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Topic: Ethanol fermentation

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

 Ethanol fermentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethanol fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration used primarily by yeasts when oxygen is not present in sufficient quantity for normal cellular respiration, the cellular energy-producing system, to continue.
Fermentation is a chemical pathway that provides such a substance.
Ethanol respiration is the form of fermentation used to make alcohol and bread.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ethanol_fermentation   (391 words)

 [No title]
A solution of 70-85% of ethanol is commonly used as a disinfectant; it kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids: it is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores.
Ethanol for industrial use is normally denatured, meaning small amounts of unpleasant or toxic substances (such as methanol) are added so that it cannot be consumed by humans, thus avoiding the relevant taxes.
Some studies have found that the total energy needed to produce one gallon of ethanol by fermentation (fertilizing, fuel for farm tractors, harvesting and transporting the grain, building and operating an ethanol plant, the natural gas used to distill corn sugars into alcohol) exceeds the energy content of that gallon of ethanol.
www.informationclub.com /encyclopedia/e/et/ethanol.html   (1864 words)

 Chemical of the Week -- Ethanol
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol) is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor.
Ethanol is normally concentrated by distillation of aqueous solutions, but the composition of the vapor from aqueous ethanol is 96 percent ethanol and 4 percent water.
Ethanol is toxic, and the body begins to dispose of it immediately upon its consumption.
scifun.chem.wisc.edu /chemweek/ethanol/ethanol.html   (1155 words)

 Coproducts and Near Coproducts of Fuel Ethanol Fermentation from Grain
Ethanol was seen as an extender or even a replacement for gasoline and more than a hundred ethanol plants were constructed in the U.S. during the ensuing decade.
Ethanol yield from corn was estimated at 380 litres/tonne by St. Lawrence Reactors Ltd. in Ontario (Beaulieu and Goodyear, 1985).
One of the problems associated with the use of oats in ethanol fermentation is the formation of gels that occur as a result of the solubilization of ß-glucan and pentosans, both found in high concentrations in oats.
res2.agr.gc.ca /publications/cfar/chap1_e.htm   (16608 words)

 ETERNAL VIGILANCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Hydrogen generated during the butanol fermentation process is easily recovered, increasing the energy yield of a bushel of corn by an additional 18 percent over the energy yield of ethanol produced from the same quantity of corn.
Ethanol is still subsidized by the government, since it is not profitable enough to compete with gasoline.
In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic, lactic and acetic acids are first produced by C. acetobutylicum, the culture pH drops and undergoes a metabolic “butterfly” shift, and butanol, acetone, isopropanol and ethanol are formed.
btpholdings.blogspot.com /2005/02/butanol-advances-in-biofuels.html   (1521 words)

 [No title]
There is currently a small market for ethanol as a fuel additive, but for fermentation ethanol to successfully compete with petroleum, additional improvements in the process economics are needed.
The purpose of this experiment is to carry out a batch ethanol fermentation in the 10-Liter Microferm fermentor using Z. mobilis and to study the kinetics and stoichiometry of the fermentation.
The OD of the fermentation broth should be measured about every 20 minutes during the exponential growth phase to monitor the specific growth rate.
www.msu.edu /~tiltonwi/Prereport.doc   (958 words)

 Ethanol fermentation technology – Zymomonas mobilis
Fermentation of an enzymatic hydrolysate of ammonia fibre explosion-pretreated corn fibre by recombinant E.
mobilis, markedly increased the yield of ethanol to 1.3 mol/mol of xylose (25.1 g/l).
The ethanol yield of the mutants increased from 0.48 g/g to 0.50 g/g on sucrose medium.
www.ias.ac.in /currsci/jul10/articles14.htm   (7790 words)

 Biofuel Research Directions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Because the fermenting microorganism, usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cannot tolerate more than about 10-12% by volume of ethanol, it is necessary to start with a relatively dilute glucose solution, usually not more than about 16% by weight, in order to achieve complete conversion in a reasonable time.
When ethanol is removed directly from the fermentor, or by recycling the contents of a continuous fermentor through a separation device which retains cell viability, it is possible to completely convert a much more concentrated glucose feed.
Ethanol was measured with a gas chromatograph, Model 5890 (Hewlett Packard, Palo Alto, CA), with a flame ionization detector and SPB-1701 fused silica capillary column (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA).
www.nal.usda.gov /ttic/biofuels/cont.htm   (4046 words)

 BioMatNet Item: AGRE-0063 - High Temperature Ethanol Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Waste
The economics of fermentation of lignocellulosic materials to produce ethanol can be improved if both the hexose (mainly glucose) and pentose (mainly xylose) sugars derived from cellulose and hemicellulose respectively can be used.
The clear advantage of the mutant thermophile was the ability to ferment xylose, which may represent 20% of the dry weight of many agricultural residues, such as straws, and are the main component of polluting paper pulping wastes.
Ethanol yields at pH 7, 70ºC, were about 75% of theoretical but rose in non-growing cells at higher sugar concentrations, lower pH and higher temperature.
www.biomatnet.org /secure/Eclair/F142.htm   (819 words)

 Title of Invention: Ethanol production by recombina nt hosts
During normal fermentative growth, pyruvate is converted to acetyl coenzyme A by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, to oxaloacetate (and on to succinate) by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, to formate and acetyl coenzyme by pyruvate formate lyase, and to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase.
The increase in the final cell density, the extent to which ethanol accumulated in the medium, and the reduction in the rate of acidification of the culture broth during growth all correlated with the level of expression of Z. mobilis ethanologenic enzymes.
Fermentation flasks were immersed in a temperature-controlled water bath and stirred by a magnetic stirrer at 100 rpm.
www.nal.usda.gov /bic/Biotech_Patents/1995patents/05424202.html   (16974 words)

 Improving Ethanol Production
Thereby, ethanol is removed from the fermentor during the fermentation, enabling the complete and rapid conversion of a highly concentrated fermentable sugar stream.
In dry-grind whole corn fermentation, the achievable solids concentration may be limited by the non-fermentable suspended solids, which interfere with mixing and heat transfer.
Applied to an alcohol fermentation, pervaporation can be used to selectively remove ethanol from all other components of the broth, although some water is also passed through the membrane.
www.arserrc.gov /ccse/ImprovingEthanolProduction.htm   (1292 words)

 New Bioreactor Can Produce High-Value Chemicals from Food Processing Wastes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The fermentation broth then moves to the stripper column where the remaining ethanol is vaporized and removed with an inert stripping gas.
The reactor-separator thus simultaneously converts the fermentable stream to ethanol and removes it from the fermentation broth.
The two-column bioreactor produces ethanol from cheese whey; an inert stripping gas removes the ethanol from the fermentation broth in the columns.
es.epa.gov /techinfo/facts/nu-rctor.html   (816 words)

 Fermentation And Ethanol
Global Energy and Ocean Ethanol are pleased to announce a new initiative in funding its research and development through donations.
Production 94% denatured ethanol sold in a secure bottle for household use Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages is produced by fermentation: it is a product of sugar metabolism in certain species...
To that end, the co-operative is proceeding to construct an ethanol production facility which will process corn into multiple grades of fermentation ethanol for sale into fuel and non-fuel uses.
www.gotethanol.com /fermentationandethanol   (995 words)

 BIOL 103 Lecture 26
the yeasts ferment the sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide
Lactobacilli ferment sugars to lactic acid and this sours the dough
ethanol fermentation in yeasts is analogous to lactic acid and propionic acid fermentation
webs.wichita.edu /mschneegurt/biol103/lecture26/lecture26.html   (763 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Use of Field Pea Starch As a Feedstock for Ethanol Fermentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
A final ethanol concentration of 11.0% (w/v) was obtained in 48-52 hr.
Starch present in whole ground peas was also saccharified and fermented, with 97% of the starch fermented when an autoclaving step was included in the liquefaction stage.
The ethanol yields and feed analysis indicate that field peas could supplement corn as a feedstock for ethanol fermentation.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=178779&pf=1   (315 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Biobased Industrial Products: Research and Commercialization Priorities (2000)
Ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes with utilization of recombinant bacteria.
Ethanol and citric acid increase the use of corn.
Ethanol production from cellobiose, amorphous cellulose, and crystalline cellulose by recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca containing chromosomally integrated Zymomonas mobilis genes for ethanol production and plasmids expressing thermostable cellulase genes from Clostridium thermocellum.
www.nap.edu /books/0309053927/html/126.html   (2691 words)

conditions, the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid can be routed by the organism into one of three pathways: lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, or cellular (anaerobic) respiration.
Humans cannot ferment alcohol in their own bodies, we lack the genetic information to do so.
Humans ferment lactic acid in muscles where oxygen becomes depleted, resulting in localized anaerobic conditions.
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookGlyc.html   (1147 words)

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