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Topic: Enteric nervous system

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In the News (Sat 16 Jun 18)

  Annette Kirchgessner
Pancreatic ganglia are similar to enteric ganglia, and are the primary target of the enteric innervation.
When enteric neurons are stimulated, neurons in pancreatic ganglia, as well as the islet and acinar cells they innervate, are activated.
Enteric neurons immunoselected with antibodies to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mab35) Receptor immunoreactivity (red) is differentially localized in enteric motorneurons (arrow) and putative primary afferent neurons identified by calbindin immunoreactivity (green).
www.hscbklyn.edu /pharmacology/kirchgessner.htm   (390 words)

  Autonomic nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the "involuntary" or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, perspiration, metabolism and modulating blood pressure.
The autonomic nervous system is divided into two subsystems, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems, which work in tandem, either in a synergistic or an antagonistic way.
The peripheral portion of the sympathetic nervous system is characterized by the presence of numerous ganglionganglia and complicated plexuses.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Autonomic_nervous_system   (2972 words)

 NIMR :: Molecular Neurobiology :: Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system is composed of a vast number of neurons and glia that are grouped into interconnected ganglia, arranged radially throughout the length of the gut wall.
The progenitors of enteric neurons and glia originate at the posterior cranial neural crest which, upon entering the foregut, migrate in a rostrocaudal direction to colonise its entire length.
As part of our efforts to understand the molecular basis of cellular divergence and complexity in the enteric nervous system, we are undertaking genome-wide approaches to systematically search for genes that are expressed by and are important for the specification and differentiation of the progenitors of the enteric nervous system.
www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk /molneurobiol/pachnis   (956 words)

 Biological Sciences, Open University
The enteric nervous system is the intrinsic nervous system of the gut.
Enteric neurons are diverse, and the circuitry of the ENS is complex.
One of the difficulties in the study of the ENS is its relative inaccessibility, as the enteric ganglia lie embedded within the gut wall.
www.open.ac.uk /science/biosci/research/saffrey/saffrey.htm   (1275 words)

 Central nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The central nervous system (CNS) represents the largest part of the nervous system.
Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behaviour.
Since the strong theoretical influence of cybernetics in the fifties, the CNS is conceived as a system devoted to information processing, where an appropriate motor output is computed as a response to a sensory input.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Central_nervous_system   (487 words)

 Nervous System - Back Pain - Anatomy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is connected to the CNS, but lies beyond it – it provides a nerve supply to the rest of the body, and relays messages to and from the CNS.
In total, there are 43 main nerves (actually nerve pairs) that branch off the CNS to the peripheral nervous system: 12 cranial nerves that originate in the brain, and 31 spinal nerves that originate (rather unsurprisingly) in the spinal cord.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (or alimentary canal) that runs from the mouth to the anus (enteric means ‘of the intestines’).
www.backrack.co.uk /nervous_index.shtml   (853 words)

 nervous system --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
As with other higher vertebrates, the human nervous system has two main parts: the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (the nerves that carry impulses to and from the central nervous...
The sympathetic nervous system connects the internal organs to the brain by spinal nerves.
Disorders of the human nervous system are characterized by an array of symptoms—from slight disturbances in personality to tragic crippling, blinding, and often fatal diseases.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-9276055   (851 words)

 The Enteric Nervous System
The enteric nervous system, along with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, constitute the autonomic nervous system.
The principal components of the enteric nervous system are two networks or plexuses of neurons, both of which are embedded in the wall of the digestive tract and extend from esophagus to anus:
Connection to the central nervous system also means that signals from outside of the digestive system can be relayed to the digestive system: for instance, the sight of appealing food stimulates secretion in the stomach.
arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu /hbooks/pathphys/digestion/basics/gi_nervous.html   (743 words)

 Nervous System
The nervous system includes the brain, the spinal cord (Read about "The Brain" "The Spine") and the nerves that reach out to the rest of the body, acting as a two way street carrying information back and forth.
The peripheral nervous system is the immense network of nerves that send and receive information from the brain and spinal cord to all other parts of the body.
The autonomic nervous system is further divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.
www.stayinginshape.com /4unionhospital/libv/m16.shtml   (655 words)

 Enteric Nervous System - Back Pain - Anatomy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, or alimentary canal, that runs all the way from the mouth to the anus (enteric means ‘of the intestines’).
Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the ANS provide a nerve supply to the enteric nervous system – but, unlike the rest of the human body, the ENS is largely (though not completely) independent of the central nervous system.
As a result, the enteric nervous system is affected by compression of the facet joints, but the effects are more subtle than for other components of the PNS – they are beyond the scope of this website.
www.backrack.co.uk /enteric.shtml   (178 words)

 The Enteric Nervous System - Book Information
This book brings together extensive knowledge of the structure and cell physiology of the enteric nervous system and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the roles of the enteric nervous system in the control of motility, secretion and blood supply in the gastrointestinal tract.
It includes sections on the enteric nervous system in disease, genetic abnormalities that affect enteric nervous system function, and targets for therapy in the enteric nervous system.
John Furness is an expert on the enteric nervous system and its functions and has published over 300 relevant papers.
www.blackwellpublishing.com /book.asp?ref=1405133767   (532 words)

 ipedia.com: Central nervous system Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The central nervous system along with the peripheral nervous system comprise a primary division of controls that command all physical activities of a vertebrate.
Neurons of the central nervous system affect consciousness and mental activity while spinal extensions of central nervous system neuron pathways affect skeletal muscles and organs in the body.
The peripheral system is made of two divisions, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, which is further divided as the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.
www.ipedia.com /central_nervous_system.html   (266 words)

 That little voice in your stomach
Emptying the digestive system, by hook or by crook, as we just saw, is one way it prepares the body for fight or flight, both of which are easier on an empty stomach.
Thus one ancestral function of the enteric nervous system was to protect eohippus, the primordial horse, against infection resulting from the bite of a hungry saber-toothed cat.
The enteric nervous system can explain other problems that are sometimes considered to be psychological in origin, like difficulty swallowing, ulcers and chronic abdominal pain.
www.whyfiles.org /026fear/physio2.html   (753 words)

 Medications to Treat Gastrointestinal problems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The Parasympathetic nervous system (PANS) is stimulated by many things but primarily by food entering the system, causing increased digestion, absorption and peristalsis.
The sympathetic nervous system (SANS) activation is stimulated when the body is busy doing something else, and has the opposite effect, blood flow is shunted away from the GI tract and peristalsis slows down.
Because there is so much nervous system innervation to the gut, of which we have very little conscious control, many conditions both physical and mental can affect the GI tract and result in symptoms (think about the kids with "stomach aches" whose parents have recently divorced or are not doing well in school).
www.unc.edu /gform-links/courses/2005spring/nurs/229/001/module6/topic1_review.html   (205 words)

 The Brain in Your Gut: Biology of a Thanksgiving Meal
The enteric nervous system, the lesser-know of the two brains, manages the gastrointestinal tract without the assistance of the cranial brain (3).
Structurally the enteric nervous system is quite similar to the central nervous system.
The enteric nervous system is a complex system, controlling many bodily functions independently while also intricately linked to the central nervous system.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /biology/b103/f00/web2/partner2.html   (991 words)

 Enteric nervous system -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The enteric nervous system is an interdependent part of the (The part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands) autonomic nervous system.
Its functioning is still subject to research in (Click link for more info and facts about neurogastroenterology) neurogastroenterology.
It has as many as 1 bilion neurons, one one hundredth of the number of neurons in the (That part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord) brain.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/e/en/enteric_nervous_system.htm   (123 words)

 Nervous   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities.
Nervous System This information will help you find out why the nervous system is the control and communication system of the body.
Nervous Venus is one of the strong pilars of the Amie, it started since the first number (February'97) and still goes on.
supersearching.com /k/nervous.html   (726 words)

 The Enteric Nervous System: The Brain in the Gut
The gut's brain or the "enteric nervous system" is located in the sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon.
The limbic system is often referred to as the "reptile brain." "As life evolved, animals needed a more complex brain for finding food and sex and so developed a central nervous system.
But the gut's nervous system was too important to put inside the newborn head with long connections going down to the body," says Wingate.
psyking.net /id36.htm   (1672 words)

 Clarkson University - Biology - Faculty & Staff - Kenneth Wallace
During vertebrate embryogenesis, neural crest cells migrate from the vagal region of the neural tube to enter the anterior portion of the digestive tract.
The enteric nervous system is unique in that the neural precursors need to expand rather than be selectively eliminated as in other areas of the peripheral nervous system.
I have begun to address these topics of later enteric development once the precursors have migrated to the digestive system as well as formation of the smooth muscle that the neurons will innervate.
www.clarkson.edu /biologydept/faculty/wallace.html   (585 words)

 Meridian Institute - Home Page
The Cayce perspective is that migraine is a consequence from problems in the digestive system and enteric nervous system, rather than the brain.
Although the pathology is within the nervous system, the initial problem may be traced to glandular dysfunction.
The use of the wet cell battery with gold and silver to stimulate glandular functioning and nervous system rejuvenation is the primary treatment modality.
www.meridianinstitute.com /projects.htm   (2565 words)

 Embryology and development of the enteric nervous system -- Young et al. 47 (Supplement 4): 12 -- Gut
The neurones and glial cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS) are derived from the neural crest (fig 1).
A single rostrocaudal colonization of the rodent intestine by enteric neuron precursors is revealed by the expression of Phox2b, Ret, and p75 and by explants grown under the kidney capsule or in organ culture.
The sacral neural crest contributes neurons and glia to the post-umbilical gut: spatiotemporal analysis of the development of the enteric nervous system.
gut.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/47/suppl_4/iv12   (1936 words)

 A Novel Pathogenesis of Megacolon in Ncx/Hox11L.1 Deficient Mice -- Hatano et al. 100 (4): 795 -- Journal of Clinical ...
Hyperinnervation of enteric neurons in the proximal colon from Ncx/Hox11L.1 deficient mice.
caused by the absence of enteric neurons in colon.
characterized by the congenital absence of the enteric ganglia
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/100/4/795   (3269 words)

 Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS) Glossary
This means that the symptoms of the disorder result from the neurologic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract (specifically the enteric nervous system), associated with altered interpretation of neurologic messages from the GI tract by the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord).
The network of nerves surrounding the gastrointestinal tract, that regulates the activity of the digestive system, and operates independently from the central nervous system.
The enteric nervous system is dysfunctional in IBS patients.
www.helpforibs.com /footer/glossary.asp   (3853 words)

 Hospital Practice: The Enteric Nervous System: A Second Brain   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Structurally and neurochemically, the enteric nervous system (ENS) is a brain unto itself.
Thus, when he described the autonomic nervous system, it was as three distinct parts: the sympathetic, the parasympathetic, and the enteric.
Its neuronal elements are not supported by collagen and Schwann cells, like those in the rest of the peripheral nervous system, but by glia that resemble the astrocytes of the CNS (Figure 2).
www.hosppract.com /issues/1999/07/gershon.htm   (3801 words)

 The Enteric Nervous System
The system is immensely complex, and until recently has been neglected.
There are surprising similarities between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system, so much so that the ENS has been called the "second brain".
Enteric glia wrap around and support entire bundles of axons originating from enteric nerves.
www.anaesthetist.com /anaes/patient/ans/ens.htm   (1195 words)

 Article Abstract - PositiveHealth.com
The central nervous system is needed for swallowing and for defecation, but from the time the food is swallowed to the moment its remains are expelled from the anus, the gut is in charge.
The enteric nervous system produces those gut feelings that we have all felt from time to time.
An understanding of the enteric nervous system should help to provide cures for gastrointestinal problems, but all is not known and that is where the frustrations lie.
www.positivehealth.com /permit/Articles/Regular/butlin42.htm   (1110 words)

 Neuroscience for Kids - Autonomic Nervous System
The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body.
Notice in the picture on the left that the sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal cord.
enteric nervous system is a meshwork of nerve fibers that innervate the viscera (gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and gall bladder).
faculty.washington.edu /chudler/auto.html   (583 words)

 Expression of Notch1 and Jagged2 in the Enteric Nervous System -- Sander et al. 51 (7): 969 -- Journal of ...
enteric nervous system is indirect and is limited to the study
Expression of Notch1 and Jagged2 in the enteric nervous system.
Gershon MD (1997) Genes and lineages in the formation of the enteric nervous system.
www.jhc.org /cgi/content/full/51/7/969   (1751 words)

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