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 Ethical non-naturalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethical naturalism and non-naturalism are subcategories of cognitivism, which holds that ethical statements express propositions.
Ethical non-naturalism is a philosophical position that asserts that ethical statements express propositions that cannot be reduced to non-ethical statements.
Naturalism is the view that such statements can be further reduced to non-ethical statements; non-naturalism is the view that they cannot. /wiki/Ethical_non-naturalism   (663 words)

 Ethical naturalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Naturalism, sometimes also called definism, is a theory in meta-ethics that holds that ethical terms can be defined; the meaning of ethical sentences can be given in totally non-ethical terms.
Ethical naturalism combines cognitivism with moral reductionism—the idea that ethical sentences "can be reduced to nonethical sentences".
Naturalism is the view that ethical sentences express propositions and that they can be reduced to nonethical sentences. /wiki/Ethical_naturalism   (343 words)

 Ethical Naturalism
Naturalism and Holism in Indispensability Arguments in the Philosophy of Mathematics-
META-ETHICS I: NATURALISM Ethics Darwall Fall 1997 - /ethics/ethnat.html   (21 words)

 Moral Non-Naturalism
For if moral properties and natural properties really are, in Hume's terms, "distinct existences" then it is hard to see why it should be impossible for the former to differ with no difference in the latter and since the natural properties are non-moral ones (given non-naturalism) this makes supervenience seem problematic.
For given naturalism, the moral properties might well be identical to or reducible to familiar properties like the property of promoting happiness or the property of being truthful.
Or, at least, a commitment to naturalism in meta-ethics introduces no new problems about how we come to know anything about these properties. /entries/moral-non-naturalism   (8937 words)

 Biology and ethics: the paradoxes of the natural
Quite to the contrary, the question of ethical naturalism is loaded with historical baggage, most of which consists of ways to make the connection that have not withstood the test of critical inquiry.
Its problems do not absolve naturalism from its own a difficulties, however the idea that all variants of ethical naturalism are necessarily naive and misguided is an idea that is not persuasive.
Naive naturalism is what was rightly denounced by Hume when he points to the unanalysed and unsubstantiated deduction from "is" to "ought", from the descriptive to the prescriptive. /Endo/Lectures_09/biology_and_ethics.htm   (4971 words)

Ethical theory as it appears in modernity is necessarily reductivist in that it systematically dismisses the varieties and incommensurability of values and of traditions.
Against this conception of moral conflict, and against the aspiration to objectivity that is shared by ethical theorists, Williams argues that the efforts to overcome moral conflict and to formulate laws that eliminate uncertainty, and to construe ethical theory are all destined to fail.
Ethical judgments could also be used to describe the mental states of the speaker, but in this case they would be merely psychological statements and would not belong to the domain of ethics. /~cbagnoli/metaethics.html   (7770 words)

 Theology Today - Vol 18, No. 2 - July 1961 - BOOK REVIEW - Ethical Naturalism and the Modern World-View
By naturalism Dr. Adams (professor of philosophy in the University of North Carolina) means the view that "the empirical, descriptive-explanatory conceptual scheme of common sense and science is fully adequate to categorize all dimensions of human experience" (p.
The program of naturalism in ethics must therefore be to show that the language of morals does not point to aspects of reality which disrupt this principle.
Adams then moves to a discussion of what he calls logical naturalism. /jul1961/v18-2-bookreview16.htm   (856 words)

Reductive naturalism holds that ethical properties are identical to properties that can be identified with the vocabulary of the empirical sciences or empircal "folk theory".
Nonreductive naturalism holds that ethical properties are natural, even though they can't be "reduced" to those identifiable through other such vocabularies.
It may be that ethical properties can only be referred to be ethical terms, but nonetheless be true that ethical properties are natural properties. /~sdarwall/361me197.txt   (684 words)

 The Ideal Agent Theory
Ethical theories of this general type can be defended by showing their potentially superior ER and IES in the explanation of moral facts.
Moore surely intended his requirement of analyticity for ethical definitions as a criterion of explanatory relevance, as reflected in his motto, "everything is what it is and not another thing" (Frankena, 57-8).
Examples from the natural sciences suggest that often the deciding factor in the adoption of one theory from a multitude of competing theories is the independent corroborability of the chosen theory. /pendletonz/ideal_agent.html   (2154 words)

 The Web Site for Critical Realism Ethical Naturalism and Moral Realism
Ethical naturalism is at the level of moral rules designed to guide actions, and these change over time with changes in our ethical concepts (for example, "slave," "person").
It is moral realism that prevents ethical naturalism from being an arbitrary matter internal to a culture.
This distinction in many ways mirrors that of "epistemic relativism and judgmental rationality." Bhaskar contrasts a relative and developing ethical naturalism with a rational moral realism. /criticalrealism/index.php?sitesig=WSCR&page=WSCR_060_WSCR_Glossary&subpage=WSCR_130_Ethical_Naturalism_and_Moral_Realism   (160 words)

 Ethics Without God: Lisska
Moreover, since substantial form is a necessary condition for developing a theory of natural kinds, and since Thomas's ethical naturalism is dependent upon a concept of natural kinds, it follows that the establishment of the ontological necessity for form is a necessary condition for undertaking a justification of ethical naturalism.
It may be the case that one is forced into a position of natural theology after considering the finite character of human beings, but it is unclear to me that articulating the role of ethical naturalism derived from human nature itself is not in itself a valuable philosophical investigation.
Natural Law theory, once thought to be part of the dustbin of antiquated theories on the nature of law, is now providing vibrant excitement in the writings found in contemporary moral theory and jurisprudence. /Departments/Maritain/ti03/eLisska.htm   (8774 words)

Ethical naturalists like some utilitarians, pragmatists, and Searle hold that "ought" can be deduced from "is," that ethical judgments can be reduced to factual statement.
Certainly, the work of the artist, the philosopher, the writer, and the inventor cannot be considered anonymous or inhumane.
Naturally, mechanically, they adapt to the world, while feeling the indifferent strangeness of the world, and seeking "justice" in acceptance, co-existence, and harmony with it by the creation of space for the new being. /book/Series04/IVA-18/chapter_xii.htm   (5630 words)

 We Are All Naturalists Now
Ethical naturalism, the view that ethical facts are natural facts, will come up from time to time.
If epistemic and ethical facts supervene on unquestionably natural facts, then they do not float free, they are not autonomous, they are not brute facts, they are anchored in the natural world.
Naturalism as a general view is the sensible thesis that all facts are facts of nature. /~feldman/papers/naturalism.html   (9222 words)

 Editor - Lit Lib, Literature of Liberty, Autumn 1980, vol. 3, No. 3 ToC: The Online Library of Liberty
Ethical emotivism, the third major meta-ethical theory, is the view that people use ethical terms not to refer to their ostensible objects (people and actions) but to express certain attitudes toward them and to attempt to evoke those attitudes in others.
Ethical egoism, unlike psychological egoism, is a substantive view of normative ethics, the view that each person should act in such a way as to promote his or her own self-interest (usually long-term self-interest).
The principal barrier to the acceptance of ethical egoism has been the concept of "the moral point of view"—the God's-eye point of view, that of the impartial and omniscient spectator who judges fairly on the basis of the interests of all parties (like a judge in court) rather than the interests of one individual. /Home3/HTML.php?recordID=0353.11   (11025 words)

At most the other forms of Naturalism might hold that pleasant feeling or approving emotion are on the whole more or less trustworthy signs of the presence of the non-psychological characteristics by which these theories define [268] ethical terms.
No form of Ethical Naturalism seems to me to be in the least plausible except the psychological form, and I am not acquainted with any definition of ethical concepts in purely psychological terms which seems to me to be satisfactory.
They refer simply to the problem: "What is the right analysis of ethical characteristics?" and not at all to the problem: "How do we come to have ideas of ethical characteristics and to believe propositions which involve them, and what mental faculties are involved in doing so?" [265] We pass now to these epistemological questions. /broad/ftet/ftet7.html   (7651 words)

They popularly refer to such views as "moral absolutism" (a philosopher would say "ethical non-naturalism") and assert a version of ethical naturalism which is popularly referred to as "moral relativism".
In moral philosophy the view that "ought" or "is right" statements are ordinary statements about the world (empirical statements) rather than having some privileged and peculiar "moral" quality is termed "ethical naturalism".
In fact, I do not think that the nature of "ought" or "is right" statements is very problematical at all. /natural.html   (1547 words)

 20th WCP: Evolutionary Ethics: A Crack in the Foundation of Ethics?
These days, the new ‘synthetic’ ethical naturalism has eclipsed the traditional ‘analytic’ ethical naturalism of which Moore was the most vociferous opponent.
Moore’s arguments against ethical naturalism—the view that moral claims/facts/judgments are nothing but a special class of natural claims/facts/judgments—help make Moore’s case in favor of non-naturalism.
So, if evolutionary ethics combined with metaethical non-naturalism leads to ethical skepticism, then evolutionary ethics combined with metaethical naturalism leads to moral realism. /wcp/Papers/TEth/TEthMizz.htm   (2288 words)

 Defining Our Mission
Metaphysical Naturalism in principle encompasses all of these, since metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with what exists and with the nature of things in general, and all other aspects of the world (our ethics, politics, aesthetics, and methods) derive ultimately therefrom.
For more on Metaphysical Naturalism specifically, see our Library, which is divided into several different aspects of that philosophy, such as Science and Religion, Faith and Reason, and of course critiques of supernaturalism (Theism, Life after Death, and Mysticism and the Paranormal).
Epistemological Naturalism is more commonly known as Methodological Naturalism, and Aesthetic Naturalism is usually associated with Classical Realism (at least in the art world: see Lilian Furst and Peter Skrine, Naturalism, 1971), while Political Naturalism is typically equated with Hobbes and Hume. /library/modern/richard_carrier/mission.shtml   (1325 words)

 Metaethics Bibliography A-H
Ethical Naturalism and the Modern World-View (London: Oxford University Press, 1961).
Hare's version assumes that all ethical sentences are used to guide choices in ways non-ethical sentences are not and that equivalent action-guiding significance is a necessary condition for synonymy and both assumptions are deniable by the naturalist.
In the light of universal prescriptivism, ethical theorizing is to be understood as the search for principles that we are able to commit ourselves to where that commitment is a universal one. /bib1.htm   (15551 words)

 Ethical non-naturalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethical naturalism and non-naturalism are subcategories of cognitivism, which holds that ethical statements express propositions.
Ethical non-naturalism is a philosophical position that asserts that ethical statements express propositions that cannot be reduced to non-ethical statements.
Naturalism is the view that such statements can be further reduced to non-ethical statements; non-naturalism is the view that they cannot. /wiki/Ethical_non-naturalism   (739 words)

 Meta-ethics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethical intuitionism or ethical non-naturalism, which holds that there are objective, irreducible moral properties (such as the property of 'goodness'), and that we sometimes have intuitive awareness of moral properties or of moral truths.
Ethical naturalism, which holds that there are objective moral properties, but that these properties are reducible to entirely non-ethical properties.
Ethical Subjectivism, which holds that moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of observers. /project/wikipedia/index.php/Meta-ethics   (595 words)

 Evolutionary ethics - part II: Ruse & Sober
He calls this ethical naturalism or evolutionary ethics, which in turn is part of evolutionary naturalism.
Sociobiologists suggest that ethical norms are not true or false; they are merely the product of evolution.
Humans add to biology a system of beliefs and values which have become part of our social institutions and these beliefs and values may be the "proximate cause" why people avoid incest. /eselk/Science-Religion_website/Outlines_web-site/Evolutionary-ethics_Ruse-Sober_pt2_e2002.htm   (599 words)

 George Edward Moore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Principia is one of the main inspirations of the movement against ethical naturalism (see ethical non-naturalism) and is partly responsible for the twentieth-century concern with meta-ethics.
Moore is best known today for his defense of ethical non-naturalism, his emphasis on common sense in philosophical method, and the paradox which bears his name.
Other responses appeal to the Fregean distinction between sense and reference, allowing that value concepts are special and sui generis, but insisting that value properties are nothing but natural properties (this strategy is similar to that taken by non-reductive materialists in philosophy of mind). /wiki/George_Edward_Moore   (1155 words)

 the hanged man at askee dot net
Lovejoy's story may give an explanation for why one might look to nature as the source of one's aims, but it is not on its face sufficient to motivate ethical naturalism.
In this paper, I look at Striker's claim that there was broad ethical naturalism in the Hellenistic period, and I will point out that the reasoning she gives to explain this consensus is inadequate.
In his incendiary article, ``Against Homosexual Liberation,'' reactionary Michael Levin mobilizes several arguments that depend on various appeals to what is natural, in an attempt to claim that the homosexual rights movement (or liberationism) is a mistake, and that rights and protections based on sexual preference should not be granted. /archives/cat_online_papers.php   (11033 words)

 ethical_naturalism - OneLook Dictionary Search
Tip: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "ethical naturalism" is defined.
We found one dictionary with English definitions that includes the word ethical naturalism: /?w=ethical_naturalism&loc=resrd   (71 words)

Ethical debates which mention law may be in discussions of whether natural or absolutes laws exist outside human created ideas, whether they should be applied universally or according to legal custom, and the reconciliation between laws of the state and moral laws.
Ethical issues surrounding conscience include the conflict between state law or religious belief and individual conscience (Civil Disobedience), the justification of conscience as a reason for moral behaviour and the difficulties in defining and relying on conscience as a guide for moral behaviour.
Ethical Theory is subdivided into 3: Normative ethics, which asks whether actions are right or wrong; Descriptive or comparative ethics, which simply compares and describes differing ethical practices; Metaethics, the study of the meaning of ethical language, the definitions of words such as good, right, etc. /ethics/glossary.html   (5164 words)

Ethical theory examines the different philosophies, systems, ideas or principles used to make judgements about right/wrong/good/bad things or what we mean by those words.
Practical or Applied Ethics is more focussed on subjects that invite ethical questioning such as whether it is right to have an abortion or help someone who is terminally ill to die.
If you asked the question "Is pre-marital sex right," a Normative Ethical answer would be more concerned with the reasons why it might be right or wrong, how they relate to certain teachings, or traditions of, say the Christian Church, or some other group. /ethics/intro.html   (832 words)

 Ethical naturalism
Naturalism, sometimes also called definism, is a theory in meta-ethics that holds that ethical terms can be defined; the meaning of ethical sentences can be given in totally non-ethical terms.
Naturalism is the view that ethical sentences express propositions and that they can be reduced to nonethical sentences.
So the notion that ethical sentences can be reduced to nonethical sentences really amounts to saying that ethical sentences are a kind of shorthand, a kind of useful abbreviation, for claims about what are ultimately nonethical facts about human needs, desires, and so forth. /encyclopedia/e/et/ethical_naturalism.html   (447 words)

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