarp sclereids in Rubus are similar to those in other drupaceous fruits.
Druses are found in some of the transition cells, particularly near the vascular traces and a few phloem fibers also develop along the main vascular traces of the endocarp.
www.botany.org /ajb/00029122_di001520.php   (3719 words)

 Pome - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In botany, a pome (after the French name for an apple, pomme) is a type of fruit, produced by flowering plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae.
A pome is an accessory fruit composed of five or more carpels in which the exocarp forms an inconspicuous layer, the mesocarp is usually fleshy, and the endocarp forms a leathery case around the seed.
However, outside of the exocarp is the most edible part of this fruit, derived from the floral tube (torus and other parts).
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Pome   (262 words)

 ePrintsUQ - Fruit Processing, Seed Viability And Dormancy Mechanisms Of Persoonia Sericea A. Cunn. ex R. Br. and P. ...
The endocarp is extremely hard and therefore very difficult and time consuming to remove without damaging the seeds.
The most efficient method was cracking the endocarp with pliers, followed by manual removal of seeds.
Microbial contamination of the fruit and seeds was controlled by disinfestation and germination of the seed under aseptic conditions.
eprint.uq.edu.au /archive/00001421   (220 words)

 Palm Fruit Photos
The fruit of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) is technically a large, dry drupe (D) composed of a thin outer layer (exocarp), a thick, fibrous middle layer called a mesocarp (F), and a hard inner layer called an endocarp (E) that surrounds a large seed.
This is the brown material that adheres to the white "meat" or endosperm when it is removed from the endocarp shell.
The large seed-bearing fruits and endocarps are from the starnut palm (Astrocaryum huicungo).
waynesword.palomar.edu /ecoph10.htm   (2632 words)

 Garden Botany
The endocarp can be hard and bony as in peaches or soft as in grapes.
Pericarp: The fruit wall, often composed of three layers: epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp.
Pit: The stony endocarp of a peach or other drupe.
www.bbg.org /gar2/topics/botany/parts_fruit.html   (1275 words)

 Vegetable Ivory and Other Palm Nuts, Seeds, as an Arts and Crafts Medium
The fruit is globose, ovoid, or spindle shaped, often brightly colored, rarely dull brown or green; the epicarp is smooth, shiny, or dull, the mesocarp thin to moderately thick, fleshy, or fibrous, and the endocarp composed of robust longitudinal fibers, usually closely adhering to the seed, possibly becoming free at the basal end.
Seed conform to the fruit shape or are slightly hollow at the base; the hilum is basal, the endosperm deeply ruminate, and the embryo basal (Uhl and Dransfield 1987).
The endocarp is the thickest of the species I have worked with, and I have made box lids and goblet tops from them.
www.palms.org /principes/1997/palmivory.htm   (1391 words)

 Fruits info,Tropical fruit photo,Tropical fruit drink,Recipe tropical fruit salad,Type of tropical fruit,Tropical fruit ...
During the development of the fruit, the wall of the ovary, called per carp, usually thickens and becomes differentiated into three layers, which may or may not be easy to distinguish visually.
As an example, in the peach, the Exocarp is the skin, the Mesocarp is the fleshy part, and the endocarp is the stony pit.
Per carp consists of three layers of tissue; the thin outer Exocarp, which becomes the “skin” the thicker Mesocarp; and the inner endocarp, immediately surrounding the ovule.
www.fruitsinfo.com /parts_of_fruits.htm   (276 words)

Traditional classifications have stressed characters of the seed, particularly the ornamentation of the endocarp and shape of the condyle (ventral intrusion of the endocarp).
Hence, endocarp ornamentation in Menispermaceae presents an excellent opportunity to assess complex patterns of morphological variation in the family.
It is hoped that elucidation of inter-generic phylogenetic affinities, based on molecular data, can be used as a framework for investigations of character evolution and evolutionary trends within the family, particularly among its neotropical components.
www.umsl.edu /services/kellogg/people/ortiz.html   (640 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Gene amplification of the Hpslocus in Glycine max
The amount of endocarp adhering to the seed surface is the primary determinant of lustre [3,4].
The presence of HPS on the seed surface is a trait that cosegregates with the seed lustre determinant B [2].
Variable HPS expression in the endocarp likewise generates variation in the quantity and pattern of attachment of the endocarp to the seed surface, thereby affecting the seed lustre.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2229/6/6   (5030 words)

 Saturday at the Garden
pepo- tough outer rind consisting of both receptacle tissue and exocarp (accessory fruit), mesocarp and endocarp are fleshy, e.g.
drupes- one to several carpels that usually contain only a single seed, thin exocarp, fleshy mesocarp, endocarp is stony, e.g.
pomes- derived from a compound inferior ovary in which fleshy portion is from enlarged base of perianth and receptacle (accessory fruit), endocarp resembles a tough membrane, e.g.
www.slobg.org /SaturdayFollowupSep_11_04.htm   (529 words)

 Baskin, Jerry M.* and Carol C. Baskin.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Information in the literature was used to determine seed (true seed + endocarp) dormancy types in Anacardiaceae, and the results were examined in relation to published accounts of endocarp anatomy in this family.
Reports on both seed germination and endocarp anatomy were found for seven genera in tribe Spondideae, five in tribe Anacardieae, 14 in tribe Rhoeae, and none in the two smallest tribes in the family, Dobineeae and Semecarpeae.
In Spondideae (Spondias-type endocarp), seeds were either nondormant (ND) or had physiological dormancy (PD), and in Anacardieae (Anacardium-type endocarp) they were mostly ND.
www.ou.edu /cas/botany-micro/botany2000/section3/abstracts/15.shtml   (290 words)

This phenomenon, known as endocarp dehisence or splitting, affects the commercial value of the crop: for direct consumption, splitting nuts are usually preferred to the non-splitting ones.
The cultivars originated in Central and West Asia are generally characterized by large, rounded fruit, showing a clearly split endocarp containing a yellow-green kernel.
Under the climatic conditions of the inland areas of Sicily, this group of cultivars complete the phenological phases generally later than cultivars originating in the Mediterranean.
www.unifi.it /project/ueresgen29/ds8.htm   (989 words)

 Anatomy of two mechanisms of breaking physical dormancy by experimental treatments in seeds of two North American Rhus ...
Anatomy of the endocarp was studied in relation to the physical
2a) on the endocarp adjacent to the carpellary
the endocarp by having shorter brachysclereids and non-elongated
www.amjbot.org /cgi/content/full/86/11/1505   (2707 words)

 The 10 Steps To Coffee
The lighter, immature beans are separated from the heavier, mature beans through specially designed washing channels or by an Aagaard pre-grader, a system involving shaking the beans through a strainer into a tank of water.
The endocarp must then be dried to retain about 11 percent moisture so the beans can be stored in a stable condition.
The endocarp can be dried by the sun or by mechanical dryers.
www.drinknaturesbest.com /coffee/coffeesteps.html   (1458 words)

 Tung oil -- China Wood Oil
are produced inside a thick, woody endocarp layer and are the
Fruits with an endocarp layer surrounding the seed are called drupes or drupaceous.
The endocarp protects and aids in the dispersal of the
www.tung-oil.com   (445 words)

 Oregon State University-Horticulture-Hort 233   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Drupe - fruit from single carpel with fleshy mesocarp and stony endocarp; containing a single seed (olive, raspberry, plum).
Pome - fleshy fruit from epigynous flower in which inner portions of carpel wall are thickened or membranous (apple, pear).
Drupe is formed from a single carpel with fleshy exocarp and stony endocarp containing a single seed.
oregonstate.edu /dept/hort/233/class.htm   (499 words)

 Role of warm stratification in promoting germination of seeds of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Empetraceae), a circumboreal ...
was not due to impermeability of the stony endocarp surrounding
endocarps and broke them down while seeds were exposed to the
Hill A. 1933 The method of germination of seeds enclosed in a stony endocarp.
www.amjbot.org /cgi/content/full/89/3/486   (5049 words)

 Hibiscus Society of Queensland Inc. Information - Hawaii Manual
Flowers borne near the ends of branches, 1(2) in the leaf axils, pedicels not articulate; involucral bracts 4-9, filiform to triangular or spatulate, connate basally into a narrow disk or ca.
Fruit a woody or chartaceous, ovoid to oblong-ovoid, densely pubescent, 5-valved, loculicidally dehiscent capsule, mesocarp reticulate-veined, endocarp separating from it as 5 or 10 chartaceous segments.
Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule, exocarp and endocarp sometimes separating at maturity.
www.hibiscus.org.au /part2.htm   (2455 words)

 Reducing Ochratoxin A in Coffee
Mesocarp: Intermediate layer of tissues between the epicarp and the endocarp (parchment).
Hulling (or De-hulling, De-husking, Husking): Mechanical removal of dried fruit tissues (cherry coffee) or dried fruit endocarp (parchment coffee) from the coffee seeds.
Hulling loss: The difference between the weight of the parchment or dry cherry coffee and clean coffee after milling: equivalent to the weight of the husks.
www.coffee-ota.org /glossary.asp   (7031 words)

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