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Topic: Ethnography

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According to the dictionary of anthropology, ethnography is the systematic description of the single contemporary culture often through fieldwork.
James Clifford insists that ethnography is essentially a form of writing and should be approached from the point of view of its textuality.
Ethnography and anthropology are also now moving towards a reassessment of the discipline by looking at the culture closer at hand now.
www.qub.ac.uk /schools/SchoolofEnglish/imperial/key-concepts/Ethnography.htm   (1066 words)

 Visions - Special Section: Ethnography in NPD Research How "applied ethnography" can improve your NPD research process
Ethnography comprises a very in-depth form of qualitative research, which is also referred to as ethnographic field work.
Applied ethnography may be defined as ethnographic field work done to bring the consumer's or customer's point of view to the design and development of a new product.
Applied ethnography is the best way to discover the difference between what people say they do and what they really do in their daily lives.
www.pdma.org /visions/apr02/applied.html   (1405 words)

Ethnography according to the World Book encyclopedia is defined as a branch of anthropology that produces scientific descriptions of contemporary cultures.
Her final paper, the ethnography of her team and their activities seemed to be an in-depth description of the group that discussed different relationships and events in the group.
This relates directly to ethnography which I have finally concluded is the "up close and personal"-so to speak- study of human cultures and their behavior relative to other cultures.
www.bgsu.edu /cconline/kitchenslarkin/ethnography.html   (2353 words)

 NPS Ethnography: Ethnography in the Parks
Ethnography is the descriptive data used to answer research questions and to represent and transform theory.
Ethnography is a historical phenomenon; it must be understood in the context of its social, political, and material realities.
Ethnography, once it is produced, becomes frozen in time, and while culture is not a static thing the ethnographic account becomes static, and like a historical document, it becomes a slice of time.
www.cr.nps.gov /ethnography/TRAINING/TAPS/history.htm   (2143 words)

 PA 765: Ethnographic Research
Ethnography is a form of research focusing on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of sociocultural phenomena.
It should be noted that ethnography may be approached from the point of view of art and cultural preservation, and as a descriptive rather than analytic endeavor.
Ethnography assumes the researcher is capable of understanding the cultural mores of the population under study, has mastered the language or technical jargon of the culture, and has based findings on comprehensive knowledge of the culture.
www2.chass.ncsu.edu /garson/pa765/ethno.htm   (1473 words)

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Ethnography is a research method borrowed from the field of cultural anthropology.
Ethnography is a broad approach to research characterised by the central role of the researcher and the use of multiple methods of data collection, including interviewing and observation.
Ethnography in the City: Phillipe Bourgois and the Barrio Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform.
www.lycos.com /info/ethnography.html   (526 words)

 OSEA-CITE: Ethnography of the Future / Interdisciplinary Cultural Anthropology / Study Abroad
While this term, “experimental ethnography,” has come to refer to a movement focused on issues of representation in ethnographic writing, the Field School began to use this concept to refer to the theory and practice of fieldwork that it was developing in Pisté, Yucatán.
Experimental ethnography is a paradigmatic mode of fieldwork in which given, prior and assumed knowledges are used and recirculated in fieldwork activities, dynamics, and practices.
Experimental ethnography locates the value of the anthropological intervention, however, not in the teleology of the objectified results (e.g., social change, policy/political action, or cultural revitalization), but in the process and, thus, valorizes the actual dynamics of fieldwork as the primary locus where the “real-world” relevance and significance are to be measured, evaluated, and appreciated.
www.osea-cite.org /history/exp_ethnography.php   (330 words)

 CHARM-Ethnographic Methods
Ethnography is in itself not so much a method as a category of human-computer interaction research.
The goal of ethnography for systems designers, on the other hand, is the improvement of a system in use in the culture by finding the problems in the way it is currently used.
Walcott distinguishes ethnography as "a way of seeing" through the lens of culture and provides guidance to readers for making their study more ethnographic.
www.otal.umd.edu /hci-rm/ethno.html   (2596 words)

 Course Syllabus SPE 384K
The emphasis will be on detailed ethnographies of face to face interaction as particularly efficient tools to discover what major social and cultural forces can impact institutions and practices and how individuals can reconstruct their own local practices.
The ethnography students will write entails the close study of a local culture through fieldwork, which requires many hours at the site--observing, talking with culture members, taking notes, interviewing, and perhaps participating in the culture's activities.
Ethnography has a long tradition in both cultural anthropology and sociology and is growing in importance in communication.
www.utexas.edu /courses/maxwell/teach/384/index.htm   (1610 words)

 Public Interest Anthropology at Penn
Ethnography is two things: (1) the fundamental research method of cultural anthropology, and (2) the written text produced to report ethnographic research results.
Ethnography as method seeks to answer central anthropological questions concerning the ways of life of living human beings.
The data base for ethnographies is usually extensive description of the details of social life or cultural phenomena in a small number of cases.
www.sas.upenn.edu /anthro/CPIA/METHODS/Ethnography.html   (806 words)

 SAGE Publications - Ethnography
Ethnography is an international, interdisciplinary forum for the ethnographic study of social and cultural change.
Ethnography is a new international and interdisciplinary journal for the ethnographic study of social and cultural change.
Ethnography publishes papers in a wider variety of formats, genres, and styles than any comparable journal in order to give free rein and full bloom to the ethnographic imagination.
www.sagepub.com /journal.aspx?pid=157   (644 words)

 Technology Review: Corporate Ethnography
Today, though, corporate ethnography is a blossoming field, as evidenced by the first-ever Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference (EPIC), organized by ethnographers at Intel and Microsoft and held at Microsoft's campus on November 14-15.
Internal debates aside, ethnography is gaining credence in the corporate world as a form of market research.
Ethnography focuses on a qualitative examination of human behavior.
www.technologyreview.com /BizTech/wtr_15900,295,p1.html   (789 words)

 Ethnography | Encyclopedia of Sociology
The theoretical intent of ethnography is inductive, generating concepts and theories from the data.
However, in sociology, ethnography is also associated with micro-level theories such as symbolic interactionism, ethno-methodology, labeling theory, and dramaturgy.
The contemporary origins of sociological ethnography are traced to the "Chicago School"; of 1915–1940 (Bulmer 1984), and to nineteenth century sociological theory, reformist endeavors, and anthropological exploration.
www.bookrags.com /research/ethnography-eos-02   (411 words)

 Ethnography (User experience design resources)
Ethnography is a research approach that has traditionally been used to understand different cultures.
Often, ethnography is seen as an approach to field investigation that can generate requirements for systems development; by that token, the major evaluative criterion for an ethnographic study is the implications it can provide for design.
Ethnography is one of the promising research techniques currently available to assist in designing for user experience.
www.deyalexander.com.au /resources/uxd/ethnography.html   (922 words)

It is one of qualitative research methodologies rooted in the concept of culture.
Therefore, "ethnography generates or builds theories of cultures-or explanations of how people think, believe, and behave-that are situated in local time and space." Followings are seven characteristics of ethnographic studies.
Ethnography is not for researchers who already know what they are seeking or for those who have strong hypotheses to test.
www.msu.edu /~parkyon8/930L/ethnography.html   (507 words)

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Ethnography is a new interdisciplinary forum for the ethnographic study of social and cultural change.
At the same time, ethnography is searching for a style of writing that can do justice to these diverse forms of data without reducing them to a 'thin' narrative that squeezes social practices into one plane of meaning.
Thus, there is an ongoing and unsolvable tension between the urge to complicate research findings and explore more dialogic forms of representation, and the countering urge to grant intellectual coherence to these findings by assimilating them within a line of argumentation.
www.lycos.com /info/ethnography--study.html   (557 words)

 CHI 97: Design Ethnography: Using Custom Ethnographic Techniques to Develop New Product Concepts
Design Ethnography is a set of data collection and analysis perspectives, assumptions and skills that can be used effectively and efficiently to understand a particular environment, or domain, of people for the express purposes of designing new technology products.
Design ethnography is an approach by which a CHI professional can make valuable contributions to the strategic process of defining a company’s products.
Traditionally, ethnography refers to a set of methods and techniques used primarily by anthropologists in their field work.
sigchi.org /chi97/proceedings/tutorial/ts.htm   (1001 words)

 Qualitative Research: (Critical) Ethnography Guidelines
Because of the diversity of perspectives represented within ethnography, be as explicit as possible about the disciplinary traditions or models of ethnographic scholarship that have influenced your work (e.g., cultural anthropology, sociology, sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, ethnography of communication, cultural studies).
Although descriptive ethnography traditionally may have valued capturing the historical present—that is, culture as a self-contained and well-constructed static system—critical ethnography considers culture as open to historical influences and itself shaping history, though it is relatively autonomous from other social institutions.
Interpretation in critical ethnography values not only the validity of the study (e.g., enhanced by triangulation of data or the sophistication of methods used), but also the social usefulness of the research and the ways it addresses issues of social justice, human development, and ethical integrity.
www.tesol.org /s_tesol/sec_document.asp?CID=476&DID=2157&rcss=print&print=yes   (1786 words)

 Ethnography Main Page
An ethnography is the study of a group of living people – how they live, how they interact, what they believe, how they behave, what kinds of objects they use, and what they do.
Ethnography is frequently used by archaeologists to understand materials from the past.
Ethnography only helps us to ask questions about the artifacts – not to "prove" how they were used, or not used.
www.webarchaeology.com /html/ethnogra.htm   (1429 words)

 This Blog Sits at the: Ethnography
Ethnography is often most useful when we don't know what we need to know.
The ethnography for corporate purposes is around 20 years old, and already is said to be indispensable for five of the corporations at the conference: Kodak, Intel, PandG, Miller Brewing and Philips.
Unlike the academic world from which ethnography largely sprang, the corporate world, always liquid and restless, always opportunity and advantage seeking, said, "oh we don't want to do this but we will." Capitalism was responsive enough to take up this odd little duck of a method, and having done so, is more responsive still.
www.cultureby.com /trilogy/ethnography/index.html   (15020 words)

 A Brief Survey of Ethnography for Requirements Engineering
Ethnography originated among anthropologists who wished to study cultures vastly different from that of the anthropologist--for example, island aboriginal cultures.
Ethnography's lens has been turned inward, on subcultures within Western societies; and as Blomberg's quote implies, ethnography has already percolated down to the analysis of human-computer interaction and systems design.
Ethnography for software engineering (which, for convenience, I will refer to as ESE in the remainder of this article), dates at least to the early 1980's.
www.cs.washington.edu /homes/klee/courses/503/ethno   (4018 words)

 Demystifying Usability : Electoral Ethnography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Ethnography is a technique developed largely by anthropologist Margaret Mead.
Essentially, ethnography involves a "walk in their shoes" or a "day in the life" study.
The famous anthropologist Margaret Mead is credited with founding the area of ethnography within the field of Anthropology.
experiencedynamics.blogs.com /site_search_usability/2004/10/electoral_ethno.html   (900 words)

 Ethnography | Applied Marketing Science, Inc.
Ethnography — also sometimes referred to as “the deep dive,” “customer site visits,” or “contextual inquiry” — has been gaining popularity in recent years, and has proven to be extremely useful in gaining rich, new consumer insights.
The idea behind ethnography is that observers can learn a great simply by watching customers in their natural habitat, as they use a particular product or service, or try to complete certain tasks or achieve certain outcomes.
Ultimately, we have found that for many clients interested in ethnography, a mix of on-site research and central location interviewing is the best approach.
www.ams-inc.com /products/ethnography.htm?c1=p&source=G&kw=ethnography   (381 words)

 Bella Dicks and Bruce Mason: Hypermedsaidia and Ethnography
This is undoubtedly connected to the parallel movement made by the category of 'culture' in many disciplines over recent years; ethnography focuses on culture and seems to hold the promise of access to the cultural in all its complexity and depth (Van Maanen, 1995).
James Clifford, a leading exponent of 'post-paradigm' ethnography, acknowledges that representing different voices ends up 'confirming the final virtuoso orchestration by a single author of all the discourses in his or her text', and even the 'utopia of plural authorship that accords to collaborators...
Critical ethnographies deploy a meta- commentary that interweaves the voices of ethnographic participants with the wider context of the study, but this is not the case with ethnographies preoccupied with 'giving voice' to participants within a particular research setting.
www.socresonline.org.uk /3/3/3.html   (9999 words)

 DaVinci: Science> Social Sciences> Anthropology> Cultural Anthropology> Ethnography
- Ethnography of a riverine group of rice cultivators inhabiting the interior hill country of Sarawak (Malaysia) and parts of Indonesian Borneo.
- An ethnography of a culture in Paraguay whose subsistence was originally based on slash-and-burn agriculture.
- Ethnography of a agricultural society that lives in the Garo Hills in the state of Meghalaya in northeastern India.
www.bluegrassdavinci.com /ODP/Science/Social_Sciences/Anthropology/Cultural_Anthropology/Ethnography   (1612 words)

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