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Topic: Endoderm


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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

  
  Endodermal Derivatives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Endoderm is the innermost layer of the three germ layers.
Endoderm forms the epithelial portion of the organs arising from the primitive gut.
The lamina propria, the muscularis mucosa, the submucosa, the muscularis externa, and the serosa are all mesodermal derivatives (shown in red in the diagram on the left).
www.uoguelph.ca /zoology/devobio/210labs/endo1.html   (847 words)

  
 endoderm - HighBeam Encyclopedia
endoderm, in biology, inner layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo.
The inner layer of the cup is the endoderm; the outer layer is the ectoderm ; a middle layer, the mesoderm, forms from a marginal zone.
The endoderm is the germ layer from which are formed the digestive system, many glands, and part of the respiratory system.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-endoderm.html   (313 words)

  
 Germ layer Summary
Endoderm is one of three principal germinal layers of cells that are formed in early in embryonic development.
Endoderm (also called entoderm) is one of the three original layers of tissue which appear during early formation of the embryo (the embryo is the offspring, developing within an egg, seed, or the body of its mother).
Endoderm ultimately becomes the delicate lining (epithelium) of such structures as the pharynx, respiratory tract (excluding the nose), gastrointestinal tract (excluding the mouth and anus), bladder, and urethra.
www.bookrags.com /Germ_layer   (2696 words)

  
 Douglas A. Melton
This interaction sets up a prepattern in the endoderm for various organ-forming regions, including the pancreas, but pancreatic-specific genes are not turned on at this stage.
Subsequent inductive interactions occur between the notochord and the endodermal epithelium.
Subsequently, the endoderm is subdivided into different organ regions, including the thymus, lung, liver, stomach, intestines, and pancreas.
www.hhmi.org /research/investigators/melton.html   (826 words)

  
 [No title]
Local condensation of the mesenchyme is followed by evagination of an endodermal bud or diverticulum, which undergoes progressive branching to form the parenchyma or endothelial components of the organ in question.
The liver parenchyma is endodermal in origin, while all supporting elements and hepatic vasculature are derived from surrounding mesoderm of the septum transversum.
The rapidly proliferating strands of endoderm invades the adjacent mesoderm in the form of solid hepatic cords which grow, branch, anastomose, and become closely associated with a network of vessels branching from the vitelline and umbilical veins.
www.cellbio.emory.edu /courses/medi510/Lecture14.doc   (2111 words)

  
 Journal of Biology | Full text | Hyperactive Wnt signaling changes the developmental potential of embryonic lung ...
To explore the role of Wnt signaling in lung endoderm we expressed a constitutively active amino-terminal-deleted-β-catenin-Lef1 fusion protein (CatCLef1) [20] in the epithelium, using the 3.7 kilobase human surfactant protein C (SftpC) gene promoter [21].
RNA was isolated from the caudal lobe (endoderm and mesoderm) of three different transgenic and wild-type lungs, and probes were prepared according to standard protocols (see Materials and methods).
Up-regulation was not confined to genes characteristic of the intestinal endoderm.
jbiol.com /content/3/3/11   (7228 words)

  
 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Endoderm is the innermost germ layer in the developing embryo.
By studying embryonic stem cells in vitro, scientists now recognize some of the mechanisms by which endodermal cells give rise to mature structures, and the differentiation of hepatic cells and pancreatic cells, which share a common embryonic origin, has been studied extensively.
Once induced at the gastrula level, endodermal cells give rise to a variety of structures, including thymus, liver, pancreas, intestine, and respiratory tract.
www.brown.edu /Courses/BI0032/stemcell/endomain.htm   (229 words)

  
 Hinges fold endoderm into gut tube.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Apoptosis does not appear to be involved in early folding of chick endoderm.
The possibility that median endoderm is influenced by chordamesoderm in chick and mouse embryos needs further investigation.
Folding endoderm to form gut tube appears to be a process that is driven by domains of high proportions of cell proliferation flanking a domain with significantly lower proliferative growth.
academics.hamilton.edu /biology/smiller/hinges.html   (357 words)

  
 Interactive Fly, Drosophila
The visceral endoderm is an extraembryonic tissue that surrounds the epiblast of the egg cylinder stage embryo.
During gastrulation the visceral endoderm is replaced by definitive endoderm that derives from the anterior portion of the primitive streak.
Lim1 is a homeobox gene expressed in the extraembryonic anterior visceral endoderm and in primitive streak-derived tissues of early mouse embryos.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/gene/apters2e.htm   (4033 words)

  
 G{alpha}13 Signals via p115RhoGEF Cascades Regulating JNK1 and Primitive Endoderm Formation -- Lee et al. 279 (52): ...
Primitive endoderm formation was measured by expression of cytokeratin endo A using immunoblotting (A), by indirect immunofluorescent staining of P19 cells with the TROMA-1 monoclonal antibody (B), and by secretion of tissue plasminogen activator (C, tPA).
Primitive endoderm formation was measured by immunoblotting of cytokeratin endo A expression in whole cell lysates from cells treated with retinoic acid or those transiently expressing one constitutively activated mutant of each GTPase (D).
Primitive endoderm formation was detected by immunoblotting of the PE marker cytokeratin endo A (A) or by indirect immunofluorescence of cells stained with the TROMA-1 monoclonal antibody (B).
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/279/52/54896   (4653 words)

  
 A vHNF1/TCF2-HNF6 Cascade Regulates the Transcription Factor Network That Controls Generation of Pancreatic Precursor ...
regions of the ventral endoderm and in the dorsal endoderm.
visceral endoderm, and in the embryonic endoderm, this expression
in the extraembryonic visceral endoderm or in the liver and
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org /cgi/content/full/55/1/61   (4700 words)

  
 Drosophila tissue and organ development: Endoderm
The midgut is derived from the anterior and posterior midgut primordia during the process of gastrulation [Images].
The anterior midgut is formed from the anterior midgut primordium; the posterior midgut is derived from the posterior midgut primordium, and the midgut proper is derived from endodermal cells that migrate from both anterior and posterior primordia.
Dpp is secreted from the outer cell layer of the embryonic midgut (the visceral mesoderm) where its main source of expression in parasegment ps7 depends directly on the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/aimorph/midgut.htm   (2543 words)

  
 foxA a key endoderm specificatio   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
These studies show that cells of the veg2 lineage are diverted from a mixed mesoderm and endoderm fate to a mesoderm-only fate.
We conclude from this data that foxA normally represses SMC genes in endoderm and this action is exerted via repression of gcm.
Also, foxA is one of the major factors involved in specification and differentiation of the endoderm as seen in the case of the Hh endoderm gene.
www.cco.caltech.edu /~poliveri/FoxA.html   (327 words)

  
 The A-P Axis and Endoderm Development, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Mouse endoderm that would normally contribute to the large intestines is re-specified toward a pancreatic fate by grafting it into the pancreatic domain of a chick embryo.
The mouse endoderm was grafted into a tear that was made in the endoderm of a primitive streak stage chick embryo.
The endoderm in Figure 2 was dissected from e7.5 transgenic mouse embryos that express lac Z under the control of the Pdx 1 gene, and grafted into a primitive streak stage chick embryos (summarized in Figure 1).
www.cincinnatichildrens.org /research/div/dev-biology/fac-labs/wells-lab/research_1.htm   (860 words)

  
 LvNotch signaling plays a dual role in regulating the position of the ectoderm-endoderm boundary in the sea urchin ...
Activation of LvNotch signaling throughout the embryo expands the SMC territory at the expense of neighboring presumptive endoderm cells (Sherwood and McClay, 1999), and shifts the endoderm territory animally at the expense of presumptive ectoderm (this study).
Inhibition of LvNotch signaling eliminates the specification of SMCs in the mesenchyme blastula embryo (Sherwood and McClay, 1999) and shifts the endoderm territory vegetally, thus expanding the amount of ectoderm in the embryo (this study).
Logan, C. and McClay, D. The allocation of early blastomeres to the ectoderm and endoderm is variable in the sea urchin embryo.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/128/12/2221   (7348 words)

  
 Sox7 Plays Crucial Roles in Parietal Endoderm Differentiation in F9 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells through Regulating Gata-4 ...
of the gene silencing on the induction of parietal endoderm
Regulation of the differentiation and behaviour of extra-embryonic endodermal cells by basement membranes.
Retinoic acid induces parietal endoderm but not primitive endoderm and visceral endoderm differentiation in F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells with a targeted deletion of the Rex-1 (Zfp-42) gene.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/24/23/10492   (6531 words)

  
 Cellular Localization of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin {beta}-Subunit in Transgenic Mouse Placenta -- Strauss and ...
By term, the parietal endoderm has been resorbed on the side opposite the embryo and the visceral yolk sac is exposed to the uterine lumen.
B, Schematic of the chorioallantoic placenta in A. The two layers of the placenta are illustrated: the junctional zone containing trophoblast giant cells (larger cells) and cytotrophoblast (smaller); and the labyrinthine zone with an inset showing the trilaminar barrier between maternal and fetal blood, containing layers of trophoblast giant cells, syncytiotrophoblast, and cytotrophoblast.
Gardner RL 1982 Investigation of cell lineage and differentiation in the extraembryonic endoderm of the mouse embryo.
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/141/1/430   (3855 words)

  
 Patterns of Cell Proliferation: Endoderm
Folding endoderm to form gut tube appears to be a process that is driven by domains of high cell proliferation flanking a domain of significantly lower proliferation.
There is similar evidence of a hinge in mouse endoderm.
A preliminary report of data from both chick and mouse embryos was presented at Experimental Biology 99.
academics.hamilton.edu /biology/smiller/endoderm.html   (492 words)

  
 endoderm
endoderm The internal layer of cells of the gastrula, which develops into the alimentary canal (gut) and digestive glands of the adult.(From Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture)
The latest research, by a team from CyThera Inc, aimed at identifying the chemical triggers that stimulate the growth of stem cells into endoderm, which is...
Until now they have been unable to find the correct chemical mix to spur them artificially into changing into endoderm, the layer of cells in embryos that in...
www.mongabay.com /igapo/biotech/endoderm.html   (282 words)

  
 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: ON CELL MOVEMENTS DURING GASTRULATION
Internalization brings cells of the prospective mesoderm and endoderm beneath the future ectoderm via the blastopore, an opening in the blastula, known as blastoderm margin in fish, and primitive streak in amniotes.
The mesoderm, or middle layer, arose approximately 40 million years after the emergence of the ectoderm and endoderm and was most probably a derivative of the latter.
The tubes are generated by the invagination of the endodermal layer in an anterior-ventral position and later in a posterior-ventral region.
scienceweek.com /2005/sw050701-3.htm   (1456 words)

  
 LvNotch
The experiments suggest roles for the Notch pathway in sea urchin in secondary mesoderm and endoderm lineage segregation, and in the establishment of dorsoventral polarity in the endoderm (Sherwood et al., 1997).
Previous studies have shown that, after microsurgical removal of the presumptive SMCs early in gastrulation, a new SMCs population is established via conversion of presumptive endoderm cells to SMCs at the tip of the recovering archenteron (McClay and Logan, 1996).
Apical LvNotch thus appears to be rapidly downregulated in responce to the lineage conversion of presumptive endoderm to SMCs (Sherwood et al., 1997).
www.bio.davidson.edu /courses/genomics/mirror/Urchin/u1notc.htm   (1361 words)

  
 Transcription Factor GATA-4 Is Expressed in Pediatric Yolk Sac Tumors -- Siltanen et al. 155 (6): 1823 -- American ...
to the endoderm sinus of the rodent placenta.
In the late gestation embryo, GATA-4 mRNA is expressed by yolk sac endoderm cells within the "Crypts of Duval." c, chorion; ec, ectoderm; f, fetal blood sinus; m, maternal blood sinus; me, mesoderm (nascent); p, placental cells (decidua); pe, parietal endoderm; te, trophectoderm; ve, visceral endoderm; ys, yolk sac.
Teilum G: Classification of endodermal sinus tumour (mesoblastoma vitellinum) and so-called embryonal carcinoma of the ovary.
ajp.amjpathol.org /cgi/content/full/155/6/1823   (2903 words)

  
 A glimpse into the molecular entrails of endoderm formation -- Stainier 16 (8): 893 -- Genes and Development   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Mesodermal and endodermal progenitors are interspersed in this region while further away from the margin only mesodermal progenitors are present.
the endoderm from the mesoderm prior to gastrulation.
Nodal signaling and zebrafish endoderm formation Genetic studies in zebrafish have shown that cyc and sqt function at least partially redundantly in endoderm formation.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/16/8/893   (7133 words)

  
 Melton Lab Research
One of the first steps required for pancreatic development is an inductive interaction between the endoderm (yellow cup) and adjacent mes/ectoderm (red/blue cup).
One possibility is that soluble factors secreted by the mes/ectoderm or endoderm itself set up the pre-pattern in the endoderm (step 1).
For example, an embryonic stem cell can be directed to one of the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm, the latter being the germ layer that will give rise to the pancreas.
golgi.harvard.edu /melton/Research/index.html   (817 words)

  
 The Way to a Human's Heart Is Through the Stomach: Visceral Endoderm-Like Cells Drive Human Embryonic Stem Cells to a ...
(endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) and not of the later differentiated
endoderm for their specification as cardiac myocytes to occur.
Induction of avian cardiac myogenesis by anterior endoderm.
circ.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/107/21/2638   (1630 words)

  
 Specification of pharyngeal endoderm is dependent on early signals from axial mesoderm -- Barlow 128 (22): 4573 -- ...
Endodermal isolates (Endo30, suprablastoporal 30% of dorsal lip explant; Endo50, suprablastoporal 50% of dorsal lip explant; Endo30KS, Keller sandwich Endo30 explant) generally do not contain any of these tissues.
Endoderm alone (Endo) is devoid of taste buds and differentiated mesoderm.
Takata, C. The differentiation in vitro of the isolated endoderm under the influence of the mesoderm in Triturus pyrrhogaster.
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/128/22/4573   (7539 words)

  
 Bovine Blastocyst-Derived Trophectoderm and Endoderm Cell Cultures: Interferon Tau and Transferrin Expression as ...
of trophectoderm or endoderm, and the flask was flooded with
cells and because the endoderm was not adherent to trophectoderm.
Phase-contrast photomicrographs of bovine trophectoderm and endoderm in STO coculture.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/62/2/235   (6445 words)

  
 ECM 18
Immunofluorescence assay showed that during invagination of the endoderm, ECM 18 accumulates in the basal lamina underlying the ectoderm and endoderm cells and no signal is detected in the cytoplasm or in the apical lamina of these cells.
The accumulation of ECM 18 mRNA in endoderm is uniform along the digestive tract, beginning with primary invagination and continuing through development to the larval stage.
During gastrulation signal is detected underlying both the ectoderm and the invaginating endoderm.
www.bio.davidson.edu /Courses/genomics/mirror/urchin/u1ecmv.htm   (553 words)

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