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Topic: Enlightenment Spain

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  Spain - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
Spain’s empire in the Americas entered a new phase in the mid-16th century when extensive silver deposits were discovered, first in Mexico and then in Bolivia.
Spain’s main opponent in Europe was France, both along the frontiers that separated the two states and also in Italy, where Aragón’s traditional interests were threatened by French efforts to dominate the peninsula.
The University of Salamanca in central Spain was at the forefront in the new fields of economic and political theory.
encarta.msn.com /text_761575057___40/Spain.html   (17998 words)

  Enlightenment Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty.
Spain and England fought a series of colonial and naval conflicts in the eighteenth century in the New World and the Mediterranean.
Both Spain and Portugal responded in force to the crisis, suppressing the Jesuits and Guarani in the War of the Seven Reductions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Enlightenment_Spain   (5406 words)

 History of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The reconquest of Spain had been declared a crusade at the turn of the 13th century, with Córdoba captured (by sea) in 1236 and Seville captured in 1248, but when all the lands, except the small tributary kingdom of Granada, had been conquered, most of its energy was spent.
The king was not often in Spain, and as he approached the end of his life he made provision for the division of the Habsburg inheritance into two parts: on the one hand Spain, and its possessions in the Mediterranean and overseas, and the Holy Roman Empire itself on the other.
Spain — nearly bankrupt from the war with France and the reconstruction of the country — was unable to pay her soldiers, and in 1820, an expedition intended for the colonies revolted in Cadiz.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Spain   (6330 words)

 Spain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The lingering, "decline of Spain" after a long period of considerable growth was partly due to its successes in the 15th and 16th centuries that had given rise to the treasure fleets across the Atlantic and the Manila galleons across the Pacific.
Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales.
Spain is bound to the south and east by Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), to the north by the Cantabrian Sea and to its west by the Atlantic Ocean, where the Canary Islands off the African coast are found.
www.tocatch.info /en/Spain.htm   (7383 words)

 Mexico and Central America, 1600–1800 A.D. | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
This growing class of Spaniards born in New Spain begins to formulate a distinct identity even as the crown of Castile continues its efforts to regulate the economic activities of their burgeoning society.
As a further restraint, those not actually born in Spain continue to be barred from the highest civil and ecclesiastical offices, although the sale of lower-level offices by the increasingly penurious crown of Castile permits criollos a growing role in regional governance.
Unlike Perú, however, the mining regions of New Spain are located far from major native population centers and the maintenance of revenue requires an early transition from forced to wage labor.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/ht/09/ca/ht09ca.htm   (1498 words)

 Enlightenment Spain: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The age of enlightenment refers to the 18th century in european philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the age of reason....
The kingdom of spain or spain (and : reino de españa or españa; catalan: regne despanya; basque: espainiako erresuma) is a country located in...
King philip v of spain (1683-1746) or philippe of anjou, grandson of the french monarch louis xiv, was king of spain from 1700 to 1746, the first...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/e/en/enlightenment_spain.htm   (11025 words)

 The Globalist | Global Politics -- Is Turkey "Enlightened" Enough to Join the EU?
Spain today is a thriving democracy and on many social issues more liberal than many of the other EU member states.
During the age of Enlightenment and scientific and rational thought, Spain was living in the dark ages.
It was the motherland of the Inquisition — not the Enlightenment.
www.theglobalist.com /dbweb/printStoryId.aspx?StoryId=4286   (1434 words)

 History of Spain - Gurupedia
These effects, combined with the expulsion of Spain's most economically vital classes in the late 15th century (the Jews and the Moors), caused Spain's economy to collapse several times in the 16th century, brining the Golden Age of Spain to a close.
Under the Bonaparte, Spain failed to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions of the 18th century, and also failed to absorb the ideals that of the Enlightenment that were revolutionizing European thought.
Mistreatment of the Moorish population in Morocco led to an uprising and the loss of all North African possessions except for the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in 1921.
www.gurupedia.com /h/hi/history_of_spain.htm   (3224 words)

 How the Canyon Became Grand
Spain came hesitatingly to the experimental empiricism, the mechanical philosophy, and the secularism that increasingly informed Western thought.
Ironically, although Spain was perhaps the most advanced nation of Europe in its ability to mount expeditions and establish colonies, it was among the most retarded in its capacity to absorb its discoveries within the context of the new ideas and new sensibility that raged across the rest of Europe.
Spain's contributions to the Second Age of Discovery ended with explorer notes lost, unedited, and unpublished and its monumental expeditions in disarray.
partners.nytimes.com /books/first/p/pyne-canyon.html   (6459 words)

 RaceII.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Thus the "best of the Enlightenment" is revealed precisely by the actions of people who, influenced by it, were already in the process of going beyond it, with practice (as always) well in advance of theory.
When the Enlightenment is remembered today, it is not Bernier, Buffon and Blumenbach who first come to mind, but rather Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau,  Kant (as philosopher, not as anthropologist)  and Paine, and one could do worse than to summarize their legacy as the debunking of mystification.
Enlightenment social thought had an ideal to realize, a human nature that could be distilled and indentified separate from society and history.
home.earthlink.net /~lrgoldner/raceII.html   (5116 words)

 History of Spain
Spain's decline was exacerbated by high inflation and religious oppression.
Although, in the history of Spain the enlightenment in the late 18th century created a climate of learning, Spain's misfortunes continued into the next century with an invasion by Napoleon's troops and the loss of the American colonies.
The political instability of the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to dictatorship in the history of Spain and a republic in the 1930's which was destroyed by the Spanish civil war.
www.indigobunting.com /TravelandLeisure/HistoryofSpain.html   (413 words)

 Spain The Enlightenment - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International ...
He was one of Europe's most active patrons of the Enlightenment, a period during which attempts were made to reform society through the application of reason to political, social, and economic problems.
Despite Charles's attempt to reform the economy, the impact of the Enlightenment was essentially negative.
Anticlericalism was an integral part of Enlightenment ideology, but it was carried to greater lengths in Spain than elsewhere in Europe because of government sponsorship.
workmall.com /wfb2001/spain/spain_history_the_enlightenment.html   (313 words)

 Spain History -- Recommendations and Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The history of Spain is part of the history of Europe and of the present-day nations and states.
Modern Spain (1975-present) I left First Spanish Republic in because it fits in the timeline, though it's relatively smaller in terms of relevance and chronological coverage compared to the rest of the series.
The military history of Spain includes the history of battles fought in the territory of modern Spain, as well as her former and current overseas possesions and territories, and, the military history of the Spanish people regarless of geography.
www.becomingapediatrician.com /health/136/spain-history.html   (1012 words)

 The Bourbons and the Enlightment.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Crown as King of Spain and the Indes, Felipe V was the first Spanish Bourbon King inaugurating with his reign the Spain of the Enlightenment, an epoch of hamonious foreign relations, reform and interior development.
Later, the democratic ideas engendered by the French Revolution were to reach Spain, though not to be adopted by the ruling or political classes.
The bloody six-year war which followed - the Peninsular War, known in Spain as the War of Independence - in which guerrilla tactics and a scorched-earth policy were applied, dealt a death blow to the Spanish economy.
www.sispain.org /english/history/bourbons.html   (333 words)

 Spain - HISTORY
Nevertheless, the largest contingent of Moors in Spain consisted of the North African Berbers, recent converts to Islam, who were hostile to the sophisticated Arab governors and bureaucrats and were given to a religious enthusiasm and fundamentalism that were to set the standard for the Islamic community in Spain.
Spain was also Europe's preeminent military power, with occasion to exercise its strength on many fronts--on land in Italy, Germany, North Africa, and the Netherlands, and at sea against the Dutch, French, Turks, and English.
Spain was the military and diplomatic standard-bearer of the CounterReformation.
www.mongabay.com /reference/country_studies/spain/HISTORY.html   (15412 words)

 Guide Spain history - A short history of Spain
Spain's decline was exacerbated by high inflation and religious oppression.
Although, in the history of Spain the enlightenment in the late 18th century created a climate of learning, Spain's misfortunes continued into the next century with an invasion by Napoleon's troops and the loss of the American colonies.
The political instability of the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to dictatorship in the history of Spain and a republic in the 1930's which was destroyed by the Spanish civil war.
www.spain4uk.co.uk /History_of_Spain.htm   (424 words)

 Enlightenment Stupa Benalmadena Benalmadena places of interest Malaga. Malaga Costa del Sol Directory
On his first visit to Spain in 1990, the Buddhist Master Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche, gave teachings at the Karma Guen meditation centre in Velez Malaga and by 1994 his first Stupa was built there as landmark of peace and prosperity for the country.
The Enlightenment Stupa is a Buddhist monument for peace, prosperity, harmony of the world and of course, a place for meditation.
Enlightenment Stupa Benalmadena Benalmadena is one of the many places of interest in the beautiful region of Malaga Spain.
www.viva-malaga.com /enlightenment_stupa_benalmadena_p1755.php   (584 words)

 Enlightenment. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot epitomized the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, as it is also called.
Foremost in France among proponents of the Enlightenment were baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, and comte de Buffon; Baron Turgot and other physiocrats; and Jean Jacques Rousseau, who greatly influenced romanticism.
Czar Peter I of Russia anticipated the trend, and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II was the prototype of the enlightened despot; others were Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Charles III of Spain.
www.bartleby.com /65/en/Enlighte.html   (597 words)

 RaceI.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
It is rather that the concept of race was not accidentally born simultaneously with the Enlightenment, and that the Enlightenment's "ontology", rooted in the new science of the 17th century,  created a vision of human beings in nature which inadvertently provided weapons to a new race-based ideology which would have been impossible without the Enlightenment.
The collapse of the idea of Adam (15), the common ancestor of all human beings, was an unintended side effect of the Enlightenment critique of religion, which was aimed first of all at the social power of the Church and, after the religious wars of the 16th and 17th centuries, at religion generally.
The impulse, conditioned by the Anglo-French Enlightenment,  to overlook the entwining of the Enlightenment and racism, is part of the same impulse that downplays the significance of pre-Enlightenment  developments in  Spain in shaping  the modern world.
home.earthlink.net /~lrgoldner/raceI.html   (5828 words)

 1810 The Independence Revolution. The Independence of Mexico. History. Mexico for kids
The thinkers of the Enlightenment were in favor of freedom and equality in the eyes of the law, and against the privileges of the kings, nobles and the Catholic Church.
Although the Creoles felt that New Spain was their homeland and that they should participate in its government, they were not considered by the Spanish authorities.
Spain and its American possessions were therefore left without their government.
explora.presidencia.gob.mx /pages_kids/history/independence/18103_kids.html   (1502 words)

 Review Articles: March 1979
Spain was well supplied with trained theologians who could discern what was opposed to Christian Faith and what was not.
The figures of the Persian prince Sinap and the prelate Codabend, and in particular that of Siang, the Chinese philosopher, are all borrowed from the French Enlightenment.
Cro in his later work A Forerunner of the Enlightenment in Spain (Hamilton, Ont.: McMaster Univ., 1976) argues on the basis of a newly discovered reference for a 1682 date, which would imply that the author is a forerunner rather than contemporary or follower of the feijoista current.
www.depauw.edu /sfs/reviews_pages/r17.htm   (4129 words)

 UWM Courses: Spanish (SPANISH)
U/G. Literature in Spain and Spanish America from the Middle Ages to 1880.
U/G. Topics on the poetry, fiction, and/or drama of the nineteenth century in Spain.
An in-depth examination of the culture of Spain with special attention paid to the history of the country and to the formation of a Spanish identity.
www.uwm.edu /gbulletin/SC/C_912.html   (1369 words)

 OhioLINK ETD: Smidt, Andrea
The Enlightenment, or the "Age of Reason," had a profound impact on eighteenth-century Europe, especially on its religion, producing both outright atheism and powerful movements of religious reform within the Church.
The program of “Enlightenment” as sponsored by the Spanish monarchy was one that did not question the Catholic faith and that championed economic progress and the advancement of the sciences, primarily benefiting the elite of Spanish society.
Although he had to step down, branded a “Catalan separatist” by the Council of Castile, Climent’s plan for reform and his implementation of that plan had a larger impact on the form the Enlightenment took in Spain and calls for a re-examination of what was perceived as the Enlightenment in eighteenth-century Europe.
www.ohiolink.edu /etd/view.cgi?osu1135197557   (306 words)

 American America History - Enlightenment in Latin America
Enlightenment ideas in Latin America took place during the 1700's to the early 1800's.
When Napoleon occupied Spain, Simo¢n returned to his South America and led an uprising that established a republic in his native Venezuela.
Enlightenment ideas in Latin America lead to a need for equal rights throughout the area.
www.123helpme.com /view.asp?id=23439   (851 words)

 Benalmadena - Stupa
It is perhaps perplexing that an accomplished buddhist master from the Himalayas has, over the years, developed a strong connection to one of the most influential countries of the world, Spain.
Not only is spanish the third most spoken language around the world, but as a nation, Spain is also a major player on the world stage.
The willingness and blessing of a true meditator of the Himalayas and the warm hospitality of a thriving nation.
www.stupabenalmadena.org   (267 words)

Though primarly organized chronologically under geographical areas, the index also identifies numerous books on the Enlightenment by topic and by country.
Enlightenment in the University of Salmanca (1966)." In the online catalog, you can only find it by author or title, but not by subject.
Though this may provide some irrelevant hits, it pulls together books on the topic that may not be under the subject enlightenment.
www.library.uiuc.edu /rex/instruction/class/history298G.htm   (1041 words)

 The Corrosive Hagiography of Muslim Spain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
And there were dire consequences for infidel dhimmis in Muslim Spain who rebelled against the repressive Dhimma: slaughter of the rebels, and enslavement of their women and children
The Muslim Berber Almohads in Spain and North Africa (1130-1232) wreaked enormous destruction on both the Jewish and Christian populations.
An accurate assessment of interfaith relationships in Muslim Spain, and the contemporary currents responsible for obfuscating that history, can be found in Richard Fletcher's very engaging “Moorish Spain”.
www.secularislam.org /articles/bostom3.htm   (1683 words)

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