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Topic: Epithets in Homer


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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  
  Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Homer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Homer (Greek Ὅμηρος Hómēros) was a legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia ("The Frog-Mouse War"), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary works such as Margites.
Statue of Homer on The Lawn of the University of Virginia.
The traditional solution is the "transcription hypothesis", wherein a non-literate "Homer" dictates his poem to a literate scribe in the 6th century BC or earlier.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /topic/Homer.html   (902 words)

  
 EPITHETS IN HOMER
Epithets are a characteristic of oral poetry and Epic style.
Epithets are useful to the narrative of both poems.
'Homer' must have drawn on a long tradition of oral poetry and folk-tales, but his choice of central theme and the relation of the parts to the whole the wonderful craftsmanship following the artistic inspiration is a masterpiece.
www.angelfire.com /art/archictecture/articles/008.htm   (1205 words)

  
 The Odyssey - Terms and Conventions
The epithet was used as by oral poets to help them "catch their breath" whenever they mention a major figure or describe something familiar and recurring.
The epithets were not used to illustrate a specific aspect of the figure at the moment he (she) is being spoken of, but were chosen to fit the meter of the line.
Homer is constantly interrupting the narration to elaborate on an aspect of what he is talking about; if he mentions a gift of wine, he will explain not only the history of the gift but the history of the giver.
www.leasttern.com /HighSchool/odyssey/Odyssey2.html   (431 words)

  
  Homer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The current theory is that Homer lived and performed in such a way in the 8th century BCE.
Even to Homer's contemporaries, the language of the bard was different: a unique vocabulary chosen and honed because it adhered to a strict rhythmical pattern.
Epithets were rhythmically correct combinations of names and identifiers like "red-haired Menelaos;" set pieces bought the bard even more time.
www.megtipper.org /homer.htm   (712 words)

  
 ClSt 200 - Homer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey focus on the exploits of a single protagonist: the godlike warrior Achilles in the Iliad and the wily, cunning Odysseus in the Odyssey.
The events Homer narrates have to do especially with the Trojan War and its aftermath, around the year 1250 B.C.E. at the end of the Bronze Age, a period named for the metal that was then chiefly in use.
Homer's poetry was sung by bards, often to the accompaniment of a lyre.
www.classics.upenn.edu /myth/homer/hande.php   (524 words)

  
 Homer Circa Eighth Century B.C. Criticism and Essays
Homer's two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, have greatly influenced the style and content of Western literature and are considered two of the greatest literary artifacts of Western civilization.
Parry established that Homeric verse is formulaic by nature, relying on generic epithets (such as "wine-dark sea" and "rosy-fingered dawn"), repetition of stock lines and half-lines, and scenes and themes typical of traditional folk poetry.
However, Homer's preeminence as an epic poet was reestablished in the eighteenth century by the translations of Chapman and Pope and the essays in praise of Homer by Joseph Addison.
www.enotes.com /poetry-criticism/homer-circa-eighth-century-b   (1093 words)

  
 Homer - LitWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
It has been considered that Homer could have possibly created both epic poems in the 8th century B.C. Because of the historical and Linguistic evidence in the poems it is also speculated that Homer lived in a Greek village on the west coast of Asia Minor.
Samuel Butler, a British writer, theorizes that Homer was a Sicilian woman, that wrote the Odyssey (not the Iliad) and the landscape of the poem was taken from the coast of Sicily and surrounding islands.
One thing is absolutely true about Homer, he is recognized as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey but perhaps, part of his fame is the mystery that has been a shroud around his identity for thousands of years has contributed to his legendary status.
litmuse.maconstate.edu /litwiki/index.php/Homer   (411 words)

  
 Homer - Mysteries of History - U.S. News Online
The Homeric Question has sparked a centuries-long debate among classicists, linguists, and archaeologists, and not just about the identity of the author (or whether he existed at all).
Aristotle agreed with Pindar that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios.
The issue is devoted to debates and questions concerning the historical Homer.
www.usnews.com /usnews/doubleissue/mysteries/homer.htm   (894 words)

  
 Finance Choices - Personal Finance Wiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Epithets are characteristic of the style of ancient epic poetry, notably in that of Homer or the northern European sagas.
Some epithets were applied to several deities of a same pantheon, rather accidentally if they had a common characteristic, or deliberately emphasizing their blood- or other ties; thus in pagan Rome, several divinities (including demi-gods, heroes) were given the epitheton Comes as companion of another (usually major) divinity.
In botanical nomenclature, an epithet may be the part of the botanical name that designates the species of a genus, or sub-species: in two and three part names, the epithet will follow the name of the genus or the name of the species, respectively.
www.financechoices.co.uk /personal-finance-wiki.php?title=Epithet   (1065 words)

  
 Gutenkarte » The Odyssey » Table of Contents / Preface
Now the Homeric epics are sagas, but then they are the sagas of the divine heroic age of Greece, and thus are told with an art which is not the art of the Northern poets.
In this process Homer must lose at least half his charm, his bright and equable speed, the musical current of that narrative, which, like the river of Egypt, flows from an indiscoverable source, and mirrors the temples and the palaces of unforgotten gods and kings.
Homer has no ideas which cannot be expressed in words that are 'old and plain,' and to words that are old and plain, and, as a rule, to such terms as, being used by the Translators of the Bible, are still not unfamiliar, we have tried to restrict ourselves.
gutenkarte.org /section/1728/0   (5419 words)

  
 Iliad essays - Free Essays on Homer's Iliad: Horrors of War Exposed
Homer, perhaps one of the greatest epic writers of all time, was a master in the art of manipulating the emotions of his audience using only the written word.
Homer once again spoils the suspense of the moment (line 745), indicating that Harpalion would die swiftly even before the outcome of his duel with Menelaus was actually detailed.
Normally, Homer paints war as an epic and worthy endeavor, and though some deaths are gruesome in their gory detail, more often than not the victor is glorified, and the loser remembered both in the poem itself and in the hearts of his comrades.
www.123helpme.com /view.asp?id=4323   (1611 words)

  
 CliffsNotes::The Odyssey:Book Summary and Study Guide
In Homer’s epic poetry, composed in Ancient Greek, it is the length of the sound that counts, not the emphasis as is usually the case in contemporary English poetry.
A simile is a figure of speech in which two unlike things or concepts are shown to be similar, for poetic purposes, often through the use of the words “like” or “as.” For example, we might say that a girl’s hair is like sunshine or that her breath is rank as an old gym sock.
An epithet is a term or phrase used to characterize the nature of a character, an object, or an event.
www.cliffsnotes.com /WileyCDA/LitNote/id-99,pageNum-79.html   (841 words)

  
 Homer's Iliad
As is particularly true of Achilleus, the Homeric hero is not likely to be as concerned about his fellow warriors as he is about himself and the members of his household.
The Homeric hero is supremely concerned with the reaction of his fellow heroes to his actions, since ultimately it is they alone who can bestow honor.
Homer is more concerned with making the gods suit the thematic needs of his poem than inspiring religious piety in his audience.
ablemedia.com /ctcweb/netshots/homer.htm   (7161 words)

  
 Untitled
Frequently, Homer refers to the Trojans as "horse tamers" or as "having fine foals," a description singular among all the cultures Homer describes in his works.
Homer depicts Troy as a sizable city with towering walls and an expansive acropolis.
Each version of Homer's story had mutated in form considerably since the story's inception; numerous discrepancies were found between the many versions.
www.utexas.edu /courses/wilson/ant304/projects/projects97/bairdp/homer.htm   (494 words)

  
 "ON TRANSLATING HOMER..."
Homer is not a writer of prose; Samuel Butler and T. Lawrence did a good thing translating in plain-Jane prose, which at least is devoid of ungainly ornaments and cleaves to the line of Homer"s plainness.
Homer does have a small repertory of these, but expressions like "he vanished like unto the night" (actually meaning into the night I suppose) or disappearance "like a thought or a feather" are unusual, and I have always suspected that some of these are later additions when they occur at the end of a paragraph.
Homer is the natural avenue into classical Greek, not only because the language is more transparent than the developed Attic dialect, but also because Homer is a master who has understood humanity well in peace and war, whose writing is endlessly fascinating.
community.middlebury.edu /~harris/homer.trans.html   (5849 words)

  
 The Odyssey by Homer. Search, Read, Study, Discuss.
Homer was A Greek poet, to whom are attributed the great epics, the Iliad, the story of the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey, the tale of Ulysses's wanderings.
Homer not only recited his poems but used a κίθαρις, a sort of stringed instrument similar to a lyre.
The Homeric Epics must not be read, for that would drain them of their power, but recited, with the aid of some instrument, if not the κίθαρις then at least some instrument capable of polytonics such as a piano.
www.online-literature.com /homer/odyssey   (2177 words)

  
 Free odyssey Essays
Homer & The Odyssey - Homer, name traditionally assigned to the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the two major epics of Greek antiquity.
Homer’s epic, the Odyssey, is a heroic narrative that follows the adventures of Odysseus, the powerful King of Ithaca.
Throughout The Iliad and The Odyssey, Homer’s use of the epithet in describing Odysseus becomes essential as a means of characterizing the hero.
www.123helpme.com /search.asp?text=odyssey&page=4   (3592 words)

  
 Homer Summary
Homer is the name that has come down through the centuries as the author of the two earliest surviving poetic works of ancient Greece, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
HOMER (eighth century BCE), according to unanimous ancient Greek tradition, was the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Homer, who was said to be blind, is thought to have lived in Smyrna or Chios and earned a living by telling stories.
www.bookrags.com /Homer   (474 words)

  
 Free iliad Essays
The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad - The Metamorphosis of Achilles in Homer’s The Iliad.
Homer’s Iliad - The Shield of Achilles - Homer’s Iliad - The Shield of Achilles.
Expression of Self-worth in Homer’s Iliad - Expression of Self-worth in Homer’s Iliad.
www.123helpme.com /search.asp?text=iliad   (3659 words)

  
 An Antic Disposition: Epithets
For example, in Homer Achilles is often referred to as “podas okus” or “swift-footed”, whereas Agamemnon is often “anax andron” or “ruler of men”.
In this way, the epithets could aid improvized oral performance, much as a jazz musician has a repetoire of riffs and chord progressions at his command which can be inserted to fill out a phrase.
This epithet is so tightly associated with him that can be used as a substitue for his name, much as a medieval scholar could speak of “the Philosopher” to refer to Aristotle without ambiguity.
www.robweir.com /blog/2006/01/epithets.html   (579 words)

  
 ILIAD
As is particularly true of Achilleus, the Homeric hero is not likely to be as concerned about his fellow warriors as he is about himself and the members of his household.
The Homeric hero is supremely concerned with the reaction of his fellow heroes to his actions, since ultimately it is they alone who can bestow honor.
Homer is more concerned with making the gods suit the thematic needs of his poem than inspiring religious piety in his audience.
depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu /classics/dunkle/studyguide/homer.htm   (7284 words)

  
 Who was Homer?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
It has been traditionally held that Homer was a blind poet from the Island of Chios in Ionia of Asia Minor (south of Troy).
Homer has long been admired for, among other things, his skill as a poet (especially adept at the simile) and his skill as a psychologist.
The "official" form of Homer has been accepted since 150 B.C.E., when all that was thought to be Homeric was edited by the scholar Aristarchus of Samothrace.
www2.bc.edu /~constas/whowashomer.htm   (285 words)

  
 [No title]
The two principal topics are "the theme," a technique of composition and one of the proofs that Homer composed orally; and "the transitional text," a bugbear in oral studies.
Homer's predecessors have invented these devices, not Homer, and they have been passed on and elaborated still further because they enhanced the power of performance.
Homer's world was utterly different from that of medieval or early modern society, where written Latin and its ancient traditions were always nearby.
www.phil-inst.hu /uniworld/egyetem/filtort/irodalom/cikk08.htm   (2962 words)

  
 Footnotes
Smintheus an epithet taken from sminthos, the Phrygian name for a mouse, was applied to Apollo for having put an end to a plague of mice which had harassed that territory.
Of the gradual and individual development of Homer's heroes, Schlegel well observes, "In bas-relief the figures are usually in profile, and in the epos all are characterized in the simplest manner in relief; they are not grouped together, but follow one another; so Homer's heroes advance, one by one, in succession before us.
The heroic companions whom we find celebrated partly by Homer and partly in traditions which, if not of equal antiquity, were grounded on the same feeling, seem to have but one heart and soul, with scarcely a wish or object apart, and only to live as they are always ready to die for one another.
www.infoplease.com /t/lit/iliad-pope/appendix2.html   (10734 words)

  
 [No title]
The two principal topics are "the theme," a technique of composition and one of the proofs that Homer composed orally; and "the transitional text," a bugbear in oral studies.
Homer's predecessors have invented these devices, not Homer, and they have been passed on and elaborated still further because they enhanced the power of performance.
Homer's world was utterly different from that of medieval or early modern society, where written Latin and its ancient traditions were always nearby.
www.infomotions.com /serials/bmcr/bmcr-9601-powell-singer.txt   (2999 words)

  
 10: Technology and Literature
To read Homer is, imaginatively at least, to perform, to act out varied roles, to deliver speeches in the characters of famous people, heroes and gods (and yes, even a talking horse!).
Epithets are standardized, respectful phrases of description added to the spirit's proper name, praising or flattering the spirit in some way by mentioning some outstanding attribute or some worthy past episode in its career.
They are "writers." Homer doesn't seem to fit this mold; generally he is seen as a crude preliterate, not a "writer." This characterization is almost certainly wrong, I believe, but it is based on Homer's style which clearly is oral and evocative of performance.
englishare.net /literature/POL-HS-Homer-Technology.htm   (7177 words)

  
 Homer's Iliad
Homer repeated his epithets often, presumably so the listeners of his recited tales could easily remember and picture the person or thing each time it was mentioned.
It is in fact in the tenth year of the war that Homer picks up the thread of the story and spins his tale, focusing on a crisis in the Greek ranks in which the greatest soldier in history, Achilles, decides to withdraw from battle and allow his fellow Greeks to fend for themselves.
According to Homer, she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione, the daughter of a Titan; according to the Greek poet Hesiod, she was born from the foam of the sea.
www.cummingsstudyguides.net /TheIliad.html   (4736 words)

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