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Topic: Endocentric

In the News (Sun 27 May 18)

  Endocentric - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In linguistics, an endocentric construction is a grammatical construction that fulfills the same linguistic function as one of its constituents.
An endocentric construction consists of an obligatory head and one or more optional, dependent words, whose presence serve to narrow the meaning of the head.
In more formal terms, the distribution of an endocentric construction is functionally equivalent, or approaching equivalence, to one of its member constituents, which serves as the centre, or head, of the whole.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Endocentric   (185 words)

 endocentric - yourDictionary.com - American Heritage Dictionary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Of or relating to a group of syntactically related words, at least one of which is functionally equivalent to the function of the whole group.
For example, the noun table in the noun phrase the old table is endocentric because it has the same grammatical function as the whole noun phrase.
For example, the noun flboard is endocentric in that it refers to a type of board.
www.yourdictionary.com /ahd/e/e0133850.html   (99 words)

 Language in India
Endocentric, exocentric, appositional, and dvandva or copulative compound (Bauer 1983: 29-31).
Endocentric compounds are those which have a head, one component which determines the basic meaning and category of the whole.
The term "endocentric compound" is used to refer to a particular type of compound, namely, the compounds that lack a head.
www.languageinindia.com /oct2004/malayalamidioms2.html   (2570 words)

 Silent letter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"endocentric" digraphs, where the sound of the digraph is the same as that of one of its constituent letters.
The distinction between "endocentric" digraphs and empty letters is somewhat arbitrary.
For example, in such words as little and bottle one might view as an "endocentric" digraph for /l̩/, or view as an empty letter; similarly with or in buy and build.
www.myproxy.ca /nph-index.cgi/111110A/687474703a2f2f656e2e77696b6970656469612e6f72672f77696b692f53696c656e745f6c6574746572   (751 words)

 What is an endocentric construction?
An endocentric construction is a construction that contains
In the following sentence, the noun phrase wet paint is an endocentric construction.
The word paint is the obligatory head and may stand alone in its position in the clause.
www.sil.org /linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnEndocentricConstructio.htm   (157 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
This paper focusses on a class of clitic pronouns in Welsh which appear to exhibit both properties diagnostic of syntactic wordhood and of morphological status and considers how they might be accommodated within a model which embraces the principle of lexical integrity and eschews syntactic movement.
For endocentric structures, a set of universal principles of structure-function association provide a canonical mapping from nodes to f-structures.
The mapping to f-structure is accomodated by extending the universal principles of structure-function association to permit argument functions to be associated with clitic positions.
www-lfg.stanford.edu /pubs/papers/sadler/sadler-1998-0415.txt   (388 words)

 Udi Morphosyntax
Splits may be endocentric (using the coding pattern of another relational primitive) or exocentric (using other coding patterns alien to the basic relational pattern) [see Schulze (in press) for details].
Endocentric shifts are called ‘motion’ and represented as follows (motion does not apply with O in Udi in a synchronic perspective):
In the endocentric Fluid-S type of promotion, S is optionally marked by the ergative case (S behaves like A for case marking).
www.lrz-muenchen.de /~wschulze/udisynt.htm   (3814 words)

 Transparency (linguistic)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Semantic transparency is a descriptive phrase that has been used in linguistics to describe endocentric compounds.
Endocentric compound words are those whose whole meaning can be figured out by an analysis of its parts or "morphemes".
An example of an endocentric compound is the word "car-wash".
www.syossetnyus.com /info/Linguistic_transparency   (479 words)

 Perspectives: Studies in Translatology Vol 13:1, 2005 pp 21-37
The former are characterised by having a relatively high lexical and informational weight in the verbs, that is in the centre of the proposition (hence the term “endocentric”), whereas the latter have a higher lexical and informational weight in the nominal arguments, that is outside the centre of the proposition (hence the term “exocentric”;).
Furthermore, exocentric verbs are characterised by a rich inflectional system that enables them to express text-pragmatic and rhetorical distinctions that generally are not rendered explicit in endocentric languages.
The Scandinavian languages, among which Danish, are endocentric, whereas the Romance languages, among which Italian, are exocentric.
www.multilingual-matters.net /pst/013/pst0130021.htm   (221 words)

Endocentric suffixes occur between the verb root and the exocenter.
Endocentric suffixes include manner, object, and benefactive suffixes, among others.
The same set of endocentric suffixes are used with varying sets of exocentric suffixes.
ogea.org /Linguistics   (763 words)

 Language Miniatures 92: Endocentric and exocentric   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
They were the ones like couch potato where the meaning seems to be not in a combination of the two (the type of vegetable that has to do with a piece of furniture??) but relies on an understanding of something other than the compound itself.
Most of them (though not all) can have a literal endocentric meaning, that is we can really mean "the apple is bad, the elephant is white" and so on.
The phrase hot coffee (A + N) is the straightforward endocentric "the coffee is hot" (the N is A).
home.bluemarble.net /~langmin/miniatures/exocen.htm   (820 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Headed phrases are said to be endocentric (as opposed to exocentric).
It is a feature of LFG (as opposed to, for example, minimalist theory) that not all structures are claimed to be endocentric.
Most of the structures we will look at are endocentric, but an example of an exocentric phrase may be cats and dogs.
lings.ln.man.ac.uk /Info/staff/KEB/Teaching/LI202/LI202HO2.doc   (477 words)

 Dickheads, Buttheads, and Assholes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
If dickhead the insult means "head of a dick", then it is an example of an endocentric compound noun--that is, a noun made up of words X and Y, where Y is a noun, and XY denotes a kind of Y. Y is said to be, no pun intended, the head of the compound.
In its literal sense, asshole is a compound noun, with hole as its head: An asshole is a kind of hole.
It really had never occurred to me. It's true that dickhead as an endocentric compound doesn't have to mean "head OF a dick"; it just has to denote a head that has something or other to do with a dick, and a head with a dick on top of it would certainly qualify.
home.insight.rr.com /nwhitman/DBandA.html   (1116 words)

 IULA (UPF) - Third Mediterranean Meeting on Morphology
In the first case, they bring about either endocentric (contraorden) or exocentric constructions ([crema] antiarrugas).
In the second case, the product is always an endocentric construction (circunnavegar la isla).
Varela Ortega & García remark that in those cases in which prepositional preffixes seem to be attached to adjectives, the adjective is always denominal, the preffix actually modifying the nominal base (intramuscular = 'in or into the muscle').
www.iula.upf.es /agenda/atvhist/mmm3/mmm3ab21.htm   (824 words)

 Lesson three: Referential meaning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Most combinations of words are semantically endocentric expressions.
The meaning of the whole expression is deducible from the meaning of each individual word, so endocentric expressions are also called free expressions.
On the other hand, there are exocentric expressions whose the meanings can not be deduced [or worked out] on the basis of the individual words.
www.ctu.edu.vn /coursewares/supham/ltdich/ch3.htm   (1752 words)

 Welsh NPs without Head Movement -- Nouns as Functional Heads
The head raising account can be expressed in the monostratal constraint based formalism of LFG despite the absence of derivational mechanisms.
The theory posits both lexical and functional categories, but within a strongly lexicalist perspective and provides a clearly articulated and highly constrained view of the role of functional categories and of the relationship between lexical projections and their extended (functional) projections.
The canonical mapping from nodes to f-structures in configurational endocentric structures is expressed by a set of universal principles of (unmarked) structure-function association making reference to sets of grammatical functions including adjuncts, the non-discourse argument functions (CF) and the discourse functions (SUBJ, TOPIC, FOCUS) [Bresnan 1997a].
privatewww.essex.ac.uk /~louisa/lfg98paper/lfg98paper_3.html   (889 words)

The decompositional perspective towards meaning holds that the meaning of words can be analyzed by defining meaning atoms or primitives, which establish a language of thought.
An area of study is the meaning of compounds, another is the study of relations between different linguistic expressions (homonymy, synonymy, antonymy, polysemy, paronyms, hypernymy, hyponymy, meronymy, metonymy, holonymy, exocentric, and endocentric).
Semantics includes the study of thematic roles, argument structure, and its linking to syntax.
www.findexperts.com /clst/412/semantics-experts-ca.htm   (292 words)

 A selection of English noun compound types
Tatpurusa (endocentric) compounds: In endocentric or tatpurusa compounds, the MEAN of the whole is subsumed by the MEAN of the HEAD of the PARTS.
Exocentric compounds are modelled with more deeply nested inheritance structures than endocentric compounds.
Dvandva (coordinate) compounds: The parts of coordinate compounds occur in a fixed order, and are morphologically headed, but semantically have no head-modifier structure.
coral.lili.uni-bielefeld.de /DATR/inherlexweb/node12.html   (434 words)

 Citations: Configuring Topic and Focus in Russian - King (ResearchIndex)
and Bresnan (1998) Universal Grammar allows clauses with both endocentric (IP) and lexocentric (S) organizations.
Some VSO languages are best analyzed with the LFG analogue of head movement to INFL; others show a flatter syntax.
Much recent work in LFG, however, has shown that the c structure f structure correspondence for a configurational, generally endocentric language such as English, is largely predictable from a small set of mapping principles
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/11663/0   (1929 words)

 Syntax notes for Tuesday, October 13, 2004
The deer are foraging in the backyard  (Here, we have no overt morpheme to convey plural meaning, yet the concept of plurality still triggers V agreement)
Endocentric representation: a phrase that has a head within itself (ex: an XP includes a head, X) Exocentric representation: a phrase that has no head within it (ex: S → NP VP)
So, if an S has an Infl node, perhaps Infl is a head and an S is really an IP?
www.cla.sc.edu /Ling/faculty/dubinsky/Ling720/lecturenotes/10-12-LING720-notes.htm   (495 words)

 exocentric & endocentric (in our Linguistic Book) - UsingEnglish.com ESL Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
exocentric and endocentric (in our Linguistic Book) - UsingEnglish.com ESL Forum
Ask a Teacher Ask your questions about the English language here and receive expert help and advice from our language teachers and experts 24 hours a day.
Our Linguistic Book said the typical form of excentric is preposition phrases,while the typical form of endocentric is noun phrase.But I'm stlll not quite understand what is excentric and endocentric.
www.usingenglish.com /forum/ask-teacher/5598-exocentric-endocentric-our-linguistic-book.html?mode=hybrid   (283 words)

 UsingEnglish.com ESL Forum - exocentric & endocentric (in our Linguistic Book)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
UsingEnglish.com ESL Forum - exocentric and endocentric (in our Linguistic Book)
- - exocentric and endocentric (in our Linguistic Book) (http://www.usingenglish.com/forum/ask-teacher/5598-exocentric-endocentric-our-linguistic-book.html)
16-Jul-2004 15:20 PM exocentric and endocentric (in our Linguistic Book)
www.usingenglish.com /forum/ask-teacher/5598-exocentric-endocentric-our-linguistic-book-print.html   (139 words)

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