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Topic: Etruscan language


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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  
  Etruscan_Phrases_a
The Greeks did influence Etruscan works of art, justifying the title of the "Hellenic" period in Etruscan "history." I put the word, history, in quotes for a reason: What is known about the Etruscans is from archeological data and bits and pieces of testimonials from the Greeks and Latin historians.
The Etruscans were known for their seamanship and in the myth of Dionysus, the god of wine, we are told that he was kidnapped by Tyrrhenian pirates (Etruscans), and during the episode he cast a spell on the ship, causing it to be invaded by wild animals, including lions, panthers and tigers.
Script IV focuses on little warnings to the temple servants and refers to the moistening of the fields and the cultivation of the fields."Since I cultivate she moistens," is an often repeated verse.
www.maravot.com /Etruscan_Phrases_a.html   (10818 words)

  
  Etruscan Language
Etruscan had ceased to be spoken in the time of imperial Rome, though it continued to be studied by priests and scholars.
The language continued to be used in a religious context until late antiquity; the final record of such use relates to the invasion of Rome by Alaric, chief of the Visigoths, in 410 CE,(1) when Etruscan priests were summoned to conjure lightning against the barbarians.
The apparent isolation of the Etruscan language had already been noted by the ancients; it is confirmed by repeated and vain attempts of some to assign it to one of the various linguistic groups or types of the Mediterranean and Eurasian world.
www.mysteriousetruscans.com /language.html   (1671 words)

  
  Etruscan Civilization - MSN Encarta
Sethlans was the Etruscan counterpart of Vulcan; Fuflans, of Bacchus (as Dionysus was later known); and Turms, of Mercury.
Many elements of Etruscan religion were embraced by the Romans, including the concepts of the cyclic return of the golden age and the rite of human sacrifice, which may have given rise to the gladiatorial games.
Etruscan art was related to that of the Greeks (in both Greece and southern Italy) and to that of Egypt and Asia Minor.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761578572_2/Etruscan_Civilization.html   (1113 words)

  
 Etruscan civilization. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The core of the territory of the Etruscans, known as Etruria to the Latins, was northwest of the Tiber River, now in modern Tuscany and part of Umbria.
Etruscan wealth and power were in part based upon their knowledge of ironworking and their exploitation of iron deposits that were abundant in Etruria.
Etruscan art, which largely consisted of sculpture in clay and metal, fresco tomb paintings, and fine pottery, had some of its origins in Greek and Eastern arts and was extremely influential on the art of the Romans.
www.bartleby.com /65/et/Etruscan-c.html   (850 words)

  
 Etruscans - Crystalinks   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Etruscan civilization flourished in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the arrival of Gauls in the Po valley and the formation of the Roman Republic.
Etruscan excavations began in the eighteenth century, and in the nineteenth century major archaeological evidence was found at Tarquinia, Cerveteri, and Vulci.
In Etruscan religion, the realms occupied by humans and by the gods are very specific, and their practices followed very exact procedures to avoid ill will of the gods.
www.crystalinks.com /etruscians.html   (1995 words)

  
 Etruscans, Part Eight: Language and Writing
The language continued to be used in a religious context until late antiquity; the final record of such use relates to the invasion of Rome by Alaric, chief of the Visigoths, in AD 410, when Etruscan priests were summoned to conjure lightning against the barbarians.
It was disseminated in Italy by the colonists from the island of Euboea during the 8th century BC and adapted to Etruscan phonetics; the Latin alphabet was ultimately derived from it.
The apparent isolation of the Etruscan language had already been noted by the ancients; it is confirmed by repeated and vain attempts of modern science to assign it to one of the various linguistic groups or types of the Mediterranean and Eurasian world.
history-world.org /etruscanlanguage_and_writing.htm   (783 words)

  
 The Etruscan Language in General
The Etruscan language which read on the earliest inscriptions in Etruria had evidently already been spoken in the area for long time, and it provides proof of the Etruscans' relationship with their neighbours.
Etruscan pronunciation, and the changes it underwent during the approximately seven centuries when Etruscan was spoken and written, can be reconstructed because these changes were regularly reflected in the spelling, which remained, it seems, strictly phonetic.
Etruscan cannot be interpreted through any kind of 'etymological' method which claims connections, for example, with Albanian and Basque, Hebrew, Turkish, etc. Such connections are based on accidental, superficial resemblances with other languages or language families, not on any real relationship.
users.tpg.com.au /etr/etrusk/tex/lang.html   (1234 words)

  
 The Etruscans - Civilization, Language, Technology, Art and Architecture
Etruscans traders, with full control of the Tyrrhenian Sea, were as well-known as the Greeks or the Phoenicians to the people residing along the Mediterranean.
Etruscan goods have been found all over the Western Mediterranean and this proved that their network was far-reaching right from the beginning.
Etruscan women had ample independence contrary to that of the Greek women who spent their conservative lives sitting at home catering to the needs of their husbands.
www.traveltuscany.net /tourism-in-tuscany/culture-antropology/etruscans.html   (1673 words)

  
 Origins of the Etruscans
The Etruscans occupied the region to the north of Rome, between the Arno and Tiber Rivers to the west of the Apennine Mountains.
The Etruscan culture was flourishing during the the sixth century B.C.; i.e., the century of the 500's B.C. As the Etruscan culture burgeoned it ran into constraint on its expansion due to strong cultures and geographic confinements bordering its home region.
The question of the linguistic relationships of the Etruscan language is not necessarily the same as the affinities of the rest of the culture.
www.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/etruscans.htm   (1426 words)

  
 Etruscan alphabet and language
The Etruscan language was spoken by the Etruscans in Etruria (Tuscany and Umbria) until about the 1st century AD, after which it continued to be studied by priests and scholars.
Etruscan is related to Raetic, a language once spoken in the Alps, and also to Lemnian, once spoken on the island of Lemnos.
Etruscan Foundation - an organisation dedicated to the study of the cultural and history of the Etruscans: http://www.etruscanfoundation.org
www.omniglot.com /writing/etruscan   (354 words)

  
 ArtLex on Etruscan Art
Because little Etruscan literature remains and the language of inscriptions on their monuments has been only partially deciphered, scholars have gained most of their knowledge of the Etruscans from studying the remains of their buildings, monuments, vast tombs, and the objects they left behind, notably bronze and terra cotta sculptures and polychrome ceramics.
Or, as their pre-Indo-European language might suggest, they may have been a people indiginous to today's Tuscany who suddenly acquired the tools for rapid development.
The Etruscan Museum was founded in 1837, during the pontificate of Gregorio XVI.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/e/etruscan.html   (602 words)

  
 Language isolates, Etruscan verb conjugation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Etruscan was spoken in the area of Tuscany (Italy), where the Etruscan civilization was as its height in the 6th century BC.
Etruscan is a language isolate; it has no structural or historical relationship to any other language.
Although it is known that magic was an everyday part of life in the Etruscan civilization, the meanings of the letters of the alphabet are not known.
www.verbix.com /languages/etruscan.shtml   (294 words)

  
 The Etruscan World: The Etruscan Language   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Etruscan language is not like Latin, Italian, or any of the other languages of Italy.
Etruscan may instead represent a prehistoric language spoken in Italy before the invasions of the Italic tribes, including the Latins, sometime before the first millennium BC.
Knowledge of the Etruscan language was once considered "lost." It has not been spoken since the Roman empire, and for long before that it was spoken only by priests.
www.museum.upenn.edu /new/worlds_intertwined/etruscan/language.shtml   (207 words)

  
 The Etruscan Civilization
Linguists can decipher Etruscan inscriptions, which are written from right to left using a primitive Greek alphabet, but the exact meaning of many words is unknown.
The Etruscans had a firm belief in the supernatural; religious ceremonies and funeral rites were of prime importance.
After this the Etruscans stayed north of the Tiber and their influence gradually declined, although the haruspices, responsible for religious rites and divination in Rome, continued to be Etruscans up to the end of the republic.
www.inforoma.it /feature.php?lookup=etruscan   (297 words)

  
 Intro
The purpose of this presentation is to suggest answers to present questions concerning the Etruscan’ identity, their language, and other remaining mysteries, by decipherment of their writings.
The biggest mystery is the fact that Romans were sending their sons to the Etruscan schools and every one of them after graduation mysteriously forgot the language as well as who were the Etruscans.
But the mystery of not remembering Etruscan language and who they were is inherent not only to Romans but also to Greeks.
home.att.net /~oko/etruscan/e-intro.htm   (469 words)

  
 Etruscan Language   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The remarkable consistency of the same sounds being represented as letters across many languages again demonstrates that languages did not arise in a vacuum: modern languages descend from earlier ones.
Etruscan uses the Greco-Roman “A privative” as a postfix: ZIVA = one who has lived but is now deceased, life-without.
The European trilled R originated with the Etruscan character that is also the ancestor of our letter D. My font does not have the exact character; but the Etruscan R was written exactly like our D but facing the opposite direction.
www.72languages.com /etruscan.html   (638 words)

  
 Etruscan Tarot Review
The Etruscan Tarot is a historically-themed art deck, based on the culture, civilisation, and mystical beliefs of the ancient Etruscans, a pre-Roman tribe who lived in what is now modern day Italy.
As very little of the Etruscan language has been deciphered, most of what is known about these people is reconstructed from archaeological artefacts and Roman writings.
In the Etruscan Tarot, Ajax is the lighter-skinned warrior and carries the fl, wounded figure of Achilles.
www.aeclectic.net /tarot/etruscan/review.html   (1169 words)

  
 [No title]
Since no written Etruscan literary texts have survived, two short incomplete texts, and only a modest number of inscriptions, the Etruscan language itself is not yet very well understood.
As a matter of fact, the language of the inscription on this stele shows some morphologic and semantic similarity with Etruscan.
This is particularly evident in the numerals and formulas indicating the deceased person's age: compare the Lemnic expression sialxveis avis "aged 40", as it appears on the stele, with the Etruscan expression avils maxs shealxlsc "aged 45".
www.lycos.com /info/etruscans--language.html   (189 words)

  
 Etruscan Alphabet
The majority of Etruscan inscriptions are written in horizontal lines from left to right, but some are boustrophedon (running alternately left to right then right to left).
The Etruscan language was spoken by the Etruscans in Etruria (Tuscany and Umbria) until about the 1st century CE.
The Etruscan alphabet was diffused at the end of the Archaic period, around 500 CE, into Camunic, a language once spoken in the northwest of Italy, and became the model for the alphabets of the Alpine populations.
www.spelwerx.com /etruscan.html   (262 words)

  
 Ancient Scripts: Etruscan
The Etruscan language has never been conclusively shown to be related to any other language in the world.
The "Late" version was used from the 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE, at a time when Etruscan as a language was rapidly being replaced by Latin.
The Etruscans decided to use all of them, but each one in a prescribed environment: K appears before A, C before I and E, and Q before V. The letter F represented either the sound [w] or [v], as it is in Euboean Greek.
www.ancientscripts.com /etruscan.html   (492 words)

  
 projects.htm
Etruscan Texts Project (ETP) is an initiative sponsored by the Department of Classics at the University of Massachusetts Amherst that aims to collect the approximately 2,000+ Etruscan inscriptions recovered from 1990 to the present and to produce an on-line edition of inscriptions accompanied by a searchable database.
And the better the language is understood, the better we understand the Etruscans and their world.
This is particularly important because the number of Etruscan texts has grown extensively during the last 15 years and scholars have not been unable to access them readily due to the lack of a central repository or information source.
www.umass.edu /classics/projects.htm   (301 words)

  
 The Etruscan Decipherment
The Niger-Congo prefixes are the hallmark of Niger-Congo languages.
Etruscan for “ten” is ́sar with a change of t > ts > s, n > r ; Etruscan “four” is ́sa from Niger-Congo ta “hand”, “four fingers”, again with t > ts, The word for “one” is Niger-Congo do [from earlier dua, with ua > o].
Etruscan numerals are prefixed as we see from e-sal “two”, ci “three” (root loss); and suffixed as can be seen from thu, thun-s, thun-i “one”, which follows the suffixes of nouns.
home.clear.net.nz /pages/gc_dunn/Etruscans.html   (2040 words)

  
 ETRUSCAN, A DRAVIDIAN TONGUE?
Besides, we leave out of the present document our results on Etruscan Religion and Mythology, and our research on the etymological meanings of their onomastics, which are even more fascinating and, in our view, more compelling even than the present demonstration that the Etruscan language is a member of the Dravidian family of tongues.
The fact that these two languages both obey this unusual rule and both form words by agglutination is in itself a compelling evidence of their close linguistic affinity, for it is unlikely that both tongues would hit on the idea independently, unlike what happened, say, with Indo-European.
Where the Etruscans originally obtained it is as obscure a point as is the provenience of their tongue or even of the enigmatic people themselves.
www.verbix.com /documents/etruscan-dravidian.htm   (13746 words)

  
 Etruscan language and culture
FROM WIKIPEDIA Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany) and in what is now Lombardy (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy.
The Etruscan Museum was founded in 1837, during the pontificate of Gregorio XVI.
The biggest mystery is the fact that Romans were sending their sons to the Etruscan school and every one of them after graduation mysteriously forgot Etruscan language and who were they.
www.lonweb.org /link-etruscan.htm   (980 words)

  
 USC Archaeological Research Collection: Etruscan Lion Plaque Pendant
Etruscan Lion Plaque Pendant, 650-600 B.C. Before the rise of Rome as a power in the Mediterranean region, the Etruscans dominated ancient Etruria, on the northern part of the Italian peninsula.
They spoke a language unrelated to either Latin or Greek, but it was from them that the Romans learned the alphabet that developed into the one we use today.
Etruscan goldsmiths were famous for their granulation technique, which can be seen on this beautiful pendant.
www.usc.edu /dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/uscarc/Pendant.shtml   (443 words)

  
 The Etruscans: Mysterious People of Italy
Since the Etruscans left no literary works behind, each fragment of their language found on various artifacts is valuable.
The longest Etruscan text known to date is the Liber Linteus of Zagreb a linen cloth found wrapped around a mummy containing approximately 1200 words.
The most important part of this trilogy is the bilingual pair, one foil in Etruscan and another in Phoenician, which both record the dedication to a Goddess called Astarte in Phoenician and Uni in Etruscan.
www.domspe.org /etruscans/language.html   (266 words)

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