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Topic: Etruscan alphabet


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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  
 Wikipedia: Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet derives mainly from the Etruscan alphabet.
It is uncontested that the alphabet is mainly of Etruscan origin.
In the Swedish alphabet, "W" is seen as a variant of "V" and not a separate letter.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/l/la/latin_alphabet.html   (1395 words)

  
 Etruscan Language
An Etruscan religious literature did exist (1), and evidence suggests that there was a body of historical literature and drama (5) as well.
Etruscan had ceased to be spoken in the time of imperial Rome, though it continued to be studied by priests and scholars.
The apparent isolation of the Etruscan language had already been noted by the ancients; it is confirmed by repeated and vain attempts of some to assign it to one of the various linguistic groups or types of the Mediterranean and Eurasian world.
www.mysteriousetruscans.com /language.html   (1671 words)

  
 The Latin Alphabet
The Latin alphabet of 23 letters was derived in the 600's BC from the Etruscan alphabet of 26 letters, which was in turn derived from the archaic Greek alphabet, which came from the Phoenician.
The letters J, U, and W of the modern alphabet were added in medieval times, and did not appear in the classical alphabet, except that J and U could be alternative forms for I and V. A comparison of the Greek and Latin alphabets shows the close relation between the two.
Alphabets, of course, represent the elementary sounds of speech, which are combined to form syllables, and the syllables into words, expressing speech in terms of a small number of symbols.
www.du.edu /~etuttle/classics/latalph.htm   (659 words)

  
 Estruscan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Etruscan alphabet is awriting system of the Etruscans, derived from a Greek ALPHABET (Originally learned from the Phoenicians) as early as the 8th Century BC.
Like the alphabets of the Middle East and the early forms of the Greek alphabet, the Etruscan script was usually written from right to left but occasionally appears in boustrophedon style (i.e., the direction of writing alternates with each line, right-to-left/left-to-right).
The Etruscan language ceased to be spoken in the time of imperial Rome but continued to be used in a religious context until late antiquity.
www.crystalinks.com /estruscan.html   (187 words)

  
 Development of the Etruscan Alphabet
The alphabetic system changed twice, first when the Greek model alphabet was adapted to the needs of the Etruscan language, the some time around 400 BCE various other changes culminated in the creation of the so-called 'neo-Etruscan' alphabet.
The influence of Etruscan on the Latin alphabet is shown by the fact that the Latins followed the Etruscan use of the Greek gamma, written as a C, to represent the sound of k (cena, cura, catena, civis, corium).
Etruscan had voiceless consonants or stops, k (and c and q), p and t; but not the voiced (sonant) consonants g, b and d (these are so called because their pronunciation involves the use of the vocal cords).
users.tpg.com.au /etr/etrusk/tex/develop.html   (1878 words)

  
 Abecedarium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
For example, abecedaria in the Etruscan alphabet from include the letters B, D, and O, which indicate sounds not present in the Etruscan language and are therefore not found in Etruscan inscriptions.
The Greek alphabet, moreover, with certain slight modifications, was becoming closely assimilated to the Latin.
The alphabet, however, employed for monumental inscriptions differed so completely from the cursive as to make it wholly impossible to mistake the one for the other.
www.peekskill.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Abecedarium   (488 words)

  
 Etruscan - Etruscan Art
An Etruscan temple, to meet religious requirements, was located on a north-south axis and stood on a high podium with a four-columned porch.
Surviving Etruscan painting in underground funerary vaults, consists of murals on the stone or plastered stone walls and ceilings of tombs.
Etruscan Art: In all studies of Etruscan art, it should be remembered that a large proportion of Etruscan art did not survive up until the present day...
www.huntfor.com /arthistory/ancient/etruscan.htm   (1007 words)

  
 AncientScripts.com: Etruscan
The adoption possibly occurred as early as the 8th century BCE, before the general standardization of the Greek alphabet, as indicated by the archaic shapes of the letters, and the and the direction of writing (which is either right-to-left or boustrophedon).
The Etruscans decided to use all of them, but each one in a prescribed environment: K appears before A, C before I and E, and Q before V. The letter F represented either the sound [w] or [v], as it is in Euboean Greek.
However, its descendent, the Latin alphabet, would come to be one of the most widely used alphabets in the world.
www.ancientscripts.com /etruscan.html   (478 words)

  
 OLD ITALIC ALPHABET FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The alphabets derive from Euboean_Greek Cumaean_alphabet, used at Ischia and Cumae in the Bay_of_Naples in the eighth_century_BC.
It is not clear whether the process of adaptation from the Greek_alphabet took place in Italy from the first colony of Greeks, the city of Cumae, or in Greece/Asia_Minor.
In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value, Ψ stood for ; in Etruscan: X =, Ψ = or (Rix 202-209).
velocipay.com /Old_Italic_alphabet   (312 words)

  
 Etruscan alphabet and language
The Etruscan alphabet developed from a Western variety of the Greek alphabet brought to Italy by Euboean Greeks.
Etruscan is related to Raetic, a language once spoken in the Alps, and also to Lemnian, once spoken on the island of Lemnos.
Etruscan Foundation - an organisation dedicated to the study of the cultural and history of the Etruscans: http://www.etruscanfoundation.org
www.omniglot.com /writing/etruscan.htm   (396 words)

  
 Lydian Intro
While the cause of Etruscan migration from Lydia to Italy is very difficult to determine, the fact that Herodotus himself was born in Asia Minor, give some hope that there is some truth in his writings.
The Lydian alphabet is derived from Phoenician and Etruscan, therefore after close examination; I was able to read one name on the grave inscription in Lydian.
Also, it seems that some of the inscriptions in Greek alphabet were written later and at that time some letters were modified, or added to the alphabet, which was used at the time of the dispute.
home.att.net /~oko/lydian/l-intro.htm   (1460 words)

  
 Classification of the Languages
The Volscian alphabet is of Latin origin, with a backwards C for Ç.
The Etruscan alphabet, however, had already lost the signs for B, D, and G, and since Venetic does have these sounds, extra letters had to be adapted for the purpose.
Etruscan PH is used for the /b/ sound, Z for /d/, and CH for /d/.
www.evolpub.com /LCA/VTLfacts.html   (1322 words)

  
 AncientScripts.com: Latin
Consequently, Western European nations all wrote using the Latin alphabet, and with European imperialism in the last 500 years, the Latin alphabet (with local modifications) is probably the most ubiquitous writing system in the world.
As Latium (the region where Latin is spoken and Rome is located) and Etruria (the region where Etruscan is spoken) are adjacent to each other, the very first examples of the Latin alphabet resemble the Etruscan alphabet.
Also, the direction of writing was like Etruscan, either right-to-left, boustrophedon, or even left-to-right for about a hundred years during the 6th century BCE (once again influenced by Etruscan fads).
www.ancientscripts.com /latin.html   (626 words)

  
 etrlan01
Large centers of Etruscan culture were: Caere, Vei and Falerii, then Vulci, Tarquinia, Volsinii and Orvieto (of which the Etruscan name is not known) in the South, Rusellae, Vetulonia and Populonia near the shore and in the North Volaterrae and Faesulae.
The Etruscan alphabet was used from campania in the South of Italy onto the Alps region and was adopted by the Umbrians, the Oscs, the Veneti, probably also by the Latini, including the Romans, who took over the letter C to indicate the "k"-sound.
Etruscan had no "g" either, the letter used for a sound familiar to "g" was C, which, as we saw already, was written to denounce a "k"-sound.
www.geocities.com /jackiesixx/caere/etrlan01.htm   (2346 words)

  
 The Etruscan alphabet (from Etruscan language) --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
Etruscan is written in an alphabet probably derived from one of the Greek alphabets.
It is of very great importance that Etruscan is written in a recognizable alphabet related to the Greek and Semitic because sound values can be assigned with some degree of precision to each symbol.
Developed from the Etruscan alphabet at some time before 600 BC, it can be traced through Etruscan, Greek, and Phoenician scripts to the North Semitic alphabet used in Syria and Palestine about 1100...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-75368?tocId=75368   (833 words)

  
 Postscriptum 21 cz3 (E)
This specific feature of the Etruscan culture we can see in existing Etruscan texts, in grave inscriptions: very often, but not always, we can find beside the name and surname of the father, also the surname (sometimes even the name) of the mother, which can not be found on other ancient grave inscriptions.
Etruscans have never had any united political state - organization which like at Greeks relied on individual big cities, very often in conflicts with each other, what made for Romans in the 4th and 3rd c BCE (Before the Common Era) very easy task to conquer the whole Etruscan region.
Despite of this, the reading of Etruscan texts never imposed problems, except the situation when the sample is in very bad condition or simply the Etruscan writer had such a bad handwriting, so even his contemporaries had difficulties to read.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Thebes/5181/etrusk/ps/psE_21t_3.html   (5105 words)

  
 dave bastian dot com • etruscan free font   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Etruscans, the predecessors of the Romans, inhabited Etruria in what is now modern Tuscany and parts of Umbria (central Italy).
The Etruscan alphabet is derived from the Greek alphabet (probably the Chalcidian variant), and two forms are generally recognized: Early Etruscan (circa 700 B.C.) and Classical Etruscan (400 B.C. and later).
Etruscan was usually written right to left (the opposite of English), but occasionally appears in boustrophedon style (i.e., the direction alternates with each line, right-to-left/left-to-right—much like ancient Greek).
www.davebastian.com /goodies/fonts/etruscan.html   (326 words)

  
 Upto11.net - Wikipedia Article for A   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
By 1600 BC, the Phoenician alphabet's letter had a linear form that served as the basis for all later forms.
When the Ancient Greeks adopted the alphabet, they had no use for the glottal stop that the letter had denoted in Phoenician and other Semitic languages, so they used the sign for the vowel, and changed its name to alpha.
The Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to what was Italy and left the letter unchanged.
www.upto11.net /generic_wiki.php?q=a   (903 words)

  
 Origins of the Runes
The Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to write Etruscan sometime during the 6th century BC, or possibly earlier.
It was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century BC.
"The Sabaean or Sabaic alphabet is one of the south Arabian alphabets.
www.sunnyway.com /runes/origins.html   (1222 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: A   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Romans later adopted the Etruscan alphabet to write Latin, and the resulting letter was preserved in the modern Latin alphabet used to write many languages, including English.
The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic.
Jump to: navigation, search The NATO phonetic alphabet is a common name for the radiotelephony spelling alphabet of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which assigned words to the letters of the English alphabet so that critical combinations of letters could be pronounced and understood by aircrew and air traffic...
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/A   (6898 words)

  
 Old_Italic_alphabet
The alphabets derive from Euboean Greek Cumaean alphabet, used at Ischia and Cumae in the Bay of Naples in the eighth century BC.
It is not clear whether the process of adaptation from the Greek alphabet took place in Italy from the first colony of Greeks, the city of Cumae, or in Greece/Asia Minor.
In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value [ks], Ψ stood for [kʰ]; in Etruscan: X = [s], Ψ = [kʰ] or [kχ] (Rix 202-209).
www.freecaviar.com /search.php?title=Old_Italic_alphabet   (273 words)

  
 Language isolates, Etruscan verb conjugation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Etruscan was spoken in the area of Tuscany (Italy), where the Etruscan civilization was as its height in the 6th century BC.
Etruscan is a language isolate; it has no structural or historical relationship to any other language.
Although it is known that magic was an everyday part of life in the Etruscan civilization, the meanings of the letters of the alphabet are not known.
www.verbix.com /languages/etruscan.shtml   (294 words)

  
 The Etruscan Liber Linteus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Etruscan text is given here in Roman transcription (note that the writing is given from left to right and not right to left as in the original).
It was disseminated in Italy by the colonists from the island of Euboea during the 8th century BC and adapted to Etruscan phonetics; the Latin alphabet was ultimately derived from it.
The apparent isolation of the Etruscan language had already been noted by the ancients; it is confirmed by repeated and vain attempts of modern science to assign it to one of the various linguistic groups or types of the Mediterranean and Eurasian world.
www.acon.com.au /tibor   (1693 words)

  
 alphabet.html
You can see how much the alphabet simplifies writing by counting up the number of different symbols that would be needed to write the first paragraph on this poster.
In the Phoenician's 22-letter alphabet, each letter is a picture of a common object, and the letter represents the first sound in the word for that object.
The Classical Greek alphabet was not adopted in Athens until 402 BC, long after the Etruscans had modified the Greek alphabet for their own needs.
www2.sunysuffolk.edu /oconnog/story/alphabet.html   (721 words)

  
 UPM || In the News
From the Etruscan alphabet and the language, to the furnishings, architecture, fashion and city planning initiatives, these inventive pre-Roman people have left an enduring legacy.
UPM's Etruscan collection is among the finest in the United States, and encompasses the full range of Etruscan culture from the 8th century BC to the final days of Etruscan civilization in the 1st century BC.
The symposium and the "Etruscan Weekend" are part of the Museum's "classical year" of special events in honor of the March 16, 2003 opening of Worlds Intertwined: Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans, a multi-million dollar reinstallation of the permanent classical galleries at the Museum.
www.museum.upenn.edu /new/news/fullrelease.php?which=63   (963 words)

  
 ~ RUNE STONES ~
The rune alphabet given on these pages is the German futhark, a name that is formed out of the first six letters--F, U, Th, A, R, K. For magical purposed it is the best.
The Scandinavian rune alphabets of sixteen symbols have been so reduced, they have lost much of their meaning.
On the other hand, the English alphabets of twenty-eight and thirty-three runes suffer from the arbitrary addition of symbols lacking a long magical history or potent association.
www.paganlore.com /runetext.html   (1288 words)

  
 CRITIQUE :: The Etruscans
Although the Etruscan alphabet presents no great difficulties (it derives from the Greek), the language itself is isolated among known languages.
The lands of the Etruscans extended from Veio at the gates of Rome to the north.
The private lives of the once mysterious but high-living Etruscans have been documented in the scenes painted on the walls of their tombs and their vases: games, banquets, dances and scenes like the "drunken Etruscan women" and their love for luxury, the figures that lie at the heart of Renaissance art.
www.etext.org /Zines/Critique/article/etruscans.html   (2704 words)

  
 B - RSCI, The Science Classification Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In earlier Greek inscriptions, the letter faces to the left, but in the Greek alphabet of later times it faces to the right, although there continued to be variations between pointed and rounded loops.
The Romans later adopted the Etruscan alphabet to write Latin, and the resulting letter, with rounded loops, has been preserved in the modern Latin alphabet used to write many languages, including English.
In most other languages that use the Latin alphabet, the letter a denotes the voiced bilabial plosive (IPA /b/), although in Spanish, in medial position it denotes the voiced bilabial fricative (IPA /β/).
www.scindex.org /B.html   (859 words)

  
 Bambooweb: a
By 1500 BC, the Phoenicians had given the letter a linear form that served as the basis for all later forms.
The Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to what is now Italy and left the letter unchanged.
In English, the letter A by itself usual denotes the lax open front unrounded vowel (IPA /æ/), as in pad, the open back unrounded (IPA /ɑ/) or, in concert with a later e, the diphthong [Ej] (though the actual pronunciation depends on the dialect), as in ace, due to effects of the Great vowel shift.
www.bambooweb.com /articles/t/a   (908 words)

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