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Topic: Establishment of religion

  Establishment of religion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thus, an established religion is an officially favored religion, such as a religion that citizens of a nation are compelled to support, profess faith in, or follow.
During the Protestant Reformation, the issue of which church was to be the established one was highly contentious, as Protestant and Catholic states fought, not only each other, but also dissident factions within their borders on the basis of official religion.
In some nations that still have an established church, the official status of the church is largely a technicality and freedom of religion is guaranteed.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Establishment_of_religion   (439 words)

 Establishment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Establishment is a pejorative term used in Western societies to refer to the controlling (elite) structures of those societies.
An "establishment" is often understood to compose an elite group of wealthy, influential families, many of whom are involved in politics and business.
An establishment can also mean a place of business or residence, the founding of such a place, or the founding of a business.
www.sevenhills.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Establishment   (388 words)

 Encyclopedia: Establishment of religion
Although nowadays associated primarily with Islamic states, established religions have also been a hallmark of European countries, which have established various Christian churches, although the importance of official religions in Europe gradually dwindled after the Reformation.
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion.
A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Establishment-of-religion   (659 words)

 Freedom of Religion
Board of Education that the establishment clause is one of the “liberties” protected by the due-process clause.
While religion and government must interact at some points while co-existing in society, the concern here is that they do not so overlap and intertwine that people have difficulty differentiating between the two.
After a Santeria church announced plans to establish a house of worship in Hialeah, the city enacted an ordinance prohibiting the ritual slaughter or sacrifice of animals, which is one of the religion’s principal forms of devotion.
www.lincoln.edu /criminaljustice/hr/Religion.htm   (3944 words)

 Meaning of "Establishment of Religion" in the First Amendment
Moreover, constitutional historian C. Herman Pritchett states: "The phrase ‘establishment of religion’ must be given the meaning that it had in the United States in 1791, rather than its European connotation.
Pritchett's view is supported by the fact that in the six states that still retained establishments in 1791, none had an establishment of a single church.
Of course, the six remaining establishment states eventually followed the example of the federal government by separating church and state.
www.humanismbyjoe.com /meaning_of_establishment.htm   (764 words)

 First Amendment -- Establishment of Religion
Justice Souter, joined by Justices Stevens and Ginsburg, dissented from the Court's ruling, contending that the establishment clause mandates a "flat ban on [the] subsidization" of religion (521 U.S. at 243) and that the Court's contention that recent cases had undermined the reasoning of Aguilar was a "mistaken reading" of the cases.
He concluded that what the establishment clause foreclosed "are those involvements of religious with secular institutions which (a) serve the essentially religious activities of religious institutions; (b) employ the organs of government for essentially religious purposes; or (c) use essentially religious means to serve governmental ends, where secular means would suffice." Id. at 230, 295.
These cases make clear that the Establishment Clause does not necessarily trump the First Amendment's protection of freedom of speech; in regulating private speech in a public forum, government may not justify discrimination against religious viewpoints as necessary to avoid creating an "establishment" of religion.
members.tripod.com /~candst/crs1sta3.htm   (8818 words)

 Establishment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Establishment is the conservative elite seen as controlling everything
The Establishment was a London club in the early 1960s
The Establishment is a clique of former members of the College Republicans who control the organization.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Establishment   (119 words)

 On the establishment of religion: What the Constitution really says   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The failure to observe this distinction leads to the absurd presumption that all government action in matters of religion is somehow inherently a contravention of individual freedom.
Though it may be argued that matters of religion ought to be left entirely to individuals for decision, this has the effect of establishing in the public realm a regime of indifference to religion.
The federal judges and justices cannot be acting lawfully when their only claim of lawfulness rests upon the Constitution – since the Constitution's sole pronouncement on the matter of an establishment of religion precludes the possibility of any federal law as a basis for their jurisdiction.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/970480/posts   (4245 words)

 Questions and Answers on the Establishment of Religion | Turnabout   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
We view an establishment of religion in the latter sense as unavoidable, and in the former sense as fitting or not depending on circumstances.
An “establishment of religion” was understood to mean a state church along the lines of the Church of England, supported by state revenues and with membership a requirement for political office.
Sure — the natural public religion for the country would be the one it had before liberalism was established as the sole public moral principle, an informally established, nondenominational Christianity.
jkalb.org /?q=node/8   (4187 words)

 Penraker: On the Establishment of Religion
Can any reasonable person claim that the presence of this monument forced a particular religion, or religion in general, on this man? Was he somehow forced to ascribe to a creed that he did not agree with?
In similar manner, we have proclamations of fl history month, of pineapple growers day, etc. The government's goal in putting the monument there was not to convert or impose on people, it was merely to honor and assuage the citizens who were already believed in the ten commandments.
The Constitution prohibits the establishment of religion, it does not mandate a silly hypersensitivity and effective diminishment of one of the fundamental bases of our society.
www.penraker.com /archives/001698.html   (293 words)

 FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: First Amendment: Annotations pg. 2 of 21
In the words of Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect 'a wall of separation between church and State.''' 43 But the majority sustained the provision of transportation.
While recognizing that ''it approaches the verge'' of the State's constitutional power, still, Justice Black thought, the transportation was a form of ''public welfare legislation'' which was being extended ''to all its citizens without regard to their religious belief.'' 44 ''It is undoubtedly true that children are helped to get to church schools.
This conclusion was reached on the basis that 75 percent of the qualifying schools were church-related or religiously affiliated educational institutions and the assistance was available without regard to the degree of religious activity of the schools.
caselaw.lp.findlaw.com /data/constitution/amendment01/02.html   (5824 words)

 Ten Commandments: What Constitutes Establishment of Religion?
On this basis, Judge Thompson asserts that Justice Roy Moore, in installing his small block of marble in the supreme-court building in Montgomery, is establishing a religion over all citizens of Alabama, or at least over those who come into eye contact with it.
In the first place, this conception is by its very nature a public conception, not a private one, and has historically been invoked in the practice of existing public institutions, such as the several states and the federal government, in countless forms.
In the second place, the principle of religious liberty (as witnessed to in all the relevant founding documents and in the public practices of the founding era) requires two courses of action: First, one must enunciate the principle clearly, understand it fully, and express it publicly for public guidance, as the early Declarations did.
michaelnovak.net /Module/Article/ArticleView.aspx?id=121   (2930 words)

 Content Pages of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Social Science
Regarding religion, they claim autonomy and reject religiously prescribed rules—such as the emancipation of education from ecclesiastical authority, the separation of church and state, the rejection of church prescriptions about birth control and abortion, the decline of religious content in literature and arts, and the development of science as an autonomous secular perspective.
Martin suggests that when religion adapts to every status group "through every variety of pullulating sectarianism," then there is a need to preserve the unity of the nation "by a national myth which represents a common denominator of all faiths: one nation under God" (1978:36).
This mundane orientation of religion is not new; Berger and Luckmann have suggested that the higher attendances in American churches compared with European churches might be explained by the mundane orientation of religion in America.
hirr.hartsem.edu /ency/Secularization.htm   (3427 words)

 Establishment, Part V
Religion may be a transaction between a man and his maker; but when any person claims "from religious principle, the right of injuring his fellow-citizens, or the community at large, he must be restrained, and, in atrocious cases, punished.
Prayer in public school is indeed "establishment" because there is no option given: students have to attend that school, and thus have no choice in exposure to the prayer.
An "establishment" is not simply a "place." It is the act of establishing, and "to establish" includes intalling or settling in a position, to show to be valid or true, or to cause to be accepted, to enact, appoint or ordain for permanence, etc. (Random House Compact Unabridged.)
members.tripod.com /~candst/est05.html   (3931 words)

 Establishment of Religion and the Judicial Surreal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
From the intent and plain meaning of the Founding Fathers phrase “an establishment of religion” to the present denouement is surely the 21st Century equivalent to the supposed Medieval debates as to how many angels might dance upon the head of a pin.
Between the authority, administration and residual - sometimes activist - power of the Crown and of Parliament, the Church of England truly was a state church, a form of governmental body, “an establishment of religion.
The evil to be aimed at, so far as those who spoke were concerned, appears to have been the establishment of a national church, and perhaps the preference of one religious sect over another; but it was definitely not concerned about whether the Government might aid all religions evenhandedly.
www.theconservativevoice.com /modules/news/article.php?storyid=3640   (876 words)

 H-Net Review: David Schultz on The Establishment Clause: Religion and the First Amendment
Levy's point here is to show that the European model of establishment was not the only pattern Americans knew of and that the historical meaning of the word "establishment" does not narrowly and exclusively refer to bans on only state endorsement of one religion.
Rehnquist responded by contending that the experience of the Framers with establishment was of a single establishment of religion and that this was all that the clause was meant to prevent.
While the Court contended that this was establishment, Levy claimed it was not, arguing that there was a legitimate case of a state tending to the special needs of children.
www.h-net.msu.edu /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=19097929716665   (1493 words)

 LII: Law about...First Amendment
Freedom of expression consists of the rights to freedom of speech, press, assembly and to petition the government for a redress of grievances, and the implied rights of association and belief.
The establishment clause prohibits the government from passing legislation to establish an official religion or preferring one religion over another.
The free exercise clause prohibits the government, in most instances, from interfering with a persons practice of their religion.
www.law.cornell.edu /topics/first_amendment.html   (646 words)

 Establishment Of Religion Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
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popularityguide.com /encyclopedia/Establishment_of_religion   (637 words)

 National Review: The establishment clause: religion and the First Amendment. - book reviews
Though he adduces a good deal of historical evidence for this point, Levy's strongest argument is simply that it was understood on all sides that the new national government was given no power to legislate with respect to religious matters.
Besides, he has to meet the argument of such scholars as Edward S. Corwin and Robert G. McCloskey that an establishment of religion, in itself, is not a violation of the personal right to the free exercise of religion.
And here his own argument becomes even more strained: "Taxes spent for religion violate the right to support religion voluntarily and privately." If so, then government publications must be violations of the right of freedom of the press.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1282/is_v38/ai_4551554   (880 words)

 WorldNetDaily: High court's freedom from religion
The First Amendment to the Constitution says: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."
As I read the First Amendment, it's "Congress" that is restrained from passing laws "respecting an establishment of religion." It doesn't say anything about prohibiting state legislatures or city governments from doing exactly that.
Instead, justices found that "the "establishment of religion" clause of the First Amendment means at least this: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church.
www.worldnetdaily.com /news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=32361   (718 words)

 White Sox Interactive Forums - State Establishment of Religion
Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged."
That bothers me, but then I remember it was written a loooong time ago when religion was a central part of life.
I don't like when one particular religion is portrayed - like displays of the 10 Commandments or nativity scenes on government property (though I think restrictions should be for major buildings only, not parks), but the word God has become generic to a large degree.
www.whitesoxinteractive.com /vbulletin/showthread.php?t=30563   (2066 words)

 CUA Columbus School of Law
His areas of specialization, scholarship and litigation include: freedom of speech and religion; discrimination on the basis of race, disability, national origin and religion; comparative constitutional law; private international law (conflict of laws); legal ethics; and bioethics.
He is the director of the Law and Religion Program, and is co-author, with Michael S. Ariens, of Religious Liberty in a Pluralistic Society (Carolina Academic Press, 2d edition 2002), the leading law school textbook in the United States on the subject of religious liberty.
"Religion: Establishment, Free Exercise and Abortion: The Role of Religion in the Abortion Controversy." In New Perspectives on Human Abortion, edited by D. Horan.
law.cua.edu /fac_staff/destror   (1296 words)

 firstamendmentcenter.org: Religious Liberty in Public Life - Establishment clause Index
She expressed her understanding of the establishment clause in the 1984 case of Lynch v.
Parents in towns with no public high school want state to cover tuition for their children to attend religious schools.
By Charles C. Haynes Whatever the Supreme Court does in the Ten Commandments cases, neither those who want religion endorsed in the public square nor those who want religion removed from the public square will be satisfied.
www.firstamendmentcenter.org /rel_liberty/establishment/index.aspx   (1625 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: The Establishment Clause: Religion and the First Amendment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
It traces the sources of disestablishment in the colonial experience, offers exegetical commentary on the relevant discussion at the constitutional convention and in the ratification contests, and insistently concludes that Congress, in writing the religious freedom clause, took the broad view, flatly prohibiting government support to religion in generali.e., to all denominations, without discrimination.
Pulitzer Prize-winner Levy examines the circumstances that led to the writing of the establishment clause of the First Amendement--"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"--and argues that, contrary to popular belief, the framers of the Constitution intended to prohibit government aid to religion even on an impartial basis.
He thus refutes the view of "non-preferentialists," who interpret the clause as allowing such aid provided that the assistance is not restricted...
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0807844667   (358 words)

 Book Excerpts
Of or belonging to a church or religion; sacred.
Furthermore the bible was compiled and translated and revised by proponents of the Christian faith who established that religion, during the early centuries of this era (this era began approximately 2,000 years ago).
The Evolution from astronomy to Religion was done by adapting religious correlations to the opposing spheres(the region below the equinoxes verses the region above the equinoxes) of natural contention.
www.newagedatabase.com /excerpts.htm   (14563 words)

 2270 - ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Board of Education has adopted a policy favoring the understanding of religions by the students of this District and the contributions religions have made to the advancement of civilization.
Students electing (or required) to participate may not be excused from selected portions of the course on the grounds that participation therein interferes with the free exercise of their religion.
Course(s) of study including instruction on religions shall be subject to the same administrative reviews as other course material and may not be implemented without prior Board approval.
www.neola.com /clio-mi/search/ag/ag2270.htm   (162 words)

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