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Topic: Epicurus


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  Epicurus [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Epicurus is one of the major philosophers in the Hellenistic period, the three centuries following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE (and of Aristotle in 322 BCE).
Epicurus' physiology is quite different; the mind is identified as an organ that resides in the chest, since the common Greek view was that the chest, not the head, is the seat of the emotions.
Epicurus thinks that this fear is often based upon anxiety about having an unpleasant afterlife; this anxiety, he thinks, should be dispelled once one realizes that death is annihilation, because the mind is a group of atoms that disperses upon death.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/e/epicur.htm   (5535 words)

  
 Epicurus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Epicurus maintains that soul atoms are particularly fine and are distributed throughout the body (LH 64), and it is by means of them that we have sensations (aisthêseis) and the experience of pain and pleasure, which Epicurus calls pathê (a term used by Aristotle and others to signify emotions instead).
Epicurus could justify such an attitude by the same prudential calculus that he uses to argue in favor of living justly: only by living in such a way that loyalty to friends is perceived to be a consummate value will one be able to feel secure in one's friends, and thus maximize one's felicity.
“Epicurus and the Mathematicians of Cyzicus.” Cronache Ercolanesi 6: 23–54.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/epicurus   (7766 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Epicureanism
Epicurus, perhaps, was better than his theory; but the theory itself, if it did not originate in coldness of heart and meanness of spirit, was extremely well suited to encourage them.
Epicurus said that "it was not impiety to deny the gods of the multitude, but it was impiety to think of the gods as the multitude thought"; a sound principle, but one which he wrongly applied, since he got rid of what was true as well as of what was corrupt in the vulgar religion.
In this Epicurus simply followed the view of Empedocles, that, first, all sorts of living things and animals, well or ill organized, were evolved from the earth and that those survived which were suited to preserve themselves and reproduce their kind.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/05500b.htm   (1735 words)

  
 Epicurus
Epicurus (342-270 BCE) was born in Samos and is believed to have become a teacher in Colophon.
Epicurus held that both mind and matter were conglomerations of material elements, so accounting for the interaction of body and mind.
Not surprisingly, Epicurus was ridiculed by opposing philosophers and the distortions they applied to some of his ideas continue to this day.
www.humanistictexts.org /epicurus.htm   (4332 words)

  
 Epicurus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Epicurus died in the second year of the 127th Olympiad, in the archonship of Pytharatus, at the age of 72.
Epicurus also believed (in contradistinction to Aristotle) that death was not to be feared.
Epicurus was one of the first thinkers to develop the notion of justice as a social contract.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Epicurus   (1765 words)

  
 Epicurus
Epicurus himself had not apparently shared in any large or liberal culture, and his influence was certainly thrown on the side of those who depreciated purely scientific pursuits as one-sided and misleading.
So little was the scientific conception of the solar system familiar to Epicurus that he could reproach the astronomers, because their account of an eclipse represented things otherwise than as they appear to the senses, and could declare that the sun and stars were just as large as they seemed to us.
Feeling, which Epicurus declared to be the means of determining what is good, is subordinated to a reason which adjudicates between competing pleasures with the view of securing tranquillity of mind and body.
www.nndb.com /people/792/000087531   (3303 words)

  
 Epicurus Biography | Encyclopedia of World Biography
Epicurus (342-270 BC) was a Greek philosopher and the founder of Epicureanism.
Epicurus was subject, even in his own lifetime, to opprobrious comment; among other things he was accused of gluttony, womanizing, and unwarranted contempt for other philosophers, antecedent and contemporary.
Epicurus therefore suggests that the end of human life should be pleasure--defining it as freedom from physical and mental pain.
www.bookrags.com /biography/epicurus   (1458 words)

  
 Epicurus - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Epicurus defined philosophy as the art of making life happy and strictly subordinated metaphysics to ethics, naming pleasure as the highest and only good.
However, for Epicurus pleasure was not heedless indulgence but the opposite, ataraxia [serenity], manifesting itself in the avoidance of pain.
While Epicurus appropriated much of the mechanics of Democritus' metaphysics, he deviated from its deterministic implications by the introduction of an element of spontaneity, which allowed atoms to form the objects of the world by chance.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-epicurus.html   (501 words)

  
 Epicurus
Epicurus was born in the Greek colony on Samos, but spent most of his active life in Athens, where he founded yet another school of philosophy.
Epicurus whole-heartedly adopted the atomism of Leucippus and Democritus, maintaining that all objects and events—including human lives—are in reality nothing more than physical interactions among minute indestructible particles.
Epicurus and Democritean Ethics: An Archaeology of Ataraxia
www.philosophypages.com /ph/epiu.htm   (231 words)

  
 BBC - Radio 4 - In Our Time - Greatest Philosopher - Epicurus
Epicurus was born on the Greek island of Samos and trained in the military in Athens before becoming a teacher in Mytilene and Lampsacus.
Epicurus revived physical atomism, a theory that the world was formed by the concourse of atoms, first devised by Leucippus (c5th BC) and Democritus (c.
Epicurus also added to the atomic theory, asserting sensory perception where Democritus had distrusted the senses, and he also introduced the concept of random atomic movement to reinstate free will in a system that was otherwise pre-determined.
www.bbc.co.uk /radio4/history/inourtime/greatest_philosopher_epicurus.shtml   (394 words)

  
 Epicurus - The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy
Epicurus favoured a philosophy that would be easily intelligible and expressed in language which ordinary people could understand.
Epicurus was a hedonist: in his view, only pleasure is good in itself.
Epicurus sharply distinguished two types of pleasure: (1) the underlying harmonious state of body or of mind (catastematic pleasures); and (2) alterations of state, activities, etc. of body or of mind (kinetic pleasures).
www.benthamlinks.com /epicurus/penguin.htm   (888 words)

  
 [No title]
Epicurus argues that whenever we think about our future non-existence, we find it difficult to view it as the total annihilation of our consciousness and to eliminate ourselves from our conception of it in the required way.
Epicurus’ central argument against the fear of death, however, is an attempt to demonstrate that all such worries about states of our non-existence are irrational.
Epicurus often speaks of friendship in the most extravagant terms and some later Epicureans proclaim that a hedonist can value his friends for their own sakes.
philosophy.fas.nyu.edu /docs/IO/1394/EPICURU1.doc   (4005 words)

  
 Epicurus: free web books, online
For Epicurus, pleasure was obtained by knowledge (freedom from fear), friendship, and living a virtuous and temperate life.
Epicurus' school, called "The Garden," seems to have been a moderately ascetic community which rejected the political limelight of Athenian philosophy.
Epicurus and his followers shunned politics and as such it was never a major philosophy.
etext.library.adelaide.edu.au /e/epicurus   (357 words)

  
 Epicurus of Samos
Born in Samos of Athenian parents (Neocles and Chaerestrate), Epicurus studied first with Pamphilus, a Platonist, and later on the neighbouring island of Teos with Nausiphanes.
Epicurus tried to explain phenomena in terms of the atoms and void, an idea from Democritus.
Epicurus explains perception in terms of the interaction of atoms with the sense-organs.
www.philosophyprofessor.com /philosophers/epicurus-of-samos.php   (416 words)

  
 Epicurus
True happiness, Epicurus taught, is the serenity resulting from the conquest of fear of the gods, of death, and of the afterlife.
The dissolution of the body in death, Epicurus taught, leads to the dissolution of the soul, which cannot exist apart from the body; and thus no afterlife is possible.
Since death means total extinction, it has no meaning either to the living or to the dead, for when we are, death is not; and when death is, we are not.The cardinal virtues in the Epicurean system of ethics are justice, honesty, and prudence, or the balancing of pleasure and pain.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/ruetten/epicur.htm   (642 words)

  
 Epicurus, 341-270 B.C.
Epicurus, 341-270 B.C. Epicurus, 341-270 B.C. Epicurus was born of Athenian parents on the island of Samos.
Epicurus also warned his followers against assuming heavy responsibilities and instead praised the life that escapes man's notice.
While such a philosophy of uninvolvement alienated the Epicureans from the intellectual elites of the day, the Epicurean lifestyle was now within the reach of a wider of circle of people who did not enjoy the advantages of wealth or education.
www.historyguide.org /ancient/epicurus.html   (449 words)

  
 Epicurus. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
B.C. There Epicurus purchased the famous garden that has become linked in the annals of philosophy with the Academy of Plato and the Lyceum of Aristotle.
His hedonism differed from the cruder variety of Aristippus and the Cyrenaics in the emphasis that it placed on ataraxia and on the superiority of intellectual pleasures over bodily pleasures.
While Epicurus appropriated much of the mechanics of Democritus’; metaphysics, he deviated from its deterministic implications by the introduction of an element of spontaneity, which allowed atoms to form the objects of the world by chance.
www.bartleby.com /65/ep/Epicurus.html   (409 words)

  
 Epicurus.info : E-Texts : Epicurea   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Now Epicurus wrote as follows: “The pinnacle of pleasure is the removal of everything that pains.” Plutarch declares that he ought not have said “of everything that pains,” but “of everything that is painful;” for it is the removal of pain, he explains, that should be indicated, not of that which causes pain.
Epicurus, although he seems to be bitterly hostile to the Professors of Arts and Sciences, tries to prove in his book On Gifts and Gratitude that it is necessary for the wise to learn literacy.
Epicurus on the other hand, introduced none but prophets of atoms, although he had before him these as his models, such as the variety of symposia of the Poet {Homer}, and the charm of Plato and Xenophon as well.
www.epicurus.info /etexts/epicurea.html   (7646 words)

  
 Epicureanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it quite different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood.
For Epicurus, the highest pleasure (tranquility and freedom from fear) was obtained by knowledge, friendship, and living a virtuous and temperate life.
Epicurus regarded ataraxia (tranquility, freedom from pain) and aponia (absence of pain) combined to be the height of happiness.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Epicureanism   (1676 words)

  
 Ethics of the Hellenistic Era by Sanderson Beck
Epicurus was born in February 341 BC and died in 270.
In his letter to Menoeceus Epicurus encouraged him to seek wisdom when young and not tire of it in old age, for no age is too early or late for the health of the soul.
Epicurus noted that by making pleasure the aim he did not mean prodigal pleasures of sensuality as misunderstood through ignorance, prejudice, or misrepresentation.
www.san.beck.org /EC23-Hellenistic.html   (20398 words)

  
 The Epoch Times | Back to Epicurus’ Pigs?
Epicurus’ followers, after his death, went on to preach that humanity’s essential goal and overarching purpose was hedonism, or the search for sensual, physical fulfillment.
Although Epicurus himself was far more sophisticated than his latter-day epigoni, his teaching was soon identified with an exaltation of the lower, purely animal aspects of human nature.
Another significant aspect of Epicurus’ philosophy was his marginalization of the Divine.
english.epochtimes.com /news/5-5-5/28447.html   (845 words)

  
 Alibris: Epicurus
When Epicurus travels to Athens to open his own school of philosophy, he is quickly chastised because of his liberal beliefs.
Based on a new translation of Epicurus to Menoecceus and complete with original Greek text, the work expounds upon basic philosophical inquiries--concerning pleasure, longevity, death, and desire--that are as...
Contents: The Epicurean Pursuit of PleasureStoic Self-Control by LawThe Platonic Subordination of Lower to HigherThe Aristotelian Sense of ProportionThe Christian Spirit of LoveWilliam De Witt Hyde, the seventh president of Bowdoin College (1885-1917), was born in Winchendon, Massachusetts, on September 23, 1858.
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Epicurus   (561 words)

  
 Philosophy- Squashed Epicurus - Sovran Maxims (Principal Doctrines) - Condensed Abridged
Epicurus was born in 341BC on the island of Samos.
The man who best knows how to meet external threats makes into one family all the creatures he can; and those he can not, he at any rate does not treat as aliens; and where he finds even this impossible, he avoids all dealings, and, so far as is advantageous, excludes them from his life.
Epicurus died in Athens, probably from kidney disease.
www.btinternet.com /~glynhughes/squashed/epicurus.htm   (1759 words)

  
 Epicurus on Freedom - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Epicurus' theory has attracted much interest, but our attempts to understand it have been hampered by reading it anachronistically as the discovery of the modern problem of free will and determinism.
O'Keefe argues that the sort of freedom which Epicurus wanted to preserve is significantly different from the 'free will' which philosophers debate today, and that in its emphasis on rational action it has much closer affinities with Aristotle's thought than with current preoccupations.
Aristotle and Epicurus on the origins of character and action; 4.
www.cambridge.org /uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=052184696X   (177 words)

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