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Topic: Enigma cipher machine


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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  
  Enigma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Enigma (novel), a novel by Robert Harris based on the cracking of the Enigma cipher machine
The Enigma of Arrival, a 1987 novel by Nobel laureate V.S. Naipaul
Enigma (Wing Commander), a fictional region in the Wing Commander universe
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Enigma   (239 words)

  
 Enigma machine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Enigma was used commercially from the early 1920s on, and was also adopted by the military and governmental services of a number of nations — most famously by Nazi Germany before and during World War II (WWII).
Although the Enigma cipher has cryptographic weaknesses, it was, in practice, only their combination with other significant factors which allowed codebreakers to read messages: mistakes by operators, procedural flaws, and the occasional captured machine or codebook.
Several copies of commercial Enigmas were purchased by the German Navy, leading to adoption of an adapted machine by the Navy in 1926, termed the Funkschlüssel C (Radio cipher C); the machine was revised slightly in 1933.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Enigma_machine   (5607 words)

  
 Deutsches Museum - Masterpieces - Enigma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Among the special machines that were invented and further developed over several decades to simplify the routine enciphering and deciphering of code, the Enigma machine is probably the most well known example around the world.
Thus, Enigma's role as hero is rather a negative one as far as its technical superiority and importance to the German final victory are concerned.
In Germany, the Enigma was taken over by the Reichswehr (German Army of the Reich), and when the massive military build-up began under Adolf Hitler in 1933, the Enigma machine remained part of the programme.
www.deutsches-museum.de /ausstell/meister/e_enigma.htm   (1123 words)

  
 Cryptography -- Enigma Cipher   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Enigma cipher is most well known for it's contributions to World War II on the Germans' side.
The machine was based on a system of three rotors that substituted cipher text letters for plain text letters.
The Enigma cipher was eventually broken by Alan Turing and a group of scientists at a later date during the war.
www.trincoll.edu /depts/cpsc/cryptography/enigma.html   (602 words)

  
 The Enigma cipher machine
Without an actual machine and the cipher key and the correct placement of each rotor would it be impossible to understand a ciphered message.
The Poles began to suspect a machine ciphered the cryptograms, this notion was confirmed by either spies, or German radioman chatter.
It was especially important to obtain German naval ciphers because the German navy, by the start of the war, equipped their enigmas with five rotors instead of three making their messages much harder to decipher than those of the Luftwaffe or the Army.
web.usna.navy.mil /~wdj/sm230_cooper_enigma.html   (2604 words)

  
 BBC - h2g2 - The Enigma Cipher Machine
Enigma was the Allied code name for the German cipher machine, used throughout the Second World War.
The Enigma machine was enclosed in a wooden case, approximately 18 inches wide, two inches deep and standing ten inches high.
Enigma: The Battle for the Code by Hugh Sebag-Montefiore is an excellent factual account of events at Bletchley Park and the battle to crack naval Enigma codes.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/collective/A653276   (1335 words)

  
 BletchleyPark.net - Enigma
Although, arguably the most famous cipher machine in the history of cryptography, the Enigma machine is a clunky and slowly operative mechanical device (comparing it with today's computers).
In fact, Enigma's precursor was the very first known mechanized cipher, known as the cipher disk, invented by Leon Alberti, an Italian architect in the 1400's.
However, it was very important that the receiver's machine was set up exactly the same way the sender's machine was before that same message was sent as per the key of the day or else the intended message would not be the same.
www.bletchleypark.net /stationx/enigma.html   (1358 words)

  
 Cryptologia: commercial enigma: Beginnings of machine cryptography, The   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Enigma A (Figure 3 and Figure 4) followed closely the original Scherbius patent in construction, and consisted of four rotors which were driven by four geared wheels.
The reflecting rotor in Enigma C (Figure 7) could not be set and was confined to one of two possible positions in the machine.
By 1928, early models of the redesigned Wehrmacht machine, denoted model G, were in use, and in June 1930, the final"revised standard" version of the device, Enigma I came into use by the Army.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3926/is_200201/ai_n9051749   (1549 words)

  
 The Cryptographic Mathematics of Enigma
Enigma cryptographers had a choice of how many different cables could be inserted (from zero to thirteen) and which letters were connected.
One interesting characteristic of the machine is that the maximum number of combinations did not occur at 13 as might be expected, but rather when the operators used eleven plugboard cables.
The fourth variable component of the machine was a moveable ring on each of the rotors; each ring contained a notch in a specific location.
www.nsa.gov /publications/publi00004.cfm   (3887 words)

  
 The Polish Attack on Enimga
Inside the machine there was originally a set of three rotors, otherwise known as rotating drums, and a "reversing drum" all mounted on one axle.
The design of the Enigma machine allowed the user to "type" the plain text while the letters of the cipher text lit in the appropriate windows and, conversely, when one "typed" out a cipher text, the letter illumination spelled out the plain text.
Jerzy Rozycki, one of the mathematicians, christened this new machine.
www.math.ucsd.edu /~crypto/students/enigma.html   (5527 words)

  
 Enigma [Australian War Memorial]
This is the codename for the cipher machine developed from a design patented by a Dutchman, Hugo Koch, in 1919.
Impressed by its security, which was based on statistical analysis, the German government acquired all rights to the machine and adapted it to the needs of its new, modern military forces.
The Poles were reading some ENIGMA traffic by 1932, the French in 1938 and the British in 1940.
www.awm.gov.au /encyclopedia/enigma.htm   (242 words)

  
 WW-2 German ENIGMA Army Cipher Machine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This machine escaped destruction because it was hidden in an attic where it was discovered recently.
The machine was originally designed to operate with an external voltage or a 4-volt battery which is not available.
However, the machine can be operated with two 1.5- volt flashlight batteries which help prolong the life of the extremely rare 4- volt light bulbs.
w1tp.com /2142   (209 words)

  
 Bletchley Park
The machine was available commercially during the 1920s, but the military potential of the device was quickly realised and the German army, navy and air force all used a more developed model of the machine to encipher their messages believing that it would make these communications impenetrable to the enemy.
The Enigma machine is an electro-mechanical device that relies on a series of rotating 'wheels' or ‘rotors’ to scramble plaintext messages into incoherent ciphertext.
The fact that on an Enigma machine no letter can be enciphered as itself made guessing a small part of the text even easier.
www.bletchleypark.org.uk /page.cfm?pageid=206   (815 words)

  
 Enigma and a way to its decryption
Mechanical ciphering devices based on rings and cylinders have been described as early as in the 4th century B.C. The Roman Aeneas Tacitus talked about a cipher disk and its usage [6].
Enigma was patented by Arthur Scherbius in 1918, an inventor who thought of it as a ciphering device for businesses that needed to communicate confidential documents.
To decrypt the message, the machine must be set to the same starting state, and the cipher text is entered.
www.cs.miami.edu /~harald/enigma/enigma.html   (3057 words)

  
 The enigma code machine
The Enigma cipher machine, designed to protect the secrecy of business messages, was adapted for the purposes of combat.
Additional refinements to the machine, during the war increased its complexity, thus making the messages harder and harder to decipher.
The Enigma machine looks a like an old-fashioned typewriter, but it has several components unlike a typewriter: a plug board, a light board, a keyboard, a set of rotors and reflector (half rotor).
ilil.essortment.com /secretenigmaco_rqzc.htm   (474 words)

  
 The Enigma Talk   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
I have now lent my Enigma machine to Claire Greer so that she can take codes and code breaking into the classroom much more frequently.
The Enigma can also be hired for exhibitions or by companies, and if I am available then I can give talks at conferences, to employees or to senior executives.
The Enigma machine can also be hired as an extravagant prop to kick-start a crypto talk that you might be giving.
www.simonsingh.net /Enigma_Lecture.html   (262 words)

  
 ACCU - C Vu Issue 11.1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Enigma Cipher Machine makes a good C, C++ or GUI project, but the best of the latter tend to be platform specific.
The 3 wheel Enigma as used by the Army, Air Force and Navy was supplied with a set of 5 wheels marked I — V. The Navy later added wheels VI, VII and VIII and also modified the machine to produce a 4-wheel version; using a thin reflector accommodated the fourth wheel.
Naval Enigma machines are engraved A-Z instead of the 01-26 markings usually found on the Army/Air Force machine.
www.accu.org /cvusample/public/11.1/18_enigma.htm   (1057 words)

  
 The German Enigma Cipher Machine - History of Solving
In the winter of 1932, Marian Rejewski, a twenty-seven-year-old Cryptoanalyst working in the Cipher Bureau of the Polish Intelligence Service in Warsaw, Poland mathematically determined the wiring of the Enigma's first rotor.
Soon after the War broke out, on October 20 the Polish Team of 15 Cryptographers restarted work on the Enigma Machine in the Chateau de Vignolles, 25 miles northwest of Paris, France in the secret unit named "Bruno".
New movie produced in UK (Enigma) presents a real threat to historical accuracy and common sense, picturing a fictitious Polish Officer collaborating with the Nazis.
www.enigmahistory.org /enigma.html   (334 words)

  
 The Infography about the Enigma Cipher Machine
The German Enigma Cipher Machine: History of Solving.
Miller, A.R. The The Cryptographic Mathematics of Enigma.
Wilcox, J. Solving the Enigma: History of the Cryptanalytic Bombe.
www.infography.com /content/573218937298.html   (336 words)

  
 [No title]
Initially broken by Polish cryptanalysts, Enigma decrypts from British and later American efforts were given the covername ULTRA to reflect the value of the information.
Since each of the three rotors could be initially set into one of twenty-six different positions, the total number of combinations of rotor key settings was 263 or 17,576.
Movement of that fourth rotor would prevent a four-rotor Naval Enigma from communicating with a three-rotor Army Enigma, for example.
ed-thelen.org /comp-hist/NSA-Comb.html   (4013 words)

  
 ENIGMA CIPHER MACHINE OPERATION AND WIRING DIAGRAMS
The Enigma cipher machine consists of a battery and a series of keys and switches which determine which of the 26 light bulbs will illuminate one of the 26 letters of the alphabet.
In order for this to work, the Receiving Enigma machine must be set to the same STARTING POSITION as the Sending Enigma Machine was set to.
Since there are heptillions of possible starting positions, even if an enemy has an Enigma machine, it is virtually impossible for them to decode the ciphertext since they would not know the proper STARTING POSITION.
w1tp.com /enigma/mewirg.htm   (508 words)

  
 Alan Turing Scrapbook - The Enigma War
In its military use, the basic machine was greatly enhanced by a plugboard, visible on the front of the machine.
The ciphers it produced were supposed to be unbreakable even by someone in possession of the machine.
The Nova site has some good material about the Enigma and the codebreaking process, though nothing about the central principle of the Bombe which was Turing's main contribution, and on which everything depended.
www.turing.org.uk /turing/scrapbook/ww2.html   (1909 words)

  
 The National Cryptologic Museum
The Enigma cipher machine used by the German forces during World War II.
Newer Enigma cipher machine used by the German forces during World War II.
Special Rotors for communicating with Hitler using the Enigma cipher machine.
www.rh.edu /~rhb/NSA   (109 words)

  
 Enigma Simulator
This program is an exact simulation of the 3-rotor Wehrmacht and the famous 4-rotor Kriegmarine M4 model of the German Enigma cipher machine, used during World War II from 1939 until 1945.
The program comes with a very complete helpfile, containing the manual, some original messages, the history of Enigma and all technical details of the machine.
Enigma Museum and Chris Valentine from KMi The Open University for the pictures in the gallery, and
users.telenet.be /d.rijmenants/en/enigmasim.htm   (272 words)

  
 The German Enigma Cipher Machine - History of Solving
Enigma : How the German Cipher Was Broken, and How it Was Read by the Allies in WWII by Wladyslaw Kozaczuk / Hardcover / Published Ed.
Enigma, ou la plus grande enigme de la guerre 1939-1945, Gustave Bertrand, Paris - Plon, 1973.
Codes and Ciphers : An A to Z of Covert Communication, from the Clay Tablet to the Microdot by Fred B. Wrixon / Paperback, 260 pages / Published by MacMillan General 1992
www.enigmahistory.org /orderbooks.html   (685 words)

  
 Subsim.com Radio Room :: View topic - Build your own Enigma cipher machine!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The machine can be used to decode real war- time Enigma messages as well as encrypting your own messages.
I forgot to tell that it is a bit smaller than a real Enigma (it measures about 22 * 20 * 11 cm) and it weighs 1.8 kg (about 4 pounds), batteries included.
I think the point is that you need two Enigma machines for them to actually be of any use to you, unless you have a stack of encoded wartime messages with that days rotor settings noted somewhere, otherwise you're almost in the same boat as Bletchley Park were.
www.subsim.com /phpBB/viewtopic.php?t=35608   (1300 words)

  
 Enigma cipher machine , Bletchley park
cipher - decipher machines and modern day simulation software.
Enigma treatise written while working as cryptanalyst at Bletchley Park.
Build a modern day digital electronic version of the Enigma Machine.
www.weathercharts.org /enigma.htm   (78 words)

  
 German Enigma Cipher Machine: Beginnings, Success, and Ultimate Failure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The nazi Enigma cipher machine, or rather the code that came from it would also have remained indeterminable had an operator not made a very simple error.
The editors provide a concise introduction to bring readers into synch with the papers here, and a number of contributors offer reviews of related books and other materials.
How Statistics Led the Germans to Believe Enigma Secure and Why They Were Wrong: Neglecting the Practical Mathematics of Cipher Machines
www.booksmatter.com /b1580539963.htm   (231 words)

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