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Topic: Etruscan

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  Etruscan language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany) and in what is now Lombardy (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy.
Etruscan was spoken in north-west-central Italy, in the region that even now bears their name: Tuscany, and in the Po valley to the north of Etruria.
Etruscans on the Web: Language links here are divided between 'Mainstream' with the professional linguists, and 'Alternative,' where you can read up on connections between Etruscan and Ukrainian, Turkish, or Slovenian.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Etruscan_language   (1449 words)

 Etruscan civilization - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic.
In the valley of the Po, where the Celts effaced their traces, stood the Etruscan cities that are now modern Mantua and Bologna, as well as the lost cities of Atria in Veneto and the recently-rediscovered Spina (see link), south of the lagoon where Venice would rise.
Knowledge about the Etruscans is fragmentary, and usually filtered through Roman eyes; knowledge of the Etruscan language only began with the discovery of the bilingual Phoenician-Etruscan Pyrgi Tablets found at the port of Caere in 1964, and is still incomplete.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /etruscan_civilization.htm   (615 words)

 Etruscan civilization. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The core of the territory of the Etruscans, known as Etruria to the Latins, was northwest of the Tiber River, now in modern Tuscany and part of Umbria.
Etruscan wealth and power were in part based upon their knowledge of ironworking and their exploitation of iron deposits that were abundant in Etruria.
Etruscan art, which largely consisted of sculpture in clay and metal, fresco tomb paintings, and fine pottery, had some of its origins in Greek and Eastern arts and was extremely influential on the art of the Romans.
www.bartleby.com /65/et/Etruscan-c.html   (850 words)

 Etruscan Language
An Etruscan religious literature did exist (1), and evidence suggests that there was a body of historical literature and drama (5) as well.
Etruscan had ceased to be spoken in the time of imperial Rome, though it continued to be studied by priests and scholars.
The apparent isolation of the Etruscan language had already been noted by the ancients; it is confirmed by repeated and vain attempts of some to assign it to one of the various linguistic groups or types of the Mediterranean and Eurasian world.
www.mysteriousetruscans.com /language.html   (1671 words)

 Etruscans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Etruscan excavations began in the eighteenth century, and in the nineteenth century major archaeological evidence was found at Tarquinia, Cerveteri, and Vulci.
On the contrary, the Etruscans had a relationship with the gods based on submission: the divinities lived in the sky or under the ground and it was necessary to understand their will by observing the ostenta, the signs that, through the haruspex and the augur priests, indicated the behavior one had to have.
The Etruscan people, therefore, has amazed its contemporaries with their meticulous, respectful and accurate religious rites and they continue to amaze us today for the complexity of their sacred world and maybe for the strong spirituality emanated by the ancient sepulchres, the places of living and the sacred grounds of our forefathers.
www.crystalinks.com /etruscians.html   (2368 words)

 Etruscan Art
As a result of this, we have a somewhat skewed perception of Etruscan art, in that most of the art that survives today is funerary art, and we form totally wrong impressions about the Etrusans as a result.
Etruscan Art has been said by some 19th and even 20th Century writers to be somehow inferior, although this was usually by erroneous comparison to the Greek mathematical ideals of beauty.
The interest in Etruscan Art grew during the renaissance, at which time the extant Etruscan art had considerable stylistic influences on the emerging artists of the renaissance, many of whom lived in former Etruscan cities where such art was plentiful.
www.mysteriousetruscans.com /art/art.html   (991 words)

 Etruscans, Main page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Herodotus, for example, argued that the Etruscans descended from a people who invaded Etruria from Anatolia before 800 BC and established themselves over the native Iron Age inhabitants of the region, whereas Dionysius of Halicarnassus believed that the Etruscans were of local Italian origin.
Etruscan expansion to the south and east was confined at the line of the Tiber River by the strong Italic Umbrian people settled beyond it on the south and the Picenes on the east.
In 509 BC the Etruscans were chased from Rome, as reflected in the story of the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, the intervention of Lars Porsena of Clusium, and the Latin victory over Aruns Porsena's son at Aricia.
ragz-international.com /etruscans.htm   (1109 words)

 Etruscan Engineering and Agricultural Achievements   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
If it is accepted that the Etruscans origined in Asia Minor, then their forefathers would have come in contact with numerous ancient civilisations going back as far as the dawn of civilisation itself in Mesopotamia.
The Etruscans had a deep knowledge of Hydrology and hydraulics, a knowledge which they put to good use in their many land drainage schemes.
At Viterbo, where the remains of Etruscan Surina lie, the underlying rock is perforated by innumerable channels, devised to drain the ground.
members.tripod.com /%7ECentime/Etruscans/eng.html   (1997 words)

 Etruscan - Etruscan Art
An Etruscan temple, to meet religious requirements, was located on a north-south axis and stood on a high podium with a four-columned porch.
Surviving Etruscan painting in underground funerary vaults, consists of murals on the stone or plastered stone walls and ceilings of tombs.
Etruscan Art: In all studies of Etruscan art, it should be remembered that a large proportion of Etruscan art did not survive up until the present day...
www.huntfor.com /arthistory/ancient/etruscan.htm   (1007 words)

 Etruscan Splendors from Volterra in Tuscany
In the light of what is known of Etruscan history, its art can be seen as the reflection of an exuberant yet refined culture, one flexible and welcoming of the new and exotic and open to the idea of art as a form of self-expression.
Although the Etruscans imitated the Greeks in their choice of subjects and to some extent adopted the Hellenistic style, they ignored classical conventions when they created portraits and distorted the proportions of the human body.
It also confirms that this Etruscan city was formed during the Iron Age by the unification of village communities at the top of a hill (an obvious defensive strategy).
www.baruch.cuny.edu /mishkin/lombra/etruscan.html   (1194 words)

 Etruscan --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Many features of Etruscan culture were adopted by the Romans, their successors to power in the peninsula.
The Romans called the Etruscans Etrusci or Tusci; in Greek they were called Tyrsenoi or Tyrrhenoi; in Umbrian and Italic language their name can be found in the adjective turskum.
The Etruscans were expelled from the city, and Rome became a republic.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=9033158&query=etruria   (720 words)

 The Etruscan World: Technology & Commerce   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Etruscan cities came to be known for their different specialties.
The Etruscans’ reputation as seafarers and commercial competitors of the Greeks and Romans was widespread.
Etruscan shipwrecks found off the coasts of Italy, Sardinia, and France produce a suprising assortment of Greek vases alongside Etruscan amphorae filled with produce.
www.museum.upenn.edu /new/worlds_intertwined/etruscan/technology.shtml   (476 words)

Although Etruscan is an unknown language in the sense that it cannot be assigned to any language family, it is not an undeciphered language.
The mention of Etruscan in connection with arbitrarily contrived speeches, cants, jargons etc. may sound far fetched, Etruscan is an ancient language whereas the notices of cant and other secret languages are of more recent occurance, with one exception and this is Shelta, the language of the Irish Travelers or Tinker clans.
The Etruscans were an elite people, when it came to military matters they were the masters, leaders, and officers, they depended on the humiles (lower classes of people) to fill the ranks of common soldiers (miles), thus I believe that Lat.
www.geocities.com /hbry   (1902 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Etruscan Civilization: A Cultural History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Heavily illustrated with ancient Etruscan art and cultural objects, the text is organized both chronologically and thematically, interweaving archaeological evidence, analysis of social structure, descriptions of trade and burial customs, and an examination of pottery and works of art.
In Etruscan Civilization: A Cultural History, noted educator and Etruscan scholar Sybille Haynes treats the reader to a comprehensive and superbly presented survey of Etruscan civilization from its origin in the Villanovan Iron Age (9th Century B.C.E.) to its absorption by Rome (1st Century B.C.E.).
Etruscan Civilization is a complete and compelling portrait of both a long-ago people and their antiquarian culture.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0892365757?v=glance   (734 words)

 Etruscan art. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
As a consequence of abundant ore deposits, bronze statuary was common and the Etruscans brought the art of bronze working to a very high level of achievement.
They were also experts in the art of ironworking, Etruscan goldwork was among the finest anywhere in the ancient world, and large-scale carvings were common.
The Etruscans were particularly noted for their fl bucchero pottery and were experts with the potter’s wheel.
www.bartleby.com /65/et/Etruscan-a.html   (400 words)

 Etruscan alphabet and language
The Etruscan language was spoken by the Etruscans in Etruria (Tuscany and Umbria) until about the 1st century AD, after which it continued to be studied by priests and scholars.
Etruscan is related to Raetic, a language once spoken in the Alps, and also to Lemnian, once spoken on the island of Lemnos.
Etruscan Foundation - an organisation dedicated to the study of the cultural and history of the Etruscans: http://www.etruscanfoundation.org
www.omniglot.com /writing/etruscan.htm   (381 words)

 Education World® - *History : Classical / Ancient : Etruscan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Etruscan and Greek Colonization of Italy Details the history of the early tribes of Italy's preRoman era focusing on the Greek and Etruscan infiltrations during the 8th century BC.
Etruscans Religion, Superstition, and Rites Studies the religious beliefs, rituals, and sacrificial rites of the Etruscans.
Etruscans, The Larth the Etruscan takes visitors by the hand and leads them on a tour of the history of the pre-Roman Italian civilization from whence he came.
db.education-world.com /perl/browse?cat_id=10158   (544 words)

 ArtLex on Etruscan Art
Because little Etruscan literature remains and the language of inscriptions on their monuments has been only partially deciphered, scholars have gained most of their knowledge of the Etruscans from studying the remains of their buildings, monuments, vast tombs, and the objects they left behind, notably bronze and terra cotta sculptures and polychrome ceramics.
Cremation and the burial of ashes in clay urns was a common practice in this area before the advent of the Etruscan era.
The Etruscan Museum was founded in 1837, during the pontificate of Gregorio XVI.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/e/etruscan.html   (778 words)

 AncientScripts.com: Etruscan
The Etruscan language has never been conclusively shown to be related to any other language in the world.
The Etruscans decided to use all of them, but each one in a prescribed environment: K appears before A, C before I and E, and Q before V. The letter F represented either the sound [w] or [v], as it is in Euboean Greek.
The Etruscan alphabet was the foundation for many other alphabets such as Oscan, Umbrian, and maybe even Futhark.
www.ancientscripts.com /etruscan.html   (478 words)

 The Problem of Ancient Minor Languages and Their Origin: Etruscan and Indo-European: an article by Cyril Babaev
The specific phonetic structure of the Etruscan language was the main reason for the failure of many linguists trying to decipher the Etruscan alphabet.
Etruscans lived in Asia Minor, somewhere between Syria and the Hellespont, and when the pressure of wary Hittites (who had arrived here from Central Asia) became intolerable, they had to go to the West and soon through Aegean Islands began inhabiting Italy.
Etruscans had no connection with Indo-European family of languages, they spoke a language that was, maybe, the last survived form Pre-Indo-European population of Mediterranean region.
indoeuro.bizland.com /archive/article2.html   (1013 words)

 The Etruscans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
But it is with the Etruscans that the granulation has its greatest splendour, in the so-called oriental period (seventh cen b.C.): the most important centre is "Vetulonia", where the manufacture reaches such a grade of refinement that the gold is reduced to small grains that look like dust.
Immense treasures have been found in the Etruscan tombs, rich of jewels and gold objects, that are made precious with refined decorums obtained with the granulation.
In the Etruscan jewels the granules are often disposed in a way to form geometric and floral decorations: the greatest difficulty is represented exactly by the welding, because the small spheres risk, with the high heat, to lose their conformation.
www.goldsmith.it /us/culturale/storia/etruschi/etrusci.html   (302 words)

 Etruscan Resources Inc. - Home Page - Wed Oct 12, 2005   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Etruscan Resources Inc. is a diversified Canadian junior mining company that focuses on the exploration, development and production of gold properties in West Africa as well as exploration and production of alluvial diamonds in South Africa.
Since 1994, Etruscan's exploration efforts on the Greenstone belts in Niger resulted in the discovery of a major gold deposit known as the Samira Hill Gold Mine.
Today, Etruscan has grown a portfolio of over 32 strategically located gold projects in the West African countries of Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Côte d'Ivoire, and a majority interest in diamond production and exploration in South Africa.
www.etruscan.com   (413 words)

 Etruscan art
Etruscan art, the art of the inhabitants of ancient Etruria, which, by the 8th cent.
While Etruscan forms are recognizably Hellenized, the underlying spirit retains an energy difficult to achieve in the Greek search for precision.
Etruscan civilization: Etruscan Culture - Etruscan Culture Much of the actual work in Etruria was done by the native population, who were...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/ent/A0817802.html   (616 words)

 Etruscan Tarot Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Etruscan Tarot is a historically-themed art deck, based on the culture, civilisation, and mystical beliefs of the ancient Etruscans, a pre-Roman tribe who lived in what is now modern day Italy.
After this time the Etruscan people, language and culture were gradually assimilated by the Romans, until little remained to distinguish the Etruscans as a separate people.
In the Etruscan Tarot, Ajax is the lighter-skinned warrior and carries the fl, wounded figure of Achilles.
www.aeclectic.net /tarot/etruscan/review.html   (1166 words)

 Unveiling Ancient Mystery: Etruscan Treasures - Mabee Gerrer Museum of Art - Absolutearts.com
The Etruscan civilization thrived between 950 and 300 B.C. in the current-day regions of Tuscany and Umbria in northern Italy.
The Etruscans were famous for their gold jewelry, which shows such highly advanced metalworking skills as granulation, the craft of soldering hundreds of tiny gold beads to the surface being decorated.
Admission to “Etruscan Treasures” will be $14 for adults, $12 for seniors and tour groups, $10 for youths ages 6 to 16, $10 for those with a student I.D. and free for children age 5 and younger.
www.absolutearts.com /artsnews/2004/06/02/32091.html   (801 words)

 In Italy Online - In Search of the Etruscan
he Etruscans' demise may be partly attributed to their ephemeral attitude towards life on this earth, which led them to build their homes of wood and clay.
On the other hand, their tombs were built to last forever, which is why a trip through Etruria is one of the most interesting archeological excursions you can take in Italy.
On display here is lots of gold jewelry, a specialty of the Etruscans, and the pièce de resistance, an exquisite near-life-size pair of winged horses from the pediment of a local temple.
www.initaly.com /regions/latium/etruscan.htm   (840 words)

 Tuscany of the Etruscan
The Etruscan civilization dominated the whole area of central Italy before the advent of the Roman.
Etruscan farmers, merchants, miners and engineers built for the first time in history the sewerage and reclaimed the swampy lowland that subsequently became the center of Rome.
The last Etruscan city to capitulate was Velzna (now called Orvieto) in the 265 AC Ca 900-750 AC - Villanovan cultures in Italy.
www.castellitoscani.com /etruria.htm   (250 words)

 Internet Archaeol 4. Perkins Home page
The first part of the study is an account of the fieldwork and the sampling strategy which was used during the collection of the ceramics presented here.
The concluding part of the study is an investigation of the distribution of the ceramics through the survey area and a consideration of consumption and production in the Etruscan period.
Attolini, I. and Perkins, P. (1992) The Excavation of an Etruscan Farm at Podere Tartuchino, Papers of the British School at Rome, 60, 1-76.
intarch.ac.uk /journal/issue4/perkins_index.html   (402 words)

 Etruscan Civilization Cosmopolis
Sybille Haynes' cultural history of the Etruscan Civilization sums up our knowledge about this civilization from its origins in the Villanovan Iron Age in the ninth century B.C. to its absorption by the Roman Empire in the first century B.C. Haynes is a leading authority on the subject.
Haynes has not only many years working with the Etruscan collections in the British Museum - largely a result of 19th century excavations - but she has also kept close contact with ongoing excavations in Italy where she is a frequent scholar in residence.
The Greeks stimulated the Etruscan art whereas the Romans absorbed many elements of Etruscan culture as it declined before they defeated the Etruscans and ended their independence as a people.
www.cosmopolis.ch /english/cosmo13/etruscan.htm   (470 words)

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