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Topic: Endoplasmic reticulum


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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  
  Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules, vesicles and sacs that are interconnected.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum bears the ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum forms a branched reticulum that expands as the cell becomes more active in protein synthesis.
www.cytochemistry.net /Cell-biology/rer1.htm   (817 words)

  
 [No title]
The quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells ensures that newly synthesized proteins that fail to fold into the correct conformation or unassembled orphan subunits of oligomeric proteins are rapidly eliminated by proteolytic degradation.
This entails the export of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol followed by their destruction by the cytosolic ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (Figure 12.1) are primarily responsible for the proper sorting of lipids and proteins in cells.
www.lycos.com /info/endoplasmic-reticulum.html   (736 words)

  
  Endoplasmic reticulum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm," reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells.
The ER is the site of the translation, folding, and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral membrane proteins) as well as proteins that are to be secreted or "exocytosed" from the cell (e.g., digestive enzymes).
The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, including the facilitation of protein folding and the transport of proteins.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Endoplasmic_reticulum   (713 words)

  
 The Ribosome
Note that the ribosomes are still connected to one another outside the rough endoplasmic reticulum by the mRNA which runs between the large and small subunits.
Note that the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum are bridged by a junction.
Recall that the outside membrane of the nuclear envelope is studded with ribosomes and is part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
www.cytochemistry.net /Cell-biology/ribosome.htm   (1124 words)

  
 [No title]
Proper folding, post-translational modifications, and oligomerization of the secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)1 are essential prerequisites for their recruitment into the transport vesicles heading toward the cell exterior (1).
Quality control of potential cargo proteins is accomplished by the molecular chaperones that monitor fidelity of the protein folding and prevent premature export of incorrectly folded or incompletely assembled secretory proteins from the ER (2).
Circumstantial evidence, such as inducibility in certain cell types under the ER stress conditions (3), high expression in the secretory tissues (4, 5), and co-localization with the ER chaperones (3), suggests that a recently discovered, ubiquitously expressed endoplasmic reticulum lumenal protein, ERp29, may complement this group of ER chaperones.
www.lycos.com /info/endoplasmic-reticulum--cells.html   (368 words)

  
 endoplasmic reticulum
The membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) surround an inner cavity called the lumen and enclose a series of tubes and flattened membranous areas.
The ER membranes actually attach to the cell membrane and the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope as well as the Golgi apparatus in the cytoplasm.
Rough ER has large numbers of ribosomes attached to it and is where new proteins are assembled in the cell (see protein translation).
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/E/endoplasmic_reticulum.html   (293 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum | World of Biology
A major component of the internal membrane system of eukaroytic cells (those with nuclei), the endoplasmic reticulum (or ER) is an enclosed network of membranous tubules, vesicles, and flattened cisternae (bags) extending throughout the cytoplasm of most cells.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is generally made up of extensive membrane sheets, the cytoplasmic surfaces of which are studded with ribosomes that carry out synthesis of proteins to be embedded in membranes, sequestered in endomembrane compartments or exported out of the cell.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is composed of a branching network of membranous tubules.
www.bookrags.com /research/endoplasmic-reticulum-wob   (288 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of folded membranes that form channels.
All eukaryotic cells have endoplasmic reticulum except the red blood cells of mammals.
The membranes of the ER are concentrated in the inner region of the cell, the endoplasmic region.
sln.fi.edu /qa97/biology/cells/cell5.html   (353 words)

  
 The Golgi Complex
As you will recall from a previous presentation on rough endoplasmic reticulum we saw that they are inserted in the membrane at the level of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Sometimes vital proteins needed in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are transported along with the other proteins in the Golgi complex.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum has inserted a receptor protein on the membrane it sends to the Golgi complex in the transitional vesicles (shown in green).
www.cytochemistry.net /Cell-biology/golgi.htm   (1189 words)

  
 Endoplasmic reticulum Summary
The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm," reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells.
The ER is the site of the translation, folding, and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral membrane proteins) as well as proteins that are to be secreted or "exocytosed" from the cell (e.g., digestive enzymes).
The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, including the facilitation of protein folding and the transport of proteins.
www.bookrags.com /Endoplasmic_reticulum   (966 words)

  
 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
is the endoplasmic reticulum which does not have ribosomes attached to it.
So is called the endoplasmic reticulum when covered with ribosomes.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is membraneous organelle that begins at the nucleus and is involved in the protein synthesis.
www.bioanim.com /cellTissueHumanBody6/Htmlwd/celER1wd.html   (178 words)

  
 Endoplasmic reticulum - Human pathology
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive three-dimensional network that stretches from the inner nuclear envelope to the cell cortex with a single, continuous membrane and a single, continuous lumen.
Hebert DN, Garman SC, Molinari M. The glycan code of the endoplasmic reticulum: asparagine-linked carbohydrates as protein maturation and quality-control tags.
Patil C, Walter P: Intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus: the unfolded protein response in yeast and mammals.
www.humpath.com /article.php3?id_article=252   (252 words)

  
 Animal Portal - Animal Cells
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum appears to be smooth because it lacks ribosomes on the cytoplasmic surface.
Here the products of the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and sorted then sent to their destination.
Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane are made by rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transferred to a Golgi apparatus.
www.animalport.com /animal-cells.html   (580 words)

  
 Ribosomes on the Rough endoplasmic reticulum
This is to allow the interaction of the signal sequence with a complex on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Another cartoon view of this process shows the signal receptor peptide (SRP) that associates with the large subunit of the ribosome that allows binding to the receptor on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
It shows the insertion of a double pass transmembrane protein with the loop inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
www.cytochemistry.net /Cell-biology/rer2.htm   (1230 words)

  
 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is to synthesize and export proteins and glycoproteins.
The rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is a series of connected vesicles and flattened sacs.
The Endoplasmic reticulum is compatible with the Golgi Complex, which performs three major functions.
sun.menloschool.org /~birchler/cells/animals/rough_er   (215 words)

  
 [No title]
Proteins that permanently reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) seem to be distinguished from newly synthesized secretory proteins by the presence of the C-terminal sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) [1, 2].
While KDEL is the preferred signal in many species, and is used in vertebrates, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and plants, variants of that signal are used by different species.
IPR013331 Endoplasmic reticulum ERp29-type, C-terminal 146 - 257
www.ebi.ac.uk /interpro/IEntry?ac=IPR000886   (397 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum
[Electron Micrograph of a plant cell's endoplasmic reticulum.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is repsonible for the production of the protein and lipid components of most of the cell's organelles.
The smooth ER is where the vesicles carrying newly synthesized proteins (from the rough ER) are budded off.
library.thinkquest.org /C004535/endoplasmic_reticulum.html   (127 words)

  
 CELLS alive!
Throughout the eucaryotic cell, especially those responsible for the production of hormones and other secretory products, is a vast amount of membrane called the endoplasmic reticulum, or ER for short.
When viewed by electron microscopy, some areas of the endoplasmic reticulum look "smooth" (smooth ER) and some appear "rough" (rough ER).
The rough ER appears rough due to the presence of ribosomes on the membrane surface.
www.cellsalive.com /cells/er.htm   (194 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a system of membrane-enclosed sacs and tubules in the cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum is the site where the cell manufactures
The sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells is SER.
home.comcast.net /~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/E/ER.html   (360 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The endoplasmic reticulum (or ER), is made up of many membranes.
In some cells these membranes extend, layer after layer, all the way from the nucleus to the cell surface.
Smooth ER is responsible for the making of cholesterol, the absorption,production, transport, and use of fats, and for muscle cell contraction.
www.angelfire.com /mn/frunky/reticulum.html   (129 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Description; All endoplasmic reticulum consists of networks of interconnecting flattened sacs, tubes and channels through which fluids can move.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum has in addition ribosomes which are directly connected to its function.
Function of SER; Lipid and steroid synthesis and transport.
web.ukonline.co.uk /adrastea13/CellUltrastructure/endoplasmic_reticulum.htm   (53 words)

  
 Life Science Safari - Endoplasmic Reticulum
The ER is like a system of conveyors moving materials from one place to another
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell.
The ER extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane and takes up quite a bit of space in some cells.
vilenski.org /science/safari/cellstructure/er.html   (105 words)

  
 A Web Atlas of Cellular Structures: Endoplasmic Reticulum
These images show the distribution of the endoplasmic reticulum in cultured epithelial cells.
The eukaryotic cell contains extensive internal membrane systems, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus.
A fluorescently stained image of the endoplasmic reticulum (green).
www.itg.uiuc.edu /technology/atlas/structures/reticulum   (270 words)

  
 Endoplasmic Reticulum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membranous labyrinth so extensive that it accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells.
The word endoplasmic means "within" the cytoplasm, and the word reticulum is derived from a word meaning "network." The ER consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae.
This makes it easier to flush the toxic out of the body.
www.stemnet.nf.ca /~dpower/cell/er.htm   (241 words)

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