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Topic: Ernst Mach

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  Ernst Mach - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the "Mach number" and the optical illusion known as Mach bands.
Mach returned to the University of Vienna as professor of inductive philosophy in 1895, but he suffered a stroke two years later and retired from active research in 1901, when he was appointed to the Austrian parliament.
Mach's paper on this subject was published in 1877 and correctly describes the sound effects observed during the supersonic motion of a projectile.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ernst_Mach   (776 words)

 Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 - February 19, 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher.
Ernst Mach was born in Chrlice (now part of Brno), Czechia.
Mach deduced and experimentally confirmed the existence of a shock wave which has the form of a cone with the projectile at the apex.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/er/Ernst_Mach.html   (336 words)

 Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher who established important principles of optics, mechanics, and wave dynamics and who supported the view that all knowledge is a conceptual organization of the data of sensory experience (or observation).
Mach number, in fluid mechanics, is the ratio of the velocity of a fluid to the velocity of sound in that fluid, named after Ernst Mach (1838-1916), an Austrian physicist and philosopher.
Mach's principle, in cosmology, is the hypothesis that the inertial forces experienced by a body in nonuniform motion are determined by the quantity and distribution of matter in the universe.
library.thinkquest.org /18033/mach2.html   (796 words)

 Aerospaceweb.org | Ask Us - Ernst Mach and Mach Number   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Ernst Mach was a well-known figure of his day who made his mark in a variety of fields, most notably in physics and philosophy.
Ernst Mach was born on 18 February 1838 in the Austrian town of Turas.
Mach also wrote about world affairs, including a prescient commentary on the "absurdity committed by the statesman who regards the individual as existing solely for the purpose of the state" that was about a century ahead of its time.
www.aerospaceweb.org /question/history/q0149.shtml   (833 words)

 Ernst Mach at Erratic Impact's Philosophy Research Base
Mach was educated at home until the age of 14, then went briefly to gymnasium (high school) before entering the University of Vienna at 17.
Mach's interests had already begun to turn to the psychology and physiology of sensation, although he continued to identify himself as a physicist and to conduct physical research throughout his career.
Mach was the first person to realize that if matter traveling through the air moved faster than the speed of sound it drastically altered the quality of the space in which it moved.
www.erraticimpact.com /~analytic/mach.htm   (380 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mach's exceptionally rigorous criteria of verifiability led him to reject such metaphysical concepts as absolute time and space, and prepared the way for the Einstein relativity theory.
Mach also proposed the physical principle, known as Mach's principle, that inertia (the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest and of a body in motion to continue in motion in the same direction) results from a relationship of that object with all the rest of the matter in the universe.
Mach's inertial theories also were cited by Einstein as one of the inspirations for his theories of relativity.
www.phy.bg.ac.yu /web_projects/giants/mach.html   (489 words)

 Mach, Ernst   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Mach angle describes the angle between the direction of motion and the shock wave, and Mach found that it varies with the speed of the projectile.
Mach postulated that all knowledge is mediated by perception, and believed that the greatest scientific advances would only arise through a deeper understanding of this process.
Mach's book Die Mechanik 1863 gave rise to debate on Mach's principle, which states that a body could have no inertia in a universe devoid of all other mass as inertia depends on the reciprocal interaction of bodies, however distant.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/M/Mach/1.html   (270 words)

 Mike King
Ernst Mach (1838-1916) was a Positivist physicist from Austria, whose work led to the Logical Positivists and their highly influential position in 20th century thinking.
Mach studied Kant, Hume and Darwin, and ‘thus learned to approach his beloved physics with a wary and sceptical eye.’ [8] This gives us an insight into Mach’s approach to physics, an approach that is complex and requires an understanding of both physics and the philosophy of science to appreciate.
Max Ernst was however to encapsulate for a whole generation the revolt against authority that would be pursued as art, as a response to the carnage of the war, and as an embodiment of Freud’s new theories.
www.herts.ac.uk /artdes1/research/papers/wpades/vol2/kingfull.html   (7242 words)

 Newton's First Law and Mach's Principle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mach states that the spheres are rotating relative to the fixed stars, which contain most of the mass in the Universe.
According to Mach, since the relative motion is the same for the two cases and since there was a tension in the first case (when the spheres were rotating and the stars fixed), there must be a tension in the second case as well.
Einstein was influenced by Mach and believed that Mach's Principle would be incorporated in his General Theory of Relativity.
www.physics.nyu.edu /courses/V85.0020/node24.html   (901 words)

 Ernst Mach - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mach developed a philosophy of science which was influential in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Since atoms were, at the time, too small to observe directly, the atomic hypothesis seemed to Mach to be unwarranted by experimental observations, and perhaps not sufficiently "economical".
Ernst Mach thought not, and speculated that the distant stars must somehow affect inertia (Mach's Principle), but no-one has yet come up with a successful and elegant theory.
zyx.org /Ernst_Mach.html   (820 words)

 AllRefer.com - Ernst Mach (Physics, Biography) - Encyclopedia
Ernst Mach[ernst mAkh] Pronunciation Key, 1838–1916, Austrian physicist and philosopher, b.
Mach, one of the leaders of modern positivism, did his major work in the philosophy of science.
Mach also did research in the field of ballistics; the Mach number is named for him.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/M/Mach-Ern.html   (255 words)

 Ernst Mach Biography / Biography of Ernst Mach World of Physics Biography
Mach, an Austrian physicist and philosopher, was a leading figure of the scientific positivists.
Mach's name is a familiar one to most people, who usually associate it with the velocities of supersonic aircraft.
The bulk of Mach's experimental work was in the field of aerodynamics; he was the first to note the changes in the movement of air around an object as it approached the speed of sound.
www.bookrags.com /biography-ernst-mach-wop   (249 words)

 Mach Number
As the speed of the object approaches the speed of sound, the flight Mach number is nearly equal to one, M = 1, and the flow is said to be transonic.
The trigonometric sine of the cone angle b is equal to the inverse of the Mach number M and the angle is therefore called the Mach angle.
The Mach number depends on the speed of sound in the gas and the speed of sound depends on the type of gas and the temperature of the gas.
www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/mach.html   (817 words)

 Physics, Ernst Mach: Mach's Principle
Mach's Principle (Newton's law of Inertia F=m.a, is established by all the matter of the universe) is sensibly and simply explained by the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter.
Ernst Mach (1883) stated that Newton's law of Inertia F=m.a, was established by all the matter of the universe.
In The Science of Mechanics(1883) Mach therefore applied his general position to a criticism of the form given to mechanics by Newton and his successors and attempted to show how the scientific content of mechanics could be retained without appeal to absolute space and time, force and other non-empirical notions.
www.spaceandmotion.com /Physics-Ernst-Mach.htm   (2059 words)

 Mach's Principle
The significance of personalities like Mach lies by no means only in the fact that they satisfy the philosophical needs of their times, an endeavor which the hard-nosed specialist may dismiss as a luxury.
The core of "Mach's Principle" is something like this: the inertia of a body is determined in relation to all other bodies in the universe (in short, "matter there governs inertia here").
The word "Mach's Principle" was, as is already pointed out, introduced by Einstein in 1918, and thanks to Einstein's reputation, many physicists and philosophers began to discuss it; but most of them followed Einstein's rendering(s), rarely going back to Mach's own words.
www.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp /~suchii/mach.pr.html   (1362 words)

 Ernst Mach Biography / Biography of Ernst Mach Main Biography
Ernst Mach (1838-1916), an Austrian physicist and philosopher of science, made important contributions in several sciences but especially in the areas of the history and theory of science and of perception.
Ernst Mach was born on Feb. 18, 1838, in Turas in Moravia, then part of Austria and subsequently a province of the former Czechoslovakia.
Mach is generally credited with establishing the study of the philosophy of sciences as a se
www.bookrags.com /biography-ernst-mach   (251 words)

 Ernst Mach   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The philosophy of Ernst Mach (1838-1916) stemmed from a critique...
Ernst Mach (18 de febrero, 1838 - 19 de febrero, 1916) fue un físico y filósofo austríaco.Trabajó como cate­drático de matemáticas en la Universi­dad de Graz y de 1867 a 1895 como ca­tedrático de física experimental en la Universidad de Praga.
Mach estudió sobre todo la física de fluídos a velocidades superiores a la del sonido, y descubrió la existencia del cono que lleva su nombre.
enciclopedia.cc /Ernst_Mach   (569 words)

 MSN Encarta - Search Results - Ernst Mach   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mach, Ernst (1838-1916), Austrian physicist and philosopher, born in Tuřany (now in the Czech Republic), and educated at Vienna University.
Ernst, Max (1891-1976), German-born French artist, who was a seminal figure in both Dada and surrealism.
Ernst, Richard Robert, born in 1933, Swiss chemist and Nobel Prize winner.
encarta.msn.com /Ernst_Mach.html   (128 words)

 Robert Musil - Ernst Mach   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mach did not accept any statement without empirical verification; he paved the way for Einstein by challenging Newton's model of absolute space and time, and by agreeing to the abandonment of an undetectable "ether." He also dismissed atoms and molecules until Jean Baptiste PERRIN demonstrated their existence.
Mach's philosophy, which regards the fixed stars as a gravitational reference frame, attracted Einstein's early interest, and Einstein tried unsuccessfully to fit his relativity to Mach's ideas.
Mach died in the very year that Einstein published his major paper on general relativity; neither of these two giant intellects was ever fully in accord with the other.
www.xs4all.nl /~jikje/New/Info/mach.html   (234 words)

 Glossary of People: Ma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mach is widely regarded as the leader of the extreme subjectivist school of positivism of the late nineteenth century, but even Einstein acknowledged a debt to Mach for his persistent exposure of the unstated assumptions of physical science.
Mach was educated at home until the age of 14, and entered the University of Vienna at the age of 17, received his PhD in physics at the age of 22 and was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the University of Graz in 1864.
Positivism was already the dominant philosophical current in Europe and around this time, with Ernst Mach very much at the forefront, the centre stage of philosophical struggle moved to analysis of the physiological mechanisms of sensation in order to resolve the age-old problems of perception and the nature and validity of knowledge.
www.marxists.org /glossary/people/m/a.htm   (8944 words)

 Ernst Mach - CreationWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Ernst Mach is the famous physicist known to argue that the only way to explain the phenomenon of inertia was to assume that all of the masses in the universe were somehow connected.
Albert Einstein later identified this argument as Mach’s Principle, which is said to have played a major role in Eistein's theory of general relativity.
In other words: the inertia of a body is determined in relation to all other bodies in the universe ("matter there governs inertia here") It can be viewed as an entire universe being altered by changes in a single particle.
www.nwcreation.net /wiki/index.php?title=Ernst_Mach   (115 words)

 Ernst Mach   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Ernst Mach - An Austrian philosopher and contemporary of Einstein who believed that all science is based on empirical observations.
Mach insisted that science must be free of metaphysical speculation, including any concept that does not have its root in observable phenomena.
Einstein and Mach corresponded with one another between 1909-1913, a period during which Mach at first supported relativity theory but then grew suspicious of its more mathematical formulations.
www.sparknotes.com /biography/einstein/terms/char_8.html   (70 words)

 Mach, Ernst on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
MACH, ERNST [Mach, Ernst], 1838-1916, Austrian physicist and philosopher, b.
He taught (1864-67) mathematics at Graz and later, until his retirement in 1901, was professor of physics at Prague and Vienna.
The Scientist as Spectator: Musil's Torle[Beta] and the Challenge to Mach's Neo-Positivism.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/M/Mach-E1rn.asp   (257 words)

 JHT History of Heat Transfer - Mach   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
His criteria of verifiability were exceptionally rigorous and led him not only to reject such metaphysical conceptions as that of absolute space and time, but also to oppose the introduction of atoms and molecules into physical theory.
As a positivist, he regarded scientific laws as purely descriptive and held that the choice between alternative hypotheses covering the same facts was to be made on the grounds of economy.
Mach's name is most closely associated with the Mach Number which expresses the speed of matter relative to the local speed of sound.
www.me.utexas.edu /~me339/Bios/mach.html   (235 words)

 Dictionary : Speed_of_Sound_and_Mach_Numbers
The Mach number (M) refers to the method of measuring airspeed that was developed by the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach.
Because the speed of sound varies, a particular speed at sea level expressed as a Mach number would be faster than the same speed at 30,000 feet (9,144 meters), which would be faster than the same speed at 40,000 feet (12,192 meters).
In other words, Mach 2 at sea level is a greater number of miles per hour (or kilometers per hour) than Mach 2 at 30,000 feet, which is a greater number of miles per hour than Mach 2 at 40,000 feet.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/Dictionary/sound_barrier/DI94.htm   (315 words)

 The Berkeley/Mach Critique of Newton’s Bucket Argument for Absolute Space
Mach's account is not equivalent to Newton's but involves an empirical hypothesis about the causes of inertia which could be false.
Mach's hypothesis about the inertia of local matter being due to the action of distant masses is developed in some detail in D. Sciama, The Unity of the Universe (1959), Chapters 8 and 9.
Einstein was influenced by Mach in developing the GTR, but Einstein (and most commentators) fail to distinguish between different versions of what is called "Mach's principle." There is a clear but rather technical account of this in Michael Friedman, Foundations of Space-Time Theories (1983).
web.ics.purdue.edu /~curd/machhd.html   (347 words)

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