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Topic: English declension


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  Declension - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role.
Declension is seen, for example, in many Indo-European languages like Latin, German and Sanskrit; in Dravidian languages like Tamil; in Finnish; in Swahili and many others.
In modern English grammar, the same information is now mostly conveyed with word order and prepositions, though a few remnants of the older declined form of English still exist (for example, in pronouns, such as "he" vs. "him"; see Declension in English).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Declension   (554 words)

  
 English Language - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
English is descended from the language spoken by the Germanic tribes (the Frisians, Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) that migrated to the land that would become known as England.
English is also one of the primary languages of Belize (with Spanish), Canada (with French), India (Hindi and English in addition to 21 other state languages), Ireland (with Irish), Singapore (with Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and other Asian languages) and South Africa (along with Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, and Northern Sotho).
English is the most widely used "second" and "learning" language in the world, and as such, many linguists believe, it is no longer the exclusive cultural emblem of "native English speakers", but rather a language that is absorbing aspects of cultures worldwide as it grows in use.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /english_language.htm   (2866 words)

  
 Nominative-accusative language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
If the language has morphological case, then the direct object is marked with a case conventionally known as "accusative", while the subject is marked with another case called "nominative".
English has no morphological case distinction between nominative and accusative, except for the pronouns, and it relies solely on word order to differentiate subject and object.
Old English had a similar system to German, which gradually disappeared from use.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nominative-accusative_language   (430 words)

  
 Bambooweb: English language
English is descended from the language spoken by the Germanic tribes, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
English belongs to the western sub-branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
English is also one of the primary languages of Belize (with Spanish), Canada (with French), India (Hindi and English in addition to 17 other state languages), Ireland (with Irish), Singapore (with Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and other Asian languages) and South Africa (but Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans and Northern Sotho [combined?] are more spoken).
www.bambooweb.com /articles/e/n/English_language.html   (2356 words)

  
 Who (pronoun) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The pronoun who, in the English language, is the interrogative and relative pronoun that is used to refer to human beings and some animals perceived as sentient.
Formal Queen's English grammar prescribes that "who" is a subjective pronoun, and that "whom" is the corresponding objective pronoun.
However, in informal English (and increasingly more so in some formal situations as well, especially in American English), "whom" is dying in most dialects; "who" has become far more common than "whom" for both subject and object forms.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Whom   (478 words)

  
 Declension in English - Encyclopedia, History and Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Old English distinguished between the nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, and instrumental cases.
Declension fell into disuse during the Middle English period, when accusative and dative pronouns merged into a single objective pronoun.
Modern English morphologically distinguishes only one case, the possessive case — which some linguists argue is not a case at all, but a clitic (see the entry for genitive case for more information).
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Declension_in_English   (484 words)

  
 Declension: Definition of Declension in Webster's Dictionary 1913 Edition - Wunder Dictionary
A falling off towards a worse state; a downward tendency; deterioration; decay; as, the declension of virtue, of science, of a state, etc.
Act of courteously refusing; act of declining; a declinature; refusal; as, the declension of a nomination.
The form of the inflection of a word declined by cases; as, the first or the second declension of nouns, adjectives, etc.
websters.wunderdictionary.com /dictionary/def/english/declension.html   (111 words)

  
 Accusative case - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Modern English, which lacks declension in its nouns, still has an explicitly marked accusative case in a few pronouns as a remnant of Old English, an earlier declined form of the language.
Most modern English grammarians feel that due to the lack of declension except in a few pronouns, where accusative and dative have been merged, that making case distinctions in English is no longer relevant, and frequently employ the term objective case instead (see Declension in English).
In English, which has mostly lost the case system, the definite article and noun — "the car" — remain in the same form regardless of the grammatical role played by the words.
www.kernersville.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Accusative_case   (413 words)

  
 Dative case - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Old English language, current until approximately the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066, had a dative case; however, the English case system gradually fell into disuse during the Middle English period, when the accusative and dative pronouns merged into a single objective pronoun used in both roles.
This merging of accusative and dative functionality in Middle and Modern English has led most modern grammarians to discard the "accusative" and "dative" labels in English as obsolete, in favor of the term "objective".
The pronoun whom is also a remnant of the dative case in English, descending from the Old English dative pronoun "hwām" (as opposed to the nominative "who", which descends from Old English "hwā") — though "whom" also absorbed the functions of the Old English accusative pronoun "hwone".
www.sevenhills.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Dative   (707 words)

  
 Vocative case - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In Latin the vocative case of a noun is the same as the nominative, except for masculine singular second declension nouns that have the ending -us in the nominative case.
When Latin names in the vocative case are translated into English, the nominative case is usually used, as English simply uses the nominative case for vocative expressions but sets them off from the rest of the sentences with pauses as interjections (rendered in writing as commas) (see below).
In English the vocative case is not marked, but English syntax performs a similar function; witness: "John, could you come here?" or "I don't think so, John", where "John" is neither subject nor object of the verb, but rather indicates the person to whom the statement is being addressed.
www.secaucus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Vocative_case   (936 words)

  
 §3. Changes in Grammar. XIX. Changes in the Language to the Days of Chaucer. Vol. 1. From the Beginnings to the ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The most striking characteristic of Old English, as compared with later stages of the language, is that it retained without essential change the inflectional system which it possessed at the beginning of its history.
The Gothic declension of this noun, it will be seen, has only one weak point, namely, that the accusative plural had assumed the form of the nominative.
To the extensive declensions thus arising all nouns ending in -e came to be assimilated, including feminine nouns in which this ending had been extended from the oblique cases to the nominative singular, such as honde hand (Old English hond, dative honda), sunne sin (Old English synn, dative synne).
www.bonus.com /contour/bartlettqu/http@@/www.bartleby.com/211/1903.html   (1135 words)

  
 §4. Old English Grammar; Changes in Declension. XIX. Changes in the Language to the Days of Chaucer. Vol. 1. From ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The forms of the Old English pronouns of the third person, in all dialects, were, in several instances, curiously near to being alike in pronunciation.
In southern Middle English the resulting ambiguities remained unremedied; but in the north and a great part of the midlands, they were got rid of by the process (very rare in the history of languages) of adopting pronouns from a foreign tongue.
In many parts of these regions the Danes and Northmen formed the majority, or a powerful minority, of the population, and it is from their language that we obtain the words now written they, their, them and, perphaps, also she, though its precise orgin is not clear.
www.bartleby.com /211/1904.html   (647 words)

  
 Articles - Genitive case   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It is a common misconception that English nouns have a genitive case, marked by the possessive -'s ending.
Linguists generally believe that English possessive is no longer a case at all, but has become a clitic, an independent particle which, however, is always pronounced as part of the preceding word.
That is not to say that the English possessive did not have its origins as a genitive case; but it has developed into being a clitic instead.
www.lastring.com /articles/Genitive?mySession=89e744f22e316a0652cdd2bfd3f70056   (686 words)

  
 Writer's Block - Writing Tips - Reflexive Pronouns
Personal pronouns are grammatically more complex than nouns, partly because their declensions (lists of grammatical forms) have not been compressed to the extent that noun declensions have.
In English, the thing or person can be the subject of the verb action (nominative case), the receiver (object) of the verb action or the object of a preposition (objective case), or the owner of something (possessive case).
Luckily, while every Latin declension expresses six cases and two numbers (twelve forms in total), a typical noun declension in English expresses just two cases and two numbers (four forms in total).
www.writersblock.ca /tips/monthtip/tipapr97.htm   (652 words)

  
 Preposition
In English usage, prescriptivists often argue that, since prepositions are usually meant to come before the words they modify, one should not end a sentence with a preposition.
Latin was the literary language among English speakers in the Middle Ages, and Church Latin remains the language of the Catholic Church to this day.
Historically, English was in fact an inflected language, relying on cases instead of word order to convey grammatical information.
www.askfactmaster.com /Of   (704 words)

  
 Declension in English -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Modern English no longer uses declension, except for remnants of the former system in a few (A function word that is used in place of a noun or noun phrase) pronouns.
The word "whom" itself began falling into widespread disuse in the (Click link for more info and facts about 20th century) 20th century, and is being replaced by merely "who".
Instead, the term (The lens or system of lenses nearest the object being viewed) objective is often used; that is, "whom" is a generic objective pronoun which can describe either a direct or an indirect object.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/D/De/Declension_in_English.htm   (911 words)

  
 Livid's Lividict - Declension   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A falling off towards a worse state; a downward tendency; deterioration; decay; as, the declension of virtue, of science, of a state, etc. Seduced the pitch and height of all his thoughts To base declension.
{Declension of the needle}, declination of the needle.
[1913 Webster] {Declension of the needle}, declination of the needle.
livid.3322.org /lookup/Declension.html   (649 words)

  
 Declension - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This is seen, for example, in Latin, German, Russian, and many other languages.
For an example of a language that uses a large number of cases, see Finnish language noun cases.
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean have systems similar to declension whereby different counting words are used when counting different classes of nouns, for example persons, animals, things, cylindrical objects, flat objects, etc.
www.secaucus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Declension   (535 words)

  
 Reviews: Karen Mohs, Latin's Not So Tough -- Homeschool Christian.com
Declension and verb endings are explained in the context of sentences, and many exercises are used to reinforce the endings; yet, the grammatical terms (direct object, accusative case, etc.) are never mentioned to the student.
The present active indicative tense and all five cases for first and second declension are taught.
Third, fourth, and fifth declensions and the third and fourth conjugations are covered.
www.homeschoolchristian.com /Reviews/Mohs.html   (1365 words)

  
 Cases in Indo-European Languages: an article by Cyril Babaev
Old English had some relics of instrumental in pronominal declension, and the word why is simply the instrumental case of the pronoun what.
Old English, for example, used all four Common Germanic cases for nouns (nom., gen., dat., acc.), though some noun classes were already about to unify all indirect cases endings.
Middle English had three cases, but they were already going closer to each other until they finally became two which still exist in Modern English, though some limitations of usage of possessive case allow us to think that some day English will become, back like the earliest Proto-Indo-European, a language without any declension.
indoeuro.bizland.com /archive/article10.html   (2973 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Books: Origins and Development of the English Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
He was an associate editor of the Oxford Companion to the English Language and editor of volume 6 of the Cambridge History of the English Language on English in North America.
Yet English was once nearly as inflected as Russian, having in common five of that language's six noun cases: the Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, and Instrumental, each with corresponding pronominal and adjectival declension.
English is a sub-group of the Germanic branch.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/015500168X?v=glance   (1056 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
English is descended from the language spoken by the Germanic tribes, the Angles, Saxons, and
Norman conquest and from French in further centuries; as a result, a substantial share of English vocabulary is very close to the French, with some slight spelling differences (word endings, use of old French spellings, etc.) and some occasional lapses in meaning.
English is also one of the primary languages of Belize (with
en-cyclopedia.com /wiki/English_language   (2262 words)

  
 Spymac IV :: Forums :: Hangouts :: Lounge :: English: what do you HATE about it?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
English is kind of squooshed-together French and German, but also with lots of Greek and Latin (and other languages) thrown in.
I was really bad at english when in school but then after the school I realised it was an useful thing so I try to keep learning it.
Not that english words are hard to say, it's more like : there is no way to tell how an english word is pronunced untill you hear it.
www.spymac.com /forums/showthread.php?threadid=132288   (1078 words)

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