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Topic: Essentialism

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  Popper: Essentialism and the Organic State. by Rafe Champion
Karl Popper labeled this error 'essentialism'.  It consists of a cluster of theories and practices which deflect discourse from matters of truth and falsity, or whether to pursue this policy or that, into arguments about the meaning of terms.
Popper's critique of essentialism takes several lines, one of which is to question the existence of essences or natures of complex things, which can be usefully described in a definition.
The case for the protective state is too often presented in the form of an argument about the 'essential nature' of the state (to be protective) or in the form of an argument about the historical origin of the state by a Social Contract for protection.
www.the-rathouse.com /popessent.html   (3108 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Essentialism refers to the "traditional" or "Back to the Basics" approach to education.
The term essentialism as an educational philosophy was originally popularized in the 1930s by the American educator William Bagley (1874Ä1946).
Early in the twentieth century, essentialism was criticized as being too rigid to prepare students adequately for adult life.
edweb.sdsu.edu /LShaw/f95syll/philos/phessent.html   (611 words)

 Elizabeth Grosz
Essentialism, a term that is rarely defined or explained explicitly in feminist contexts, refers to the attribution of a fixed essence to women.
Essentialism usually entails biologism and naturalism, but there are cases in which women's essence is seen to reside not in nature or biology but in certain given psychological characteristics--nurturance, empathy, supportiveness, noncompetitiveness and so on.
Unlike essentialism, biologism, or naturalism, in which not only the similarities but also the differences between women may be accounted for (race and class characteristics can also be explained in naturalist, biologist, or essentialist terms), universalism tends to suggest only the commonness of all women at all times and in all social contexts.
humwww.ucsc.edu /DivWeb/CultStudies/PUBS/Inscriptions/vol_5/ElizabethGrosz.html   (4861 words)

 Essentialism at AllExperts
In philosophy, essentialism is a belief and practice centered on a philosophical claim, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined.
Essentialism in ethics is claiming that some things are wrong in an absolute sense, for example murder breaks a universal, objective and natural moral law and not merely an adventitious, socially or ethically constructed one.
Some experts claim that essentialism emerges very early in human development and is a cross-cultural universal, while others contend that it is a late-developing consequence of belonging to a culture in which essentialist reasoning is encouraged.
en.allexperts.com /e/e/es/essentialism.htm   (994 words)

 May 2005 Science Brief: Essentialism in Everyday Thought
Essentialism is the view that certain categories (e.g., women, racial groups, dinosaurs, original Picasso artwork) have an underlying reality or true nature that one cannot observe directly.
Although there are serious problems with essentialism as a metaphysical doctrine (Mayr, 1991), recent psychological studies converge to suggest that essentialism is a reasoning heuristic that is readily available to both children and adults.
Yet an essentialism perspective, with its focus on both outward and underlying properties, suggests that categorization is more complex: Categorization serves many different functions, and we recruit different sorts of information depending on the task at hand.
www.apa.org /science/psa/may05scibrf.html   (3160 words)

 Essentialism - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki
Essentialism is the belief and practice centered on a philosophical claim that for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics, all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined.
Essentialism in ethics means the view that some things are wrong in a real or absolute sense, meaning that for example murder breaks a universal, objective or natural moral law and not merely an adventitious, socially or ethnically constructed one.
Essentialism has been used by some historians as a method to extract the essential cultural and tempermental characteristics of a particular nation or culture.
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Essentialism   (988 words)

 Glossary of Terms: Es   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Essentialism is the assertion that there exists some meaning behind what is immediate given to sensuous perception (phenomenon).
Generally-speaking, “essentialism” is used with a negative connotation in contrast to subjectivist constructivism in feminist or postmodern social theory.
For Marxism, constructivism and essentialism are not mutually exclusive, since the meaning of essence is taken from the Hegelian genealogy rather than the subjective idealist current and is understood as social and historical, critical activity.
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/e/s.htm   (861 words)

The construction of the distinction between the premodern and the modern in terms of the essential characteristics of technical action is unconvincing.
The idea of vocation or "way" is an essential dimension of even the most humble technical practices in some traditional cultures, such as the Japanese (at least until recently), but tends to be artificially reserved for professions such as medicine in most industrial societies.
Essentialism proposes to treat all these dimensions of technology as merely contingent, external to technology "in itself," and to hand them over to sociology while retaining the unchanging essence for philosophy.
www.rohan.sdsu.edu /faculty/feenberg/talk4.html   (15738 words)

To speak of the aesthetic as essential, and separate from the intellect and the emotions, is thus perhaps somewhat off the mark.
Essentialism carries forth the roughly foundationalist project common in the Enlightenment, questioning the primacy of discursive Reason as opposed to imagination, or the religious intuition, and so on.
Essentialism and integrationism may be seen not only as legitimations of the Good in question but also as rhetorical approaches to competing discourses.
www.metatronics.net /lit/roman.html   (5436 words)

 Introduction to Educational Phil
The term essentialism as an educational philosophy was originally popularized in the 1930s by the American educator William Bagley (1874-1946).
Similarly, while essentialism reflects the traditional American view that the "real" world is the physical world we experience with our senses, perennialism is more open to the notion that universal spiritual forms--such as those posited by Plato or by theological philosophers--are equally real.
Perennialists regard essentialism, and its view that knowledge stems primarily from the empirical findings of scientists, as undermining the importance of our capacity to reason as individuals; that is, to think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively.
www.msubillings.edu /COEFaculty/Hobbs/Perspectives.htm   (4718 words)

 Essentialism, culture, and beliefs about gender among the Aravanis of Tamil Nadu, India Sex Roles: A Journal of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Second, essentialism has been viewed as an ideological tool of those in power, and, for this reason, essentialist beliefs about gender are resisted by those who are at the margins (Fiske, 1993; Stoler, 1995).
Women's essence is assumed to be given and universal and is usually, though not necessarily, identified with women's "biology" and "natural characteristics." There are cases in which women's essence is seen to reside not in nature or biology but in certain given psychological characteristics--nurturance, empathy, supportiveness, non-competitiveness.
Essentialism thus refers to the existence of fixed characteristics, given attributes, and ahistorical functions that limit the possibility of change and thus of social organization.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2294/is_9-10_49/ai_110813270   (835 words)

 20th WCP: Gender Identity without Gender Prescriptions: Dealing with Essentialism and Constructionism in Feminist ...
Essentialism entails the belief that those characteristics defined as women's essence are shared in common by all women at all times....
A feminist politics based on an essential similarity among women cannot represent all women because we have yet to be able to specify some essence that is genuinely common to all women.
Androcentrism naturalizes the essentialism it assigns women by positing it as a real essence but feminist theory enables us to see that this essentialism is assigned and hence, nominal.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Gend/GendWess.htm   (4096 words)

 Plato   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In his view, the Essential universe was that perfect universe that he felt had to exist.
The Essential creature was perfect; the imperfections were all part of the Perceived (and somehow less real) creature.
The implication of that statement is that, in their Essential realities, all of those robins are the same.
www.cod.edu /people/faculty/fancher/Plato.htm   (459 words)

 The Case for Essentialism in Education
Essentialism and Progressivism are terms currently used to represent two schools of educational theory that have been in conflict over a long period of time—centuries in fact.
The Essentialist holds that adult responsibility for the guidance and direction of the immature is inherent in human nature—that it is, indeed, the real meaning of the prolonged period of necessary dependence upon the part of the human offspring for adult care and support.
Nor is it accidental that a knowledge of the world that lies beyond one’s immediate experience has been among the recognized essentials of universal education, and that at least a speaking acquaintance with man’s past and especially with the story of one’s country was early provided for in the program of the universal school.
www.spu.edu /online/essentialism_in_ed.htm   (3923 words)

A third meaning of the term "essentialism" is a form of reductionism by which the world is viewed through a single lens that reduces social relations to those aspects that support one "grand" theory.
A fourth meaning of the term "essentialism" is selecting out only one possible source of a woman's identity -- such as her gender, race, class, or sexual preference -- and treating it as severable from the rest of her being.
A fifth meaning of the term "essentialism" that appears not only in law itself but in some feminist critiques of law might be called the "naturalist" error.
academic.udayton.edu /gender/01Unit/essent.htm   (917 words)

 Haines Brown, On Essentialism and "Western Civilization"
Essentialism, the pursuit of the essence that lies hidden behind surface appearances, was perhaps unavoidable at the time.
Essentialism was a technique to cope with this overwhelming challenge.
In spite of all this criticism of essentialism, it has been my sad experience that people who embrace such metaphysical historiography are impervious to appeals to fact.
www.hartford-hwp.com /archives/10/037.html   (1833 words)

 Essentialism: Common Sense Quality Improvement.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Essentialism is a trimmed down, action-oriented, user-friendly approach to Total Quality Management (TQM) in education.
Chapter 3 explains the two guiding principles of essentialism, constancy of purpose and consumer satisfaction, while chapter 4 reviews the theory's three basic elements: accept regulatory requirements; attend to current customer needs; and anticipate the needs of future customers.
Chapter 5 describes four essential elements to create a receptive environment for implementing essentialism, including strategic planning that continuously renews the college mission, environmental planning, leadership, and support for empowered teams and individuals.
www.eric.ed.gov /sitemap/html_0900000b801444e2.html   (141 words)

 BlurtIt: What is 'essentialism'?   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Essentialism is the idea that objects have essences and that it is possible to separate their essential qualities from their more superficial or accidental qualities.
Essentialism in art is when artists in attempt to get at the ‘truth’ of an object.
Essentialism contrasts with another idea behind Abstract Art – the notion that paintings should not depict the essences of objects, but rather, the imagination of the artist.
www.blurtit.com /q982760.html   (252 words)

 Contemporary "Essentialism" and Aristotelian Essentialism
Contemporary "essentialism", if we want to provide a succinct, yet sufficiently rigorous characterization, may be summarized in the thesis that some common terms are rigid designators.
However, what renders using these extra-logical intuitions in the particular debates concerning "essentialism" highly dubious is that these intuitions are formulated and understood within the conceptual framework of a historically quite recent philosophical tradition, which for the most part evolved on the basis of a radically anti-essentialist, indeed, generally anti-metaphysical mentality.
Still, this is arguably the most widespread notion of "essentialism" nowadays, and it certainly does serve as "the least common denominator" in discussions concerning "essentialism".
www.fordham.edu /gsas/phil/klima/ESSENCE.HTM   (7590 words)

 William C. Bagley and Essentialism
The base of this philosophy is to teach students the “essential” or basic subjects in school with little to no electives.
Essentialism embodies the very ideas and theories that I am supposed to practice every day as a teacher/ educator.
Essentialism is the philosophy that I most agree with and I think William C.
www.ecsu.ctstateu.edu /depts/edu/textbooks/philbagley.html   (586 words)

 Kim's Web Page
Schools are in trouble, which is to say that essentialism is in trouble, since the American conservative tradition in education has managed to maintain its domination of American schools in spite of all efforts to dislodge it.
The material may be religious and it may be secular, but it rests upon elitist principles, holding to a core of essential subjects as the received tradition to pass down and to the rigors of intellectual discipline in the development and the use of the mind.
To understand essentialism characteristics and policies to be demonstrated in school for the benefit of the students.
www.uah.edu /colleges/liberal/education/S1998/k.html   (1677 words)

 Essentialism Totally Explained
In philosophy, essentialism is the view that, for any specific kind of entity, there's a set of characteristics or properties all of which any entity of that kind must have.
Essentialism in ethics is claiming that some things are wrong in an absolute sense, for example murder breaks a universal, objective and natural moral law and not merely an adventitious, socially or ethically constructed one.
In social thought, essentialism as a metaphysical claim is often conflated with biological reductionism.
essentialism.totallyexplained.com   (1117 words)

 Essentialism page
However, the binary articulation of essentialism and difference can also be restrictive, even obfuscating, in that it allows us to ignore or deny the differences within essentialism.
Salman Rushdie describes essentialism as "the respectable child of old-fashioned exoticism.
The critique of essentialism is predicated upon essentialism" (7).
www.english.emory.edu /Bahri/Essentialism.html   (619 words)

 Essentialism in the Age of the Lilith Fair by Jennifer Kaye   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Essentialism celebrates the idea that all women are inherently different because of biology.
Essentialism basically was created to push women to feel that they could do whatever they wanted, but they as individuals had to go out and do it.
Essentialism has definitely received an incredible amount of publicity from the creation of Lilith Fair and the marketing that has resulted in it.
www.tulane.edu /~femtheory/journals/paper6.html   (722 words)

 Twelve Links: Notes on Psychological Essentialism
Seen this way psychological essentialism can be understood as a reasoning heuristic which, according to several studies, e.g., by Susan A. Gelman (Essentialism in Everyday Thought, 2005), is readily available to, and used by, preschool children and adults alike.
Also, it seems as though psychological essentialism could account for the ubiquity of folk theories of causation which I have touched upon recently and, perhaps, could be what was behind the beginning of philosophy when it first went behind appearances to unobservable true causes.
I'm still getting to grips with psychological essentialism myself but at this stage I think that at least some of them seem to be saying that the propensity to essentialize has emerged as a successful cognitive representational system from an evolutionary point of view.
twelvelinks.blogspot.com /2006/03/notes-on-psychological-essentialism.html   (1585 words)

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