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Topic: Enigma machine

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In the News (Fri 18 Apr 14)

  Enigma Machine
This version, the Enigma I, became known as the Wehrmacht Enigma and was introduced on a large scale to the German Army and public authorities.
In 1941, although reassured by the Abwehr that the Enigma M3 was unbreakable, Admiral Karl D├Ânitz insisted on improvement of the Kriegsmarine Enigma.
Although Enigma was very well designed and offered, for those days, an unbreakable security, the negligent use in the German Armed Forces and the compromised codebook material enabled the codebreakers to turn the best kept secret of the war into a Trojan horse and give the kick-off for cryptographic intelligence.
users.telenet.be /d.rijmenants/en/enigma.htm   (2692 words)

  Enigma Machine | World of Computer Science
The Enigma was a machine used by the German military before and during World War II to encrypt messages.
The Enigma, as pictured above, was roughly the size of a typewriter, and it possessed a keyboard similar to a typewriter's keyboard in that it possessed all the letters of the alphabet, but the top "number" row was absent.
The fundamental idea behind the Enigma machine was that pressing a key on the keyboard sent an electric signal through the rotors and changed (or "encrypted") the input character.
www.bookrags.com /research/enigma-machine-wcs   (827 words)

  Enigma machine information - Search.com
The machine has gained notoriety because Allied cryptologists were able to decrypt a large number of messages that had been enciphered on the machine.
Although the Enigma cipher has cryptographic weaknesses, it was, in practice, only their combination with other significant factors which allowed codebreakers to read messages: mistakes by operators, procedural flaws, and the occasional captured machine or codebook.
In early Enigma models, the alphabet ring is fixed; a complication introduced in later versions is the facility to adjust the alphabet ring relative to the core wiring.
www.search.com /reference/Enigma_machine   (6170 words)

 Enigma machine - Definition, explanation
The Enigma was used commercially from the early 1920s on, and was also adopted by the military and governmental services of a number of nations — most famously by Nazi Germany before and during World War II (WWII).
Although the Enigma cipher has cryptographic weaknesses, it was, in practice, only their combination with other significant factors which allowed codebreakers to read messages: mistakes by operators, procedural flaws, and the occasional captured machine or codebook.
Several copies of commercial Enigmas were purchased by the German Navy, leading to adoption of an adapted machine by the Navy in 1926, termed the Funkschl├╝ssel C (Radio cipher C); the machine was revised slightly in 1933.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/e/en/enigma_machine.php   (4735 words)

 Enigma Machine
The Enigma machine was used by all branches of the German military as their main device for secure wireless communications until the end of World War 2.
Typing the encrypted message on his Enigma machine with the same combination of settings deciphered it, so that the operator read the original free text message by the letters lit in the upper board as he typed.
In the age before digital electronics and computers, code breaking the ciphered messages produced by the Enigma machine was almost impossible even if the code breaker had a working copy of the Enigma machine, as long as he didn't know the right combination of initial electric and mechanical settings, which were also periodically changed.
www.2worldwar2.com /enigma.htm   (1410 words)

 Enigma machine up for sale on eBay | The Register
The machine was made in 1941 but the serial numbers have been removed, making it impossible to tell who it was used by.
An Enigma machine was stolen from Bletchley Park, home to UK code breakers during the Second World War, in 2000.
The machines were first made during the 1920s and were used commercially before becoming synonymous with the Nazis.
www.theregister.co.uk /2006/03/29/enigma_for_sale   (407 words)

 Enigma Machine
The third rotor was connected to a reflector (unique to the Enigma family amongst the various rotor machines designed in the period) which was hard wired to feed outputs of the third rotor back into different contacts of the third rotor, thence back to the first rotor, but by a different route.
The machine was symmetrical in the sense that decypherment works in the same way as encypherment: type in the encyphered text and the sequence of lit lamps will correspond to the plain text.
Enigma operators were at first given a new book every month that contained the initial settings for the machine.
www.security.teleactivities.net /security/cryptography/introduction/enigma_machine.html   (4925 words)

 Smart Computing Encyclopedia Entry - Enigma Machine   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Enigma Machine was a cryptographic device the Nazis used to encode secret messages between soldiers and officials, including such vital information as attack plans.
Essentially the Enigma machine was an encoding device that used a modification of the Caesar shift, an ancient form of cryptography in which a letter was shifted a certain number of spaces.
A letter was typed into the machine and each rotor performed a single Caesar shift.
www.smartcomputing.com /editorial/dictionary/detail.asp?guid=8CF5E5CB35CB42E1857F6F42970E2A2C&searchtype=1&DicID=17188&RefType=Encyclopedia   (285 words)

The German Enigma is surely the best known of the WW2 cipher machines used by either side in the conflict.
Enigma is an electro-mechanical device that utilizes a stepping wheel system to 'scramble' a plaintext message to produce ciphertext via polyalphabetic substitution.
Enigma was set up according to whatever procedural instructions prevailed at the time by adjusting the following parameters.
www.eclipse.net /~dhamer/Enigma1.htm   (550 words)

 The Enigma cipher machine
The Enigma machine was an entirely different ciphering machine, it used an electrical system to change a plain text messages into code.
They were then able to secretly dispatch their submarines, using the Enigma machine to send coded information; submarines could be repositioned to ambush the vulnerable merchant vessels.
The Poles began to suspect a machine ciphered the cryptograms, this notion was confirmed by either spies, or German radioman chatter.
web.usna.navy.mil /~wdj/sm230_cooper_enigma.html   (2604 words)

 Bletchley Park Post Office - First Day Covers, Enigma Machine, Post Office History
The Germans placed a lot of confidence in the security of the Enigma machine because they thought that the probability of breaking a message would be too great for their enemies.
Through the confiscated Enigma machines, and some developed machines, the mathematicians were able to break the codes.
Without the knowledge of the state of the machine when the original message was typed in, it is extremely difficult to decode a message.
www.bletchleycovers.co.uk /history/history_enigma_machine.asp   (791 words)

 jambeCodec_Enigma - JAMBE's Online Enigma Machine
This Enigma Machine is very simple it works off only 3 rotors (I think the german enigma used 7).
This does make it easier to understand, and it is compatible with my buggy c++ code and my paper and scissors enigma machine.
Enigma machines basicly works like a substitution cypher except that the cypher changes for each letter.
homepages.maxnet.co.nz /brunnies/EnigmaApplet.html   (358 words)

 About Enigma and Its Decryption
The 'wiring' of the machine is altered after each letter by rotating the first rotor by one position (and the next after 26 letters), thus pressing the same plaintext letter twice is unlikely to result in the same cyphertext letter.
The result was the withdrawal from the market of the enigma machine which then continued to be produced and refined for military use.
The Enigma and the procedures with which it was used had a number of weaknesses which were exploited by the Germans' opponents to probe into the tactical and strategic secrets of the German military.
homepages.tesco.net /~andycarlson/enigma/about_enigma.html   (2273 words)

 Cryptography -- Enigma Cipher
The Enigma cipher is most well known for it's contributions to World War II on the Germans' side.
When a letter was typed on the keyboard of the machine, it was first sent through the first rotor, which would shift the letter according to its present setting.
The Enigma cipher was eventually broken by Alan Turing and a group of scientists at a later date during the war.
www.trincoll.edu /depts/cpsc/cryptography/enigma.html   (602 words)

 Bletchley Park : The Machines
The machine was available commercially during the 1920s, but the military potential of the device was quickly realised and the German army, navy and air force all used a more developed model of the machine to encipher their messages believing that it would make these communications impenetrable to the enemy.
The Enigma machine is an electro-mechanical device that relies on a series of rotating 'wheels' or ‘rotors’ to scramble plaintext messages into incoherent ciphertext.
However, with the help of Polish mathematicians who had managed to acquire a machine prior to the outbreak of WW2, British code breakers stationed at Bletchley Park managed to exploit weaknesses in the machine and how it was used and were able to crack the Enigma code.
www.bletchleypark.org.uk /content/machines.rhtm   (925 words)

 BBC News | UK | Enigma machine deadline passes
The Enigma machine, one of only three remaining, was stolen from the Bletchley Park museum during an open day in April.
The Nazis encoded their messages on special machines and the stolen one is one of only three remaining.
The claims are being treated seriously because a photocopy of the identification plate of the G312 machine was enclosed in an earlier letter, while the latest quotes a codeword used in earlier demands.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/uk/958062.stm   (407 words)

 British section of the Audio Engineering Society
This event combined a lecture on Enigma Machines, by Jon Paul of Scientific Conversions, with a visit to Bletchley Park, where the Enigma machine-coded messages were decoded by teams of experts during World War II.
Jon began by stating that the coding machines and methods are important, but the really critical issue with encryption is the management of the keys.
He is a world expert on Enigma machines, and his knowledge and passion were in evidence throughout his lecture.
www.aes.org /sections/uk/meetings/0602.html   (768 words)

 E N I G M A Cipher Machine - History of Solving
E N I G M A Cipher Machine - History of Solving
In the winter of 1932, a team of Polish Mathematicians solved the mysterious German cipher machine.
This single event was the beginning of the long journey to win the War.
www.enigmahistory.org   (42 words)

 NOVA Online | Decoding Nazi Secrets | How the Enigma Works
The Enigma machine, first patented in 1919, was after various improvements adopted by the German Navy in 1926, the Army in 1928, and the Air Force in 1935.
Once during every 26 moves, at the "turnover position" on the right wheel, the middle wheel will also move on one place; and when the middle wheel reaches its own turnover position it moves on again when the next letter is keyed, together with the left wheel.
Finally, the vertical front of the Enigmas used by the Armed Services contained a "plugboard" with 26 pairs of sockets, again in the QWERTZU pattern.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/decoding/enigma.html   (668 words)

 The Polish Attack on Enimga
Inside the machine there was originally a set of three rotors, otherwise known as rotating drums, and a "reversing drum" all mounted on one axle.
The design of the Enigma machine allowed the user to "type" the plain text while the letters of the cipher text lit in the appropriate windows and, conversely, when one "typed" out a cipher text, the letter illumination spelled out the plain text.
Jerzy Rozycki, one of the mathematicians, christened this new machine.
math.ucsd.edu /~crypto/students/enigma.html   (5527 words)

 BetaNews | High Bids for WWII Enigma Machine
Specifically, the Enigma machine was capable of encrypting and decrypting secret messages using mechanical rotors.
The Enigma machine is placed in an oak woodwork case.
The messages were encrypted using a four-rotor Enigma, which was considered unbreakable by the Germans due to the vast number of potential combinations.
www.betanews.com /article/High_Bids_for_WWII_Enigma_Machine/1143755592   (542 words)

 jambeCodec_Enigma - JAMBE's Online Enigma Machine
This Enigma Machine is very simple it works off only 3 rotors (I think the german enigma used 7).
This does make it easier to understand, and it is compatible with my buggy c++ code and my paper and scissors enigma machine.
Enigma machines basicly works like a substitution cypher except that the cypher changes for each letter.
www.jambe.co.nz /EnigmaApplet.html   (367 words)

Since the Enigma code had to be readable by all of the armed services, they designed the Navy 4 rotor enigma so that fixing the leftmost rotor in the 'A' position made the machine work exactly as though it was a 3 rotor machine.
The machine was also supplied with an external and internal display as well as a multiple-voltage power converter transformer in a separate box which converted voltages ranging from 110 - 250 Volts, AC to the required 3.5-volts to operate the lamps.
She was particularly fascinated by the Enigma machine and wanted to own one but an original was out of reach and she decided to build her own.
w1tp.com /enigma   (10810 words)

 The Enigma - 2
This was rather a primitive aspect of the Enigma as it relied on the operator to observe and write down the lit-up letter at each stage of encipherment and decipherment.
The plugboard or 'Stecker', visible on the front of the machine, was the most important addition made to the basic Enigma when turning it into a machine for military use.
The principle is just the same as the 'carry' on an adding machine knocking on to tens, hundreds and thousands, but there is a subtlety in the design affecting the point at which the knocking-on occurred.
www.codesandciphers.org.uk /enigma/enigma2.htm   (1372 words)

Not many Enigma machines have survived the war, but the ones that did, can be seen in various museums around the world.
One such museum is Bletchley Park in the UK, the place where a huge number of Enigma messages were broken during the war.
But, given the low number of machines available today, and their high price, that won't be an option for most of us.
www.xat.nl /enigma-e   (585 words)

 Otter Effects - Replica Enigma Machine and Enigma Props for the Film
An identical replica Enigma machine was made for the film with letters that light up, since the lights on the original Enigma machine were not bright enough.
The box is constructed from oak panels, and the machine is from perspex and vacuum formed pieces.
Several Type X machines (pictured bottom right) were also produced for the film.
www.otterfx.com /enigma_special_effects.htm   (83 words)

 DIY Enigma Machine - Hacked Gadgets - DIY Tech Blog
This Enigma kit is not a true reproduction since it uses modern components.
At the time the Germans were convinced that this machine was unbreakable, but recent history has proven them wrong.
For most of the war, the Poles, and later the British and Americans managed to decipher the German messages which is now believed to have shortened the war by some 2 years.
hackedgadgets.com /2006/04/11/diy-enigma-machine   (603 words)

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