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Topic: Episodic memory

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  Episodic memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events.
Episodic memory contrasts and interacts with semantic memory, the memory of facts and concepts.
The latter view is strengthened by recent evidence that neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus may ease the removal of old memories and increase the efficiency of forming new memories (Deisseroth et al 2004).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Episodic_memory   (1106 words)

 Memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memory, which concerns facts taken independent of context; and episodic memory, which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place.
Episodic memory, on the other hand, is used for more personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and personal associations of a particular place or time.
A further major way to distinguish different memory functions is whether the content to be remembered is in the past, retrospective memory, or whether the content is to be remembered in the future, prospective memory.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memory   (1889 words)

 Episode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Episode is the word usually used to refer to a part of a serial television or radio program.
Episodes which end in the middle of a climatic moment are often called cliffhangers, after the name used for early movie serials.
Episodes can be part of a larger story arc stretched out over a time period covering one or more seasons, or even an entire series run.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Episodic   (280 words)

 Irvine Health Foundation - IHF Lecture Series   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
So episodic memory is distinguished from non-episodic memory now in the sense that in the case of non-episodic memory, we start at some time, something happens, and then I find, too, we benefit from that earlier experience that we had at time one.
But they did lack the human component of episodic memory which is what I call autonomic consciousness and also subjective time, chronathesia, and she complained and said, yes, they do have, we can't talk to them, I'm learning scrub jay right now, but making not much progress and so on.
Episodic memory, the only memory system that allows individuals to mentally travel in subjective time, probably evolved not because it allows such time travel into the past, but because it allows mental time travel into the future.
www.ihf.org /lecture/archive/tulving.html   (6645 words)

 Computational Memory Lab: Episodic Memory
Episodic (or autobiographical) memory is memory for events that are embedded in a temporal context.
By including older participants, who as a group are impaired in their use of episodic memory, we aim to determine whether the aging process selectively or differentially impairs certain memory processes.
Our latest work on age-related changes in episodic memory is discussed in Kahana, M., Rizzuto, D. and Schneider, A., 2005 and Howard, M., Wingfield, A. and Kahana, M. In addition to behavioral and theoretical analyses of episodic memory, we also explore the neurophysiology of episodic memory with both scalp and intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings.
memory.psych.upenn.edu /research/research_episodic_memory.php   (714 words)

 Relating Semantic and Episodic Memory Systems.
Episodic and semantic memory are two forms of declarative memory that function in distinct but interdependent ways.
Imaging studies have shown that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures like the hippocampus are involved in episodic memory, the left lateral temporal lobe (LTL) is involved in semantic memory, and left inferior frontal cortex involve both.
The LTL is involved in semantic memory and accurate episodic memory performance.
spnl.stanford.edu /healthy_brain/studies/hb_study_10.htm   (186 words)

 Episodic Memory
Episodic memory is the process of recalling personally experienced past events.
Cardiac and vascular reactions further suggested that memory maintenance is supported by phasic autonomic adjustments, and that with age; more of this support is required for adequate maintenance of episodic memory.
Since failing memory and mental diseases have been shown to have some association, some studies have also examined the use of memory in the diagnosis of primary stages of dementia.
www.termpapersmadeeasy.com /Papers%203_27/Psychology/Episodic%20Memory.htm   (1811 words)

 Episodic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The worst impairments were seen in episodic memory, the sort a person uses while watching a news story on television and then trying to describe it to another...
The hippocampus, he says, is where episodic memory — your name, your phone number, your address — occurs.
Of course, episodic memories do inform semantic knowledge and episodic memories are reliant apon semantic knowledge.
www.wikiverse.org /episodic-memory   (763 words)

 UTCS Neural Nets Group Research: Episodic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Episodic memory is the record of events that the individual experiences throughout his/her/its life.
Inspired by Damasio's convergence-zone idea, the inputs to the memory are assumed to be represented locally in perceptual maps, and the memory encoding is a sparse random pattern in the hippocampus.
Such a memory can be analyzed mathematically and simulated computationally, and it suggests how the hippocampal memory can have a high capacity even with sparse connectivity and a relatively small number of computational units.
nn.cs.utexas.edu /pages/research/memory.html   (359 words)

 Complexity Digest - Episodic Memory In Nonhumans: What, And Where, Is When?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Abstract: Episodic memory is defined as the recollection of specific events in one's past, accompanied by the experience of having been there personally.
To demonstrate a correspondence between human episodic memory and nonhuman memory, progress is needed in three areas.
Putative episodic memories in nonhumans should be shown to be; first, represented in long-term memory, rather than short-term or working memory; second, explicit, or accessible to introspection; and third (...) general knowledge about the world.
www.comdig.org /article.php?id_article=16184   (144 words)

 Citations: Elements of Episodic Memory - Tulving (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The Capacity of Convergence-Zone Episodic Memory - Moll, Miikkulainen, Abbey (1994)
The choice of terminology is motivated by the episodic memory versus taxon 11 The prior support may be viewed as being monotonically related to prior probability.
Episodic memory is characterized by extreme efficiency and high capacity.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/202412/0   (2502 words)

 Chapter 6.  Episodic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The hippocampus is known to form "episodic memories": memories of episodes, or events.
Memory recall was perfect when the cue contained as little as 40% of each pattern.
The estimated number of storable event memories (36,000 for the rat)[30] is consistent with the clinical theory that the CA3 region stores memories for a brief time only.
mbdefault.org /6_memory   (2409 words)

 Braingle: 'Episodic Memory' Mentalrobics Article
Episodic memory is the memory of the time, place and emotional state of events that you experience.
The formation of episodic memories is closely tied to the hippocampus.
It is believed that the hippocampus stores episodic memories for a short time, after which they are consolidated into the cortex.
www.braingle.com /mind/416.html   (215 words)

 Memory Autobiography History
Episodic memory is autobiographical memory for one's own actions and experiences, while semantic memory is more or less generic, abstract knowledge, like a mental dictionary, not tied to any particular event.
To create an episodic memory, and autobiographical memory (with the emphasis on auto), the event node must be linked to a mental representation of the self as the agent or patient of some action or the stimulus or experiencer of some state.
In remembering, one gains access to a full episodic memory trace, including a raw description of the event in question, the spatiotemporal context in which it was situated, and some representation of the self as the agent or patient, stimulus or experiencer of the event.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~kihlstrm/rmpa00.htm   (9534 words)

 "Woohoo!" Episodic Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Episodic Memory (also referred to as Autobiographical Memory by some researchers) is a representation we form of an event in our lives, strongly anchored by an emotional appraisal of that episode, that we use to form a sense of ourselves and to anticipate our future.
So Episodic Memory requires three different elements to be encoded together: the pieces of data, the emotions we experience, and the meaning we extract.
The precursors for Episodic Memory are referencing, coordinating, and developing a unique sense of self apart from others (being able to experience a state of connection and disconnection).
www.connectionscenter.com /archive/newsletters/09302004/default.htm   (2588 words)

 The Brains Halves Cooperate To Help Us Remember Events
In the second experiment, the authors studied episodic and semantic (factual) memory in 84 right-handed undergraduates, studying what happened when they presented words and letter strings to either one part of the brain or to both.
Further research may help explain why episodic memory benefits from the two halves working together, whereas factual/implicit memory is better processed in one half alone.
In light of the findings, it would mean that a functional corpus callosum is critical in the formation of event memories and therefore explain why its maturation in early childhood is at least partly responsible for the emergence of episodic memory.
www.apa.org /releases/leftymemory.html   (821 words)

 Cogprints - Convergence-Zone Episodic Memory: Analysis and Simulations
Human episodic memory provides a seemingly unlimited storage for everyday experiences, and a retrieval system that allows us to access the experiences with partial activation of their components.
For many configurations of the model, a theoretical lower bound for the memory capacity can be derived, and it can be an order of magnitude or higher than the number of all units in the model, and several orders of magnitude higher than the number of binding-layer units.
The convergence-zone episodic memory therefore accounts for the immediate storage and associative retrieval capability and large capacity of the hippocampal memory, and shows why the memory encoding areas can be much smaller than the perceptual maps, consist of rather coarse computational units, and be only sparsely connected to the perceptual maps.
cogprints.org /527   (324 words)

 BBSPrints Archive: Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis
Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis
These are necessary for the encoding and, hence, the effective subsequent recall of episodic memory.
In the large majority of amnesic cases both the hippocampal - anterior thalamic and the perirhinal - medial dorsal thalamic systems are compromised, leading to severe deficits in both recall and recognition.
www.bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/04/20/index.html   (316 words)

 Effects of a single dose of cortisol on the neural correlates of episodic memory and error processing in healthy ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Effects of a single dose of cortisol on the neural correlates of episodic memory and error processing in healthy volunteers.
It is unclear whether such ERP effects are specific to episodic memory, or whether repeated cortisol administration is required.
Effects of tryptophan depletion on brain potential correlates of episodic memory retrieval.
www.accelerated-learning-online.com /research/effects-single-dose-cortisol-neural-correlates-episodic-memory-error.asp   (704 words)

 Roediger reprint list
Roediger, H.L., and Neely, J.H. Retrieval blocks in episodic and semantic memory.
Roediger, H.L., and Wheeler, M.A. Hypermnesia in episodic and semantic memory: Response to Bahrick and Hall.
Meade, M.L. and Roediger, H.L. Explorations in the social contagion of memory.
psych.wustl.edu /memory/Roddy%20Reprint%20list.html   (2572 words)

 Miikkulainen, Risto (1994) Storage and Reorganization in Episodic Memory, Psycoloquy: 5,#85 Language Network (7)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Goertzel's (1994b) review points out that the episodic memory model of DISCERN (Miikkulainen, 1993, 1994) lacks certain fundamental properties of human memory, such as a capability for reorganization, and suggests that the distinction between memory and processing must be eliminated.
It describes the organization of the memory, how it is possible to arrive at such organization based on examples, and how the memory organization and storage and retrieval processes that operate on it result in behavior similar to that of humans.
Episodic experiences appear to be temporarily stored in the hippocampus as they come in and, over a period of several weeks to several years, transferred to the cortex for permanent storage (Squire, 1992).
psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk /archive/00000444   (1145 words)

 WOEXP: 209 - Autobiographical episodic memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Episodic retrieval with a decision whether a visually presented word was previously presented with right hand button response with words for living versus nonliving things.
The role of the basal forebrain in episodic memory retrieval: a positron emission tomography study.
Maintenance and update of 3 oriented visual gratings in working memory from a series of 5 to 7 items and responding to a cue by pressing a key with either left or right hand versus maintenance and response with 3 items in working memory.
hendrix.imm.dtu.dk /services/jerne/brede/WOEXP_209.html   (1540 words)

 Bridgeman, Bruce (1992) Qualia and Memory, Psycoloquy: 3,#24 Consciousness (9)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The episodic memory is distinct from forms of memory that evolved earlier, such as the memory that tunes motor skills or the one that supports classical conditioning.
So consciousness of plans is mediated through episodic memory, a memory that arose because of the needs of the planning system.
The same property of subplans can be interpreted in terms of memory, where plans that organize low levels or that have become automatized do not gain a separate access to episodic memory.
psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk /archive/00000248   (828 words)

 Episodic memory...without it human civilization would not have evolved   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Episodic memory...without it human civilization would not have evolved
A pioneer in memory research who has laid the groundwork for important discoveries, Dr. Tulving says episodic memory gives rise to the unique human ability to be aware of the future.
Tulving, who holds an Anne and Max Tanenbaum Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience at the Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest, added that recent functional neuroimaging research done at the Institute has identified regions of the frontal lobes that seem to be critically involved in awareness of the past, and probably of the future.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2000-02/BCfG-Emih-1702100.php   (268 words)

 ScienceDaily: The Brain's Halves Cooperate To Help Us Remember Events, Giving "Lefty Family" Members Better Episodic ...
Memories Are Harder To Forget Than Currently Thought (March 16, 2004) -- While it might not seem so the next time you go searching for your car keys, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania have shown that memories are not as fluid as current research suggests.
Accuracy Of Adult Memories Of Childhood Is No Greater Than Chance (June 5, 2000) -- Most people think of their memory as a continuous tape of personal histories and that the act of remembering requires simply replaying the tape.
Although traditional studies of memory began in the realms of philosophy, the late nineteenth and early...
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2001/10/011022025919.htm   (2151 words)

 The brain’s halves cooperate to help us remember events, giving 'lefty family' members better episodic memory
The onset of episodic memory roughly coincides with the corpus callosum’s maturation and myelinization, the growth of fatty protective sheaths around nerve fibers.
Article: “Superior Episodic Memory is Associated with Interhemispheric Processing,” Stephen D. Christman, Ph.D., and Ruth E. Propper, Ph.D., both then with the University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio; Neuropsychology, Vol.
Through its divisions in 53 divisions of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2001-10/apa-tbh101601.php   (824 words)

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