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Topic: Etruscan civilization


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  Etruscan civilization - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
The core of the territory of the Etruscans, known as Etruria to the Latins, was northwest of the Tiber River, now in modern Tuscany and part of Umbria.
Etruscan wealth and power were in part based upon their knowledge of ironworking and their exploitation of iron deposits that were abundant in Etruria.
Etruscan art, which largely consisted of sculpture in clay and metal, fresco tomb paintings, and fine pottery, had some of its origins in Greek and Eastern arts and was extremely influential on the art of the Romans.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-etruscan-c.html   (995 words)

  
 Etruscans - Crystalinks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
The Etruscan civilization flourished in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the arrival of Gauls in the Po valley and the formation of the Roman Republic.
Etruscan excavations began in the eighteenth century, and in the nineteenth century major archaeological evidence was found at Tarquinia, Cerveteri, and Vulci.
After this, Tarquinius Superbus the Etruscan king of Rome fell, and the Roman republic formed; from this point on, Roman history is rooted in Latin culture instead of that of the Etruscans.
www.crystalinks.com /etruscians.html   (1995 words)

  
 Etruscan civilization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Etruscan texts name quite a number of magistrates, without much of a hint as to their function: the camthi, the parnich, the purth, the tamera, the macstrev, and so on.
The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subdivided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favor of human affairs.
Etruria - The region and kingdom of the Etruscan civilization.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Etruscan_civilization   (4612 words)

  
 press releases
The Etruscan religion was dominated by the assailing presence of inexplicable, obscure forces and by the idea of an inevitable fate, from which the individual had no defense.
Etruscan women seem to have enjoyed greater respect than was typical of the day and appeared to have participated more freely in both public and private social events.
Etruscan women adopted customs of the Egyptians and Anatolians, learning how to apply makeup, such as refined clay to their cheekbones, mineral-based cinnabar powder to their lips, lead carbonate-based cerussite powder for the face, mineral- and vegetable-pigmented eye shadows, and forms of ancient mascara and eye liner.
www.fernbank.edu /museum/press/etruscansfacts.html   (691 words)

  
 Etruscan civilization — FactMonster.com
Etruscan civilization: Etruscan Culture - Etruscan Culture Much of the actual work in Etruria was done by the native population, who were...
Etruscan civilization: Rise and Fall - Rise and Fall Regardless of the obscurity of their origins, it is clear that a distinctive Etruscan...
Etruscan civilization: Origins - Origins There are three theories that seek to explain the obscure origin of the Etruscans.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/history/A0817803.html   (169 words)

  
 ArtLex on Etruscan Art
Because little Etruscan literature remains and the language of inscriptions on their monuments has been only partially deciphered, scholars have gained most of their knowledge of the Etruscans from studying the remains of their buildings, monuments, vast tombs, and the objects they left behind, notably bronze and terra cotta sculptures and polychrome ceramics.
Etruscan, Cerveteri, third quarter of the 6th century BCE, Wall Cladding, polychrome terra cotta, height 124 cm, Louvre.
Etruscan, Gabies, late 4th or early 3rd century BCE, Oinochoe in the Form of a Young Man's Head, bronze, height 30.2 cm, Louvre.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/e/etruscan.html   (802 words)

  
 Etruscans, Part Four: Historical Periods   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
Their own inscriptions, dated about 700 BC, attest the presence of the Etruscan people in Etruria; it is widely believed, however, that the Etruscans were present in Italy before this time and that the prehistoric Iron Age culture called "Villanovan" (9th-8th century BC) is actually an early phase of Etruscan civilization.
Inasmuch as no Etruscan literary works have survived, the chronology of Etruscan history and civilization has been constructed on the basis of evidence, both archaeological and literary, from the better-known civilizations of Greece and Rome as well as from those of Egypt and the Middle East.
Etruscan culture became absorbed into Roman civilization during the 1st century BC and thereafter disappeared as a recognizable entity.
www.history-world.org /etruscanhistorical_periods.htm   (206 words)

  
 Etruscan - Etruscan Art
Their civilization stretched from the Arno River in the North to the Tiber River towards the center of the Italian peninsula in the South.
Surviving Etruscan painting in underground funerary vaults, consists of murals on the stone or plastered stone walls and ceilings of tombs.
Etruscan Art: In all studies of Etruscan art, it should be remembered that a large proportion of Etruscan art did not survive up until the present day...
www.huntfor.com /arthistory/ancient/etruscan.htm   (1007 words)

  
 Luna Nuova, Etruscan jewelry: reproductions of pieces found in the tombs of Etruscan princes
The idea of creating accurate reproductions of jewelry in gold, silver and amber found in the tombs of the Etruscan princes in Verucchio, is that of a jeweler, Emilio Semprini, born in Verucchio, and impassioned of his art.
That which makes the call of the Etruscans so attractive is the sense of happy and subtle balance in all things: they were splendid because they could compose a bright picture by mixing the light and shadow of their existence.
The Etruscan civilization developed principally in today’s Tuscany and in northern Lazio; during it’s period of greatest power, it’s influence extended to the North, to part of the Padana plains, and South to Campania.
www.lunanuova.com /e_etrus.html   (987 words)

  
 Education World® - *History : Classical / Ancient : Etruscan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
Etruscan and Greek Colonization of Italy Details the history of the early tribes of Italy's preRoman era focusing on the Greek and Etruscan infiltrations during the 8th century BC.
Etruscans InfoRoma Essay provides a basic overview of the Etruscan civilization that flourished in central Italy from the 9th to the 1st century BC.
Etruscans: Infoplease Here is a concise overview of Etruscan civilization, including information about their origins, rise to power and culture.
db.education-world.com /perl/browse?cat_id=10158   (544 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Etruscan civilization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
Etruscan civilization ETRUSCAN CIVILIZATION [Etruscan civilization] highest civilization in Italy before the rise of Rome.
Etruscan art ETRUSCAN ART [Etruscan art], the art of the inhabitants of ancient Etruria, which, by the 8th cent.
It was the territory of the Etruscans, who in the 6th cent.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/04254.html   (660 words)

  
 Etruscan civilization. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The political domination of the Etruscans was at its height c.500
B.C.) one Etruscan city after another fell to the Romans, and civil war further weakened Etruscan power.
B.C.) of Sulla and Marius the remaining Etruscan families allied themselves with Marius, and in 88
www.bartleby.com /65/et/Etruscan-c.html   (850 words)

  
 Rome: The Etruscans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
Their civilization stretched from the Arno river in the north to the Tiber river towards the center of the Italian peninsula; it was on the Tiber river that a small village of Latins, the village that would become Rome, sat.
So the Romans, who were only villagers during the rise of the Etruscan civilization, were in close contact with the Etruscans, their language, their ideas, their religion, and their civilization; the Etruscans were the single most important influence on Roman culture in its transition to civilization.
Like the surrounding peoples, the Etruscans were largely an agrarian people, but they also had a strong military, and used that military to dominate all the surrounding peoples.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/ROME/ETRUSCAN.HTM   (396 words)

  
 The Religion of the Etruscans, according to Massimo Pallottino
Religion is the best known facet of the Etruscan civilization; this is hardly surprising owing to the relative abundance of sources of a literary nature and especially the great number of archaeological monuments that, in one way or another, throw some light upon the subject of Etruscan religion.
The Etruscans must have possessed from the very beginning a certain anthropomorphic image of their own for their gods, though we are unable to tell how important the early influence of the mature civilizations of the East may have been on such popular representations.
Amongst the other aspects of the Etruscan discipline that ought to be mentioned here are the detailed rules governing the ritual of ceremonies and sacrifices, the doctrine of fixed time-limits for both men and states (a doctrine connected with the religious chronology of the 'centuries') and the beliefs and prescriptions concerning life after death.
www.ancientworlds.net /aw/Article/643090   (5358 words)

  
 Etruscans, Part Six: Crisis and Decline   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
The progressive infiltration and pressure of the Celts, who had penetrated and settled in the plain of the Po, eventually suffocated and overpowered the flourishing Etruscan urban communities, almost completely destroying their civilization by the mid-4th century BC and thus returning a large part of northern Italy to a protohistoric stage of culture.
During this same bleak period, Etruscan society was wracked with class struggles that eventually led to the development of a substantial freedman class, especially in northern Etruria, where numerous small rural settlements sprang up in the hills.
In most cases, the Etruscan cities and their territories preserved a formal autonomy as independent states with their own magistrates, thus passing an uneventful period in the 2nd century BC, when the sources are largely silent about Etruria.
www.history-world.org /etruscancrisis_and_decline.htm   (827 words)

  
 press releases
Recognized as the first advanced civilization on the Italian peninsula, the Etruscans emerged on the scene toward the end of the 8th century B.C.E. and were especially influential during the 6th century B.C.E. The region of their dominance, Etruria, today is known primarily as Tuscany, a name lexically rooted in “Etruscan.”
The Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to fit their own language, and thousands of short inscriptions and inscription fragments have survived, but very few extended texts have been found, so their language remains very poorly understood,” said Director of External Programs, Anita Kern, who oversees exhibitions and education at the Museum.
Since the banquet was one of the most important aspects of the Etruscans’ social life – as a manifestation of personal prestige, wealth and cohesion, and as a ritual for funerals and burials – a scene has been recreated in the exhibit.
www.fernbank.edu /museum/press/etruscans_press.html   (1167 words)

  
 Language isolates, Etruscan verb conjugation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
Etruscan was spoken in the area of Tuscany (Italy), where the Etruscan civilization was as its height in the 6th century BC.
The Etruscan or North Italic script is another of the alphabets derived from the Phoenician.
Although it is known that magic was an everyday part of life in the Etruscan civilization, the meanings of the letters of the alphabet are not known.
www.verbix.com /languages/etruscan.shtml   (294 words)

  
 Etruscan Civilization - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Etruscan Civilization, culture of the ancient people of Etruria, an area roughly equivalent to modern Tuscany, Italy, which flourished between about...
Civilization, advanced state of a society possessing historical and cultural unity.
Americans: No white American ever thinks…, Anarchy: It will surely be one of history's darkest…, Animals: A beast in civilization does not even...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Etruscan_Civilization.html   (160 words)

  
 History in Review - Etruscan Civilization: A Cultural History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
Yet, the Etruscans had a vibrant and long-lived civilization that had a significant impact upon the Roman civilization.
Etruscan Civilization: A Cultural History is also so beautifully illustrated that is can also serve as a coffee-table book.
Also covered is the absorption of the Etruscans by the Romans, and the role that the Etruscans played in early Imperial Rome.
www.largeprintreviews.com /HIRetruscan.html   (471 words)

  
 Notebook
In modern terms the Etruscan question must primarily be treated as a linguistic one; and here it must be noted from the outset that to its solution the study of the artefacts cannot contribute very much.
Their common language, Etruscan, and the popular Villanovan art testify to an initial basic community between town and country, the social differences notwithstanding which here, too, came to separate the urban upper strata from the rural population.
For here, too, the decisive event was a transfer of standards from the high civilizations of the east--Greek as well as oriental--to the new lands of Italy; and, as in southern Italy, the eighth century reveals itself as the crucial period, when the foundations were laid for all future developments in the area.
www.noteaccess.com /Texts/Etruscan/1Into1.htm   (3720 words)

  
 Etruscan Gold at Poggio Colla - Angles and Experts - - SMU
The Etruscan civilization thrived for hundreds of years during the first millennium B.C., before being assimilated by the Romans.
Not a lot is known about the Etruscans because researchers have found only scattered ruins; however, the site at Poggio Colla is the most extensive settlement ever discovered, spanning over 50 acres and revealing a wealth of details of ordinary Etruscan life.
Like many ancient cultures, the Etruscans were obsessed with symbols and rituals, and evidence says they used such rites and totems to maintain their rigid caste structure (a tiny elite, a huge slave population and a small serf class).
www.smu.edu /smunews/underthetuscansun/angles.asp   (875 words)

  
 "Etruscan and Pelasgian Monuments of Italy" by Coen Vonk
All have been ascribed to the Etruscans, but this need not necessarily be the case, because the variety of styles and forms suggests that different ancient cultures and influences may have been at work.
the people known to the Romans as Etruscans were not the original inhabitants of the land, but a mixed race, composed partly of the earlier occupants, partly of a people of foreign origin, who became dominant by right of conquest, and engrafted their peculiar civilization on that previously existing in the land.
The dominant theory of archeologists and evolutionists supports a generally linear development of civilizations, but discounts the possibility that the hut settlements may have coexisted with Etruscan monuments and that some of the so-called Etruscan settlements could be much older than currently believed.
www.theosophy-nw.org /theosnw/world/med/eu-vonk.htm   (2618 words)

  
 Alibris: Etruscans
This comprehensive survey of Etruscan civilization, from its origin in the Villanovan Iron Age in the ninth century B.C. to its absorption by Rome in the first century B.C., combines well-known aspects of the Etruscan world with new discoveries and fresh insights into the role of women in Etruscan society.
A well-defined polity, the Etruscans were an advanced people whose presence on the Italian peninsula from the 8th to 4th century B.C. had an enormous impact on...
The Etruscans are one of history's great mysteries -- a sophisticated society that flourished at the heart of the Classical world and then vanished, leaving relatively few archaeological remains and few records of their culture.
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Etruscans   (701 words)

  
 The Etruscan Library
Bonfante brings together a group of highly regarded scholars to explore the Etruscan idea that the afterlife was an extension of life, and its ramifications in the culture.
She specifically discusses Christianity, and the facets of it that she suggests are Etruscan in origin, specifically the role of demons and other creatures of Hell.
Etruscan Influences on the Civilizations of Italy from Antiquity to the Modern Era.
www.mysteriousetruscans.com /library.html   (2178 words)

  
 FSU Etruscan expert announces historic discovery at ancient site
Nancy de Grummond and Jim Harding, an FSU classics graduate student, lift a large Etruscan storage vessel from the sacrificial pit at Cetamura, and get their first view of the underside of the base of the vessel.
"We are excavating a monumental Etruscan building evidently dating to the final years of Etruscan civilization," said Nancy Thomson de Grummond, the M. Lynette Thompson Professor of Classics at FSU and director of the university's archaeology programs in Italy.
She explained that the Etruscans, who once ruled most of the Italian peninsula, were conquered and absorbed by the Romans in the second and first centuries B.C.E. ("Before the Common Era").
www.fsu.edu /news/2006/06/29/etruscan.discovery   (922 words)

  
 CRITIQUE :: The Etruscans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04)
The Etruscan civilization appeared, flourished and spread for nine centuries.
The lands of the Etruscans extended from Veio at the gates of Rome to the north.
The private lives of the once mysterious but high-living Etruscans have been documented in the scenes painted on the walls of their tombs and their vases: games, banquets, dances and scenes like the "drunken Etruscan women" and their love for luxury, the figures that lie at the heart of Renaissance art.
www.critiquemagazine.com /article/etruscans.html   (2704 words)

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