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Topic: Epoxide


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In the News (Mon 27 May 19)

  
  ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Heptachlor and Heptachlor Epoxide
The primary exposure to heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide is from contaminated foods and milk.
Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide are also persistent in food and milk.
If heptachlor or heptachlor epoxide is found in your blood or fat, it is not possible to tell when you were exposed to these chemicals or if harmful health effects will occur.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts12.html   (1122 words)

  
 Epoxide Hydrolase Bibliography
0 epoxide by a cytosolic epoxide hydrolase from mouse liver.
  Regio- and enantioselective hydrolysis of phenyloxiranes catalyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase.
  Inhibition of microsomal epoxide hydrolases by ureas, amides and amines.
www.biopestlab.ucdavis.edu /BIB-EH.htm   (4580 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Epoxide
It has been suggested that Epoxides be merged into this article or section.
It is easiest to consider the oxygen to be an electrophile, and the alkene a nucleophile, although they both operate in that capacity, and the reaction is considered to be concerted (the numbers in the mechanism below are for simplification).
epoxide + lithium aluminum hydride + water → alcohol
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Epoxide   (544 words)

  
 Epoxide resins - United States Patent 4,074,008
Epoxide resins according to claim 1, in which the units of formula I are linked to carbon atoms in the remainder of the molecule through oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms.
Epoxide resins according to claim 4, in which the group of formula II are directly attached to oxygen atoms or nitrogen atoms.
An epoxide resin, prepared by the glycidylation of 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)propane and having an epoxide content of 5.4 equiv./kg, i.e., substantially 2,2-bis(glycidyloxyphenyl)propane, (160 g), was mixed with 1,5-bis(hydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (100 g), tetraethylammonium bromide (0.4 g), and dioxane (400 g).
xrint.com /patents/us/4074008   (5470 words)

  
 Compositions for curing epoxide resins - Patent 4101459
A further aspect of this invention comprises a process for curing an epoxide resin which consists of forming a mixture of the epoxide resin, an effective amount of an aromatic, heterocyclic, or cycloaliphatic polyamine as curing agent therefor, and a salt of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, and allowing or causing the mixture to cure.
Epoxide resins having the 1,2-epoxide groups attached to different kinds of hetero atoms may be employed, e.g., the N,N,O-triglycidyl derivative of 4-aminophenol, the glycidyl ether-glycidyl ester of salicylic acid, N-glycidyl-N'-(2-glycidyloxypropyl)-5,5-dimethylhydantoin, and 2-glycidyloxy-1,3-bis(5,5-dimethyl-1-glycidylhydantoin-3-yl)propane.
"Epoxide resin VII" denotes the tetrakis(N-glycidyl)derivative of bis(4-aminophenyl)methane.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4101459.html   (2288 words)

  
 Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Lowers Arterial Blood Pressure in Angiotensin II Hypertension -- Imig et al. 39 ...
Potent urea and carbamate inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolases.
A polymorphism in the gene for microsomal epoxide hydrolase is associated with pre-eclampsia.
Angiotensin II up-regulates soluble epoxide hydrolase in vascular endothelium in vitro and in vivo
hyper.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/39/2/690   (4332 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In one broad respect, this invention is a method for the treatment of waste-water, which comprises: reacting a polyetheramine and a multifunctional epoxide in waste-water composition that initially is in the form of an emulsion to form a reaction product that causes- the emulsion to break into a water phase and an oil phase.
The epoxide groups may, individually in each occurrence, be linked by larger alkylene groups than the ethylene groups shown in the formula.
A method for the treatment of waste-water, which comprises: reacting a polyetheramine and a multifunctional epoxide in waste-water composition that initially is in the form of an emulsion to form a reaction product that causes the emulsion to break into a water phase and an oil phase.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=00/47524.000817&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (1957 words)

  
 Differential control of rat microsomal "aryl hydrocarbon" monooxygenase and epoxide hydratase.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Selective induction of epoxide hydratase(s) catalyzing the transformation of epoxides to electrophilically unreactive dihydrodiols, under conditions not leading to increases in monooxygenase(s) responsible for epoxide formation would, therefore, be of interest.
No sex difference is epoxide hydratase activity was observed in young rats (1 to 5 days old) while epoxide hydratase levels were about 3-fold higher in adult males than in females, which was remarkably similar to the behavior of monooxygenase.
Although different types of known monooxygenase inducers all led to epoxide hydratase induction in adult rat liver, their effect of epoxide hydratase and monooxygenase could be dissociated by transplacental treatment.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_1244357.html   (310 words)

  
 112_Epoxide Hydrolase
Epoxide hydrolases are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of drugs and other xenobiotics.
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase is induced by many compounds, including phenobarbital, trans-stilbene oxide and aflatoxin.
This antibody, prepared against purified rabbit epoxide hydrolase, is intended for characterization of epoxide hydrolase on Western blots.
www.oxfordbiomed.com /mi112epox.html   (114 words)

  
 Structure of Rhodococcus erythropolis limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase reveals a novel active site   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Epoxide hydrolases are essential for the processing of epoxide-containing compounds in detoxification or metabolism.
Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) catalyse the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding diols.
In each case, the epoxide ring is activated by interactions of an acidic group with its ring oxygen (through either protonation or metal binding), while the attack of a base at one of its carbon atoms forces ring opening.
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v22/n11/full/7590685a.html   (7289 words)

  
 Isolation and Characterization of the Epoxide Hydrolase-Encoding Gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous -- Visser et ...
The epoxide hydrolase (EH)-encoding gene (EPH1) from the basidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was isolated.
Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) catalyze hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding diols.
Characterisation of a catabolic epoxide hydrolase from a Corynebacterium sp.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/65/12/5459   (2930 words)

  
 Features Item : Coating Crosslinking Reactions Using Cycloaliphatic Epoxides   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Cycloaliphatic epoxides are made commercially by reaction of an unsaturated precursor with a per-acid.
In addition to physical properties, chemical reactivity of the epoxide group is a key parameter in determining the use of the epoxide in coating formulations.
A typical two-pack system has a cycloaliphatic epoxide and an alcohol or polyol on side A, which is then mixed with the anhydride curative and baked in a mold.
www.pcimag.com /CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,1846,12809,00.html   (1310 words)

  
 A polymorphism in the gene for microsomal epoxide hydrolase is associated with pre-eclampsia -- Zusterzeel et al. 38 ...
A polymorphism in the gene for microsomal epoxide hydrolase is associated with pre-eclampsia -- Zusterzeel et al.
A polymorphism in the gene for microsomal epoxide hydrolase is associated with pre-eclampsia
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous toxicants.
jmg.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/abstract/38/4/234   (427 words)

  
 Epoxide -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
A (A naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers) polymer made of epoxide units is called a polyepoxide or an (A thermosetting resin; used chiefly in strong adhesives and coatings and laminates) epoxy.
epoxide + (additional info and facts about acid catalyst) acid catalyst → trans (Any of a class of alcohols having 2 hydroxyl groups in each molecule) glycol
epoxide + (additional info and facts about nucleophile) nucleophile → open epoxide ring
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/e/ep/epoxide.htm   (158 words)

  
 Carbonless.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Cellulosic products are sized with treatment compositions prepared from (a) fluoroaliphatic radical-containing carboxylic acid or a salt or hydrolyzable precursor thereof, (b) water-soluble epoxidic cationic resin made by reacting epihalohydrin with ammonia or aminopolymer, and (c) an optional hydrophobic hydrocarbon sizing agent.
The water-soluble epoxidic cationic resins used in this invention (viz., component (b) above) are reaction products of epihalohydrin (e.g., epichlorohydrin) with ammonia or aminopolymers.
Suitable water-soluble epoxidic cationic resins, and preparative methods therefor, are described, for example, in Bates, "Polyamide-Epichlorohydrin Wet-Strength Resin", TAPPI, The Journal of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, 52, 6, (June 1969), in U.S. Pat.
www.carbonless.org /patents_4426466.htm   (1727 words)

  
 NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - Heptachlor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Heptachlor epoxide is an extremely persistent form of the chemical, both in the environment and in humans.
In the discussion that follows, "heptachlor" refers to heptachlor epoxide, since this is the form that is examined in most analyses of breast milk.
Detected levels of heptachlor epoxide in breast milk have been heavily influenced by patterns of use - as countries have restricted and banned heptachlor, levels detected in breast milk have dropped.
www.nrdc.org /breastmilk/chem6.asp   (1717 words)

  
 EXTOXNET PIP - HEPTACHLOR
Heptachlor and its epoxide are moderately bound to soils [15] and should not be highly mobile [57,58].
Over their long residence times, even low mobility may result in appreciable movement and so heptachlor and its metabolite (heptachlor epoxide) may be considered to pose a risk of groundwater contamination over time [57,58].
Heptachlor epoxide is not very susceptible to biodegradation, photolysis, oxidation, or hydrolysis in the environment [57].
extoxnet.orst.edu /pips/heptachl.htm   (1915 words)

  
 Storable, solid mixture for the preparation of plastics which are based on epoxide resin and are stable to hydrolysis, ...
A plastic which is based on epoxide resin and has been prepared from a mixture according to claim 1.
182 g (0.1 equivalent) of a diglycidyl ether of so-called "advanced" bisphenol A, prepared, for example, as indicated in Example 1, with an epoxide content of 0.55 equivalent/kg, and 167 g (0.9 equivalent) f a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide content of 5.4 equivalents/kg are mixed, at 140.degree.
135 g (0.75 equivalent) of an epoxide novolac with an epoxide content of 5.56 equivalents/kg and 455 g (0.25 equivalent) of a so-called "advanced" bisphenol A diglycidyl compound with an epoxide content of 0.55 equivalent/kg are mixed, at 140.degree.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4288565.html   (2342 words)

  
 EPA Ground Water & Drinking Water > breadcrumb? > Consumer Factsheet on: HEPTACHLOR AND HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE
The epoxide is formed from heptachlor in the environment.
Heptachlor epoxide is not produced commercially, but rather is formed by the chemical and biological transformation of heptachlor in the environment.
Heptachlor epoxide also adsorbs strongly to soil but is extremely resistant to biodegradation, persisting for many years in the upper soil layers.
www.epa.gov /safewater/contaminants/dw_contamfs/heptachl.html   (908 words)

  
 Evaluation of Fish Models of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Substituted ureas and carbamates are mechanistic inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH).
Soluble epoxide hydrolase is a highly conserved, ubiquitous enzyme that hydrolyzes aliphatic epoxides to their corresponding vicinal diols (2).
A rapid radiometric assay for mammalian cytosolic epoxide hydrolase.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/2001/109p61-66newman/newman-full.html   (5285 words)

  
 Epoxide Hydrolase Tyr113His Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated Risk of Colorectal Polyps in the Presence of ...
Epoxide Hydrolase Tyr113His Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated Risk of Colorectal Polyps in the Presence of Smoking and High Meat Intake -- Ulrich et al.
Epoxide Hydrolase Tyr113His Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated Risk of Colorectal Polyps in the Presence of Smoking and High Meat Intake
Oesch F. Mammalian epoxide hydrases: inducible enzymes catalysing the inactivation of carcinogenic and cytotoxic metabolites derived from aromatic and olefinic compounds.
cebp.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/10/8/875   (4002 words)

  
 Expression and Activity of Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase in Follicles Isolated from Mouse Ovaries -- Cannady et al. 68 ...
Cho, J. Y., and Kim, S.G. Differential induction of hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase by alkyl sulphides and alkyl ethers in rat.
Krause, R. J., Sharer, J. E., and Elfarra, A. Epoxide hydrolase-dependent metabolism of butadiene monoxide to 3-butene-1,2-diol in mouse, rat, and human liver.
Mukhtar, H., Philpot, R. M., and Bend, J. The postnatal development of microsomal epoxide hydrase, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase, and mitochondrial and microsomal cytochrome P-450 in adrenals and ovaries of female rats.
toxsci.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/68/1/24   (4602 words)

  
 Heptachlor and Heptachlor Epoxide - NSC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Heptachlor (C.A.S. 76-44-8) is a man-made compound that was commonly used by exterminators and homeowners to control and kill termites, and by farmers to kill insects in seed grains and on crops.
Synonyms for heptachlor epoxide are 1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro- 2,3-epoxy-2,3,3a,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methanoindene; epoxyheptachlor.
A Federal Drug Administration study of estimated dietary intake of heptachlor epoxide by geographic region indicates that toddlers and infants from the north central region of the United States are at greater risk of heptachlor epoxide exposure than those in other sections of the country.
www.nsc.org /library/chemical/Heptachl.htm   (1068 words)

  
 Role of Induction of Specific Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Isoforms in Epoxidation of 4-Vinylcyclohexene -- Fontaine et al. ...
increases in VCH epoxidation in microsomes from mice and rats.
Smith BJ, Carter DE and Sipes IG (1990a) Comparison of the disposition and in vitro metabolism of 4-vinylcyclohexene in the female mouse and rat.
Smith BJ and Sipes IG (1991) Epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene by human hepatic microsomes.
dmd.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/29/9/1236   (4663 words)

  
 Multiple Epoxide Hydrolases in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and Their Relationship to Medium Composition and ...
Epoxide hydrolase activity of Chryseomonas luteola for the asymmetric hydrolysis of aliphatic mono-substituted epoxides.
A partition assay for epoxide hydrases acting on insect juvenile hormone and an epoxide-containing juvenoid.
Oesch, F. Mammalian epoxide hydrases: inducible enzymes catalysing the inactivation of carcinogenic and cytotoxic metabolites derived from aromatic and oleofinic compounds.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/65/6/2388   (4532 words)

  
 Polymorphisms in Human Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase -- Przybyla-Zawislak et al. 64 (2): 482 -- Molecular Pharmacology
Gill SS (1983) Purification of mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase.
Pinot F, Grant DF, Spearow JL, Parker AG, and Hammock BD (1995b) Differential regulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase by clofibrate and sexual hormones in the liver and kidneys of mice.
Silva MH and Hammock BD (1987) Affinity purification of cytosolic epoxide hydrolase from human, rhesus monkey, baboon, rabbit, rat and mouse liver.
molpharm.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/64/2/482   (5245 words)

  
 Vascular localization of soluble epoxide hydrolase in the human kidney -- Yu et al. 286 (4): 720 -- AJP - Renal ...
Vascular localization of soluble epoxide hydrolase in the human kidney -- Yu et al.
epoxide hydrolase was evident in renal arteries of varying diameter
the expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase in the human kidney.
ajprenal.physiology.org /cgi/content/abstract/286/4/F720   (485 words)

  
 Identification and Characterization of an Ovary-Selective Isoform of Epoxide Hydrolase -- Hennebold et al. 72 (4): 968 ...
Ovarian homogenates were generated from different stages of a stimulated estrous cycle using C57BL/6 mice and tested for soluble epoxide hydrolase enzymatic activity as previously described [19].
Epoxide hydrolases in the rat epididymis: possible roles in xenobiotic and endogenous fatty acid metabolism.
The soluble epoxide hydrolase encoded by EPXH2 is a bifunctional enzyme with novel lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/72/4/968   (4953 words)

  
 RAIS: Heptachlor Epoxide (1024-24-3)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Heptachlor epoxide, an oxidation product of the cyclodiene insecticide heptachlor, is not produced commercially in the United States and is not known to occur naturally (ATSDR 1993, IARC 1979).
In the environment, heptachlor is converted to the epoxide, a chemical that degrades more slowly and, as a result, is more persistent than heptachlor.
Heptachlor epoxide has been found in human fat, milk, and also in blood and fat of stillborn infants, indicating transplacental transfer to the fetus (IARC 1979, EPA 1986).
risk.lsd.ornl.gov /tox/profiles/heptachlor_epoxide_c_V1.shtml   (615 words)

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