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Topic: Espionage Act of 1917

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  First World War.com - Primary Documents - U.S. Espionage Act, 15 June 1917
Reproduced below is a portion of the text of the Espionage Act passed by the U.S. Congress on 15 June, some two months following America's declaration of war with Germany.
The Act entitles "An Act to prevent the disclosure of national defence secrets," approved March third, nineteen hundred and eleven, is hereby repealed.
A "creeping barrage" is an artillery bombardment in which a 'curtain' of artillery fire moves toward the enemy ahead of the advancing troops and at the same speed as the troops.
www.firstworldwar.com /source/espionageact.htm   (399 words)

  Espionage - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
Espionage, or spying, is illegal according to national laws; for example, see Espionage Act of 1917.
They have been romanticized in popular fiction and the mass media, but in reality, espionage exists in a secret world of deception, fraud, and sometimes violence.
Espionage involves the recruiting of agents in foreign nations; efforts to encourage the disloyalty of those possessing significant information; and audio surveillance as well as the use of a full range of modern photographic, sensing, and detection devices, and other techniques of eliciting secret information.
encarta.msn.com /text_761556369___1/Espionage.html   (336 words)

 Sedition Act of 1918 - dKosopedia
The Sedition Act of 1918 was an ammendment[1] to the Espionage Act of 1917.
The Espionage Act made it a crime to help wartime enemies of the United States, but the Sedition Act made it a crime to express an opinion that contradicted that of the government.
Both the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act were repealed in 1921.
www.dkosopedia.com /wiki/Sedition_Act_of_1918   (135 words)

The 1917 law provided steep fines and imprisonment for collecting and transmitting to a foreign power information related to U.S. national defense and for interfering with the recruitment or loyalty of the armed forces.
An important amendment to the law, usually called the Sedition Act, was passed in 1918 but repealed in 1921; it forbade spoken or printed attacks on the U.S. government, Constitution, or flag.
The 1940 revision of the Espionage Act increased its penalties.
history.com /encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..es058600.a#FWNE.fw..e...   (720 words)

 Rosenberg v United States
JUSTICE DOUGLAS, in issuing the stay, did not act to grant some form of amnesty or last-minute reprieve to the defendants; he simply acted to protect jurisdiction over the case, to maintain the status quo until a conclusive answer could be given to the question which had been urged in the defendants' behalf.
The Department of Justice maintains that the Espionage Act is applicable to the indictment because all of the overt acts alleged took place before the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946.
Second, although the overt acts alleged were committed in 1944 and in 1945, the Government's case showed acts of the Rosenbergs in pursuance of the conspiracy long after the new Act became effective.
www.law.umkc.edu /faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/ROS_CT4.HTM   (12158 words)

 Espionage history (1917-1918)
Espionage history: During World War I, those who dared to speak against the war were fined and imprisoned under the Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-1918).
The Sedition Act of 1918 (also called the Sedition Amendment to the Espionage Act) was even more draconian, imposing heavy penalties on anyone convicted of using “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the Constitution, the government, the military, or the flag.
Of course, the government got to decide what constituted a “clear and present danger,” and both the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 were wielded like blunt instruments against anyone who dared to disagree with the government.
ncnc.essortment.com /espionagehistor_rago.htm   (872 words)

 Espionage Act of 1917 - dKosopedia
This act made it a crime, punishable by a $10,000 fine and 20 years in jail, for a person to convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies.
During and after World War I the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act were used in prosecutions that would be considered constitutionally unacceptable in the U.S. even in the political climate after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack on New York's World Trade Center.
While much of the laws were repealed in 1921, major portions of the Espionage Act remain part of U.S. law (18 USC 793, 794) and form the legal basis for most information.
www.dkosopedia.com /index.php/Espionage_Act_of_1917   (263 words)

 http://www.qando.net/ - The Espionage Act of 1917? Not so fast, Lefty-Boy
Espionage is the practice of obtaining secrets (spying) from rivals or enemies for military, political, or economic advantage.
Where the analysis strays is in the provision of the Espionage Act that, beyond divulging "information relating to the national defense", requires that "the possessor has reason to believe could be used to the injury" of the nation.
The 1917 statute required disclosure with "intent or reason to believe that the information to be obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
www.qando.net /details.aspx?Entry=2240   (7236 words)

 Espionage Act
The Espionage Act was passed by Congress in 1917 after the United States entered the First World War.
Mitchell Palmer, the attorney general and his special assistant, John Edgar Hoover, used the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act to launch a campaign against radicals and left-wing organizations.
The Espionage Act resulted in filling the civil and military prisons of the country with men sentenced to incredibly long terms; Bill Haywood received twenty years, his hundred and ten International Workers of the World co-defendants from one to ten, Eugene V. Debs ten years, Kate Richards O'Hare five.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /FWWespionage.htm   (3472 words)

 Scared of Scoops - New York Times
Second, if the 1917 act were meant to apply to journalists, it would unquestionably violate the First Amendment.
Not surprisingly, because the act was drafted before the Supreme Court had ever interpreted the First Amendment in a relevant manner, it does not incorporate any of the safeguards the court has since held the Constitution requires.
For example, the provision of the act is not limited only to published accounts that pose a "clear and present danger" to the nation.
www.nytimes.com /2006/05/08/opinion/08stone.html?ex=1304740800&en=acbf785519a76cb5&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss   (601 words)

 Espionage Act of 1917 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A year after the Act's passage, Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party presidential candidate in 1904, 1908, and 1912 was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison for making a speech that "obstructed recruiting".
The editor of the latter, Victor Berger, was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment after being convicted on a charge of conspiracy to violate the Act.
During and after World War I, the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act were used in some prosecutions that would be considered constitutionally unacceptable in today's United States, even in the political climate after the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York's World Trade Center.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Espionage_Act_of_1917   (758 words)

 Sedition Act of 1918 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Sedition Act of 1918 was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who was concerned any widespread dissent in time of war constituted a real threat to an American victory.
The Sedition Act was an attempt by the United States government to limit “freedom of speech,” in-so-much-as that “freedom of speech” related to the criticism of the government during war.
The Espionage Act made it a crime to help wartime enemies of the United States, but the Sedition Act made it a crime to utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the United States' form of government.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sedition_Act_of_1918   (385 words)

 Reporting From the Front Lines - Timeline/WWI - U.S. News Classroom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
The act allows for the prosecution of anyone who publishes opinions considered disloyal or harmful to the war effort.
Almost one year later, the Sedition Act amends the Espionage Act, making it a crime to publish writing that shows disrespect for the U.S. government, the Constitution, the flag, or the uniforms of the armed services.
The Creel Committee is a strong supporter of the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918.
www.usnewsclassroom.com /resources/activities/war_reporting/timeline/ww1-censor.html   (385 words)

 Commentary - Has the "New York Times" Violated the Espionage Act?
Thus, one subsection of the Espionage Act requires that the country be in a state of war, and one might argue that this requirement was not present.
True, several sections of the Act rest on neither a state of war nor on intent to injure, instead specifying a lower threshold: to be found guilty, one must have acted “willfully.” Yet this key term is itself ambiguous—“one of the law’s chameleons,” as it has been called.
What Section 798 of the Espionage Act makes plain is that the same can be said about the press itself when, eager to obtain classified information however it can, and willing to promise anonymity to leakers, it proceeds to publish the government’s communications-intelligence secrets for all the world to read.
www.commentarymagazine.com /article.asp?aid=12103025_1   (5569 words)

 Sedition Act of 1918
The Espionage Act of 1917 was amended by Congress the following year to not only target those who interfered with the draft, but also those individuals who publicly criticized the government — including negative comments about the flag, military or Constitution.
More than 2,000 prosecutions occurred under the original and amended Espionage Act, the most famous of which was that of Socialist spokesman and draft opponent, Eugene V. Debs, who was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
JULY 14, 1798 An Act in addition to the act, entitled "An act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States." SEC.
www.u-s-history.com /pages/h1345.html   (331 words)

 [No title]
In combination with the Sedition Act of 1918, which amended it, the act was used as the basis for launching an unprecedented campaign against political radicals, suspected dissidents, left-wing organizations, and aliens.
Espionage Act of 1917 The Espionage Act was passed by the 65th  HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=Congress+of+the+United+States&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1" \t "_top" United States Congress on  HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=June+15&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1" \t "_top" June 15,  HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=1917&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1" \t "_top" 1917, during  HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=World+War+I&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1" \t "_top" World War I.
Both the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act were repealed in  HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=1921&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1" \t "_top" 1921.
www.liberty.k12.mo.us /~sbooth/Actsinfo.doc   (449 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
8) Espionage Act of 1917 ~ The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, which made it a crime for anyone do things for the purpose of hindering the success of the army of the United States.
This act was urged by Wilson, who feared that any widespread dissent in time of war would be a real threat to an American victory.
He was convicted under the Espionage Act in 1918 and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
firey.net /1/vocab3.doc   (650 words)

 Secrecy News 10/19/05
The Espionage Act was invoked in the recent indictment of two former employees of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, who did not work for the government and did not hold security clearances, yet who are charged with mishandling classified information, including disclosures to the press.
The Act may also be employed by the special prosecutor investigating the unauthorized disclosure of the identity of CIA officer Valerie Plame, according to news reports.
But today, by turning to the Espionage Act to punish disclosures to the press, even disclosures by non-government employees who do not hold a clearance (as in the AIPAC case), the government seems intent on bringing this state of benign indeterminacy to an end.
www.fas.org /sgp/news/secrecy/2005/10/101905.html   (1146 words)

 Can't See the Center
Have you noticed that the Espionage Act is routinely referred to as "the 1917 Espionage Act"?
What's even odder is that journalists would be prosecuted not under the original 1917 language but under a 1950 amendment.
The reason the Espionage Act is referred to this way, of course, is to give it a cachet of the archaic.
karlmaher.blogspot.com /2006/07/1917-so-what.html   (275 words)

 Opposition to WWI
Charles Schenck was arrested for violating the Espionage Act, passed by Congress in 1914.
The Espionage Act made it illegal to defame the government or do anything that might retard the war effort.
The court ruled against Schenck saying that the Espionage Act did not violate the first amendment and that in times of war the government may place reasonable limitations on freedom of speech.
www.socialstudieshelp.com /Lesson_73_Notes.htm   (875 words)

 The Patriot Act Game
The USA PATRIOT Act is not the first piece of legisation in America's history that was enacted in a time of national emergency with the intention of protecting national security, but having the effect of interfering with freedoms of speech, assembly and/or press.
The Act authorizes the Secretary of State to designate any group that has ever engaged in violent activity as a terrorist organization.
Earlier instances when rights were under siege include: the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, limitations placed on the writ of habeas corpus during the US Civil War, the Espionage Act of 1917, the 1940 Alien Registration Act, the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee in the 1950s, and the FBI's COINTELPRO of 1967.
home.earthlink.net /~thepatriotactgame/history.html   (216 words)

 Secrecy News
The espionage statutes are "so sweeping as to be absurd," they argued (previously noted in Secrecy News, 10/19/05).
Though it remains the best account of the legislative history of the Espionage Act, the Edgar/Schmidt article is not the last or the latest word on the meaning of the Act.
In particular, the prosecution of Samuel L. Morison in 1985 for providing classified satellite photos to Jane's Defence Weekly established that the Espionage Act could be used to successfully prosecute leakers.
www.fas.org /blog/secrecy/2006/03/more_on_the_incomprehensible_e.html   (365 words)

 Leaking Name of CIA Operative Is a Crime
The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Intelligence Identities and Protection Act of 1982 may both apply.
The Reagan Administration effectively used the Espionage Act of 1917 to prosecute a leak - to the horror of the news media.
The Act reaches outsiders who engage in "a pattern of activities" intended to reveal the identities of covert operatives (assuming such identities are not public information, which is virtually always the case).
www.yuricareport.com /Impeachment/DeanOnWilsonLeakWorseThanNixon.html   (2572 words)

 Scripps Howard News Service
The law that Gonzales is now reading closely because it might pertain to the leaks to the media is the Espionage Act of 1917, a broadly _ some would say sloppily _ drawn law that, among much else, criminalizes the possession of classified information.
The law was of little use against actual espionage, but the Woodrow Wilson administration, which rivaled this White House in self-righteousness, used it enthusiastically to harass and jail labor leaders, socialists, conscientious objectors, pacifists, assorted other leftists and people who just plain shot off their mouths in ways that irritated the government.
In essence, the actual use of the Espionage Act was to suppress domestic dissent.
www.shns.com /shns/g_index2.cfm?action=detail&pk=EDESPIONAGE-05-24-06   (385 words)

 http://www.qando.net/ - The Espionage Act of 1917, Part II
Espionage is usually undertaken at the behest of a foreign power.
The language is so broad that it is practically an invitation to abuse, because it doesn't define espionage as an act undertaken at the behest of the heathen foreigners.
This carefully drawn act recognizes that the revelation of the names of secret agents adds nothing to legitimate public debate over intelligence policy.
www.qando.net /details.aspx?Entry=2245   (2073 words)

 Perilous Times
The President proposed the Espionage Act of 1917, the first bill against disloyalty since the Sedition Act of 1798, as a way of silencing those who would undermine the war effort.
To gather support for the repressive Espionage Act, Wilson engaged in rhetoric similar to that of
He encouraged the spread of the American Protective League (APL), a watchdog group that reported any acts of "disloyalty" perpetrated by their friends, neighbors, coworkers, and fellow citizens; the APL had 200,000 members by 1917.
home.comcast.net /~tom.mayer/woodrowwilson.htm   (325 words)

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