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Topic: Eucaryotic


  
  Botany online: Evolution - Energy-Conversion - Eucaryotes
Eucaryotic cells must have developed in environments that were rich in nutriments, since the photosynthetic activity of blue-green algae produced not only large quantities of free oxygen, but also stoecheometric amounts of fixed carbon and made thus for an accumulation of biomass unknown to have existed ever before.
Eucaryotic cells contain certain structure-forming molecular complexes (a cytosceleton) responsible for movements: actin and myosin, their accompanying regulators, and tubulin.
In contrast to the flagelli of bacteria, eucaryotic flagelli and cilia are intracellular structures.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e42/42c.htm   (0 words)

  
 Eucaryotic Cells
A eucaryotic cell is a cell that has a nucleus.
Things like plants and animals are eucaryotes, because they are made up of eucaryotic cells.
Eucaryotic ribosomes are also found in the cytoplasm; either free or bound to the endoplasmic recticulum.
www.fresno.k12.ca.us /schools/s090/atkinsgatebio/eucaryotic/eucaryote5.htm   (2208 words)

  
 Cytokinetics Glossary
In eucaryotic cells it entails division of the nucleus (mitosis) closely followed by division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis).
Golgi apparatus: Membrane bound organelle in eucaryotic cells, where the proteins and lipids made in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and sorted.
M phase: Period of the eucaryotic cell cycle during which the chromosomes are condensed and the nucleus and cytoplasm divide.
www.cytokinetics.com /cyto/glossary   (1750 words)

  
 The eucaryotic cell
Eucaryotic cells are larger and more complex than procaryotic cells and contain more DNA, together with components that DNA allow this DNA to be handled in elaborate ways.
Eucaryotic cells are also unique in containing a cytoskeleton of protein filaments that helps organise the cytoplasm and provides the machinery for movement.
The eucaryotic cell is bound by a membrane called the plasmalemma or plasma membrane.
ridge.icu.ac.jp /gen-ed/eukaryotic-cell.html   (0 words)

  
 The origin, evolution and classification of microbial life
However, the origin of the eucaryotic organelles, specifically chloroplasts and mitochondria is explained by evolutionary associations between primitive nucleated cells and highly developed respiratory and photosynthetic bacteria that led to the development of these orgnanelles and the associated explosion of eucaryotic diversity.
Hence, the two organisms were able to enter into a mutually beneficial and stable relationship, and thus, microbiologists believe that the origin of eucaryotic chloroplasts (organelles for photosynthesis) and mitochondria (organelles for aerobic respiration) are in cyanobacteria and respiratory bacteria that entered into a partnership with eucaryotic cells in the evolutionarey past.
Eucaryotes always contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus, multiple chromosomes, and various other membranous organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the golgi apparatus, vacuoles, etc. Procaryotic cells are much typically smaller in size and never contain a nuclear membrane around their genetic material.
www.bact.wisc.edu /themicrobialworld/origins.html   (2402 words)

  
 Processes for inserting DNA into eucaryotic cells and for producing proteinaceous materials - Patent 5179017
Eucaryotic cells into which multiple copies of the amplifiable gene have been inserted additionally include multiple copies of the desired gene and may be used to produce multiple copies of proteinaceous molecules.
This distinction is based in part upon the basic differences between eucaryotic and procaryotic cells, the former being characterized by true nuclei formed by nuclear envelopes and by meiosis and the latter being characterized by the absence of well-defined nuclei and the absence of meiosis.
Using this approach, eucaryotic cells which have acquired multiple copies of the amplifiable gene for a dominant selectable phenotype not otherwise expressed by the cell survive and/or are identifiable in the presence of elevated concentrations of an agent complementary to the amplifiable gene which would otherwise result in death or inability to identify the cells.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5179017.html   (19144 words)

  
 BioForge: pCAMBIA FunGus - *New*
See page describing the nomenclature of pCAMBIA vectors available from CAMBIA.
The FunGUS protein is expressed naturally in a eucaryote, unlike Escherichia coli GUSA.
Like GUSPlus, it also has the great advantage in that it can be secreted by plant cells (the gene is fused to a sequence encoding the glycine rich protein secretion signal peptide which results in the GUSPlus protein being efficiently transported to the periplasmic or apoplastic space, where it is active).
bioforge.net /forge/entry.jspa?entryID=211   (0 words)

  
 Overview of Bacteriology
The archaea and bacteria differ fundamentally in their structure from eucaryotic cells, which always contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus, multiple chromosomes, and various other membranous organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the golgi apparatus, vacuoles, etc. Unlike plants and animals, archaea and bacteria are unicellular organisms that do not develop or differentiate into multicellular forms.
This is good evidence for the idea of evolutionary endosymbiosis, i.e., that the origin of eucaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts is in procaryotic cells that were either captured by, or which invaded, primitive eucaryotic cells, and subsequently entered into a symbiotic association with one cell living inside of the other.
The organelles of eucaryotes (mitochondria and chloroplasts) are thought to be remnants of Bacteria that invaded, or were captured by, primitive eucaryotes in the evolutionary past.
textbookofbacteriology.net /bacteriology.html   (6190 words)

  
 [No title]
Eucaryotic chromosomes (one unique DNA molecule per chromosome!) are larger, have higher degrees of structural order, and a more complex composition than procaryotic chromosomes.
Eucaryotic gene expression is regulated primarily at the level of transcription.
Histones are highly conserved (especially histones H3 and H4) in all eucaryotes, suggesting that the role of histones was established early during eucaryotic evolution.[Fig.
www.biochem.arizona.edu /classes/bioc461/Chapter37Notes.htm   (1406 words)

  
 Abstract
Here we investigated the secondary structure of recombinant eucaryotic OPN and compared its biological activity with thrombin cleaved fragments, neuraminidase treated OPN and a procaryotic OPN-GST-protein in its capacity to induce DC activation and migration.
Analyzing the circular dichroism of each protein, we found the eucaryotic protein and its fragments to be unstructured in solution showing a spectrum characteristic for a random coil with a minimum at 200 nm, which is in accordance to findings for OPN expressed in E. coli.
Investigating the function of the full length eucaryotic OPN, compared to E. coli derived GST-OPN, we found both forms to induce DC activation, as measured by their expression of MHC-II and CD86.
www.blackwellpublishing.com /esdr2004/abstract.asp?id=18619   (438 words)

  
 Pun 2.5.htm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Eucaryotes include mosses, liverworts, ferns, higher flowering plants, and all animals that are characterized by multicellular tissues and systems involving extensive differentiation of cells.
The similarities of the mitochondrial and chloroplast organelles in the eucaryotic cell to an entire procaryotic cell are striking.
The prevailing hypothesis is that certain bacteria came to be permanently associated (in symbiosis) with precursor procaryotic amoeboid cells, thus establishing the first true eucaryote.
www.ibri.org /Books/Pun_Evolution/Chapter2/2.5.htm   (3523 words)

  
 Cell Models
Living cells are divided into two types - procaryotic and eucaryotic (sometimes spelled prokaryotic and eukaryotic).
Eucaryotic: The cells of protozoa, higher plants and animals are highly structured.
These cells tend to be larger than the cells of bacteria, and have developed specialized packaging and transport mechanisms that may be necessary to support their larger size.
www.cellsalive.com /cells/3dcell.htm   (147 words)

  
 Eucaryotic genome evolution through the spontaneous duplication of large chromosomal segments
Sequencing data revealed the presence of large duplicated regions in the genomes of many eucaryotic organisms, and comparative studies have suggested that duplication of large DNA segments has been a continuing process during evolution.
If segmental duplications have played a significant role in eucaryotic genome evolution, it is unclear how these duplications are generated, intra- or interchromosomally, in direct or inverted orientation, and what sort of sequences are involved at the junctions.
Thus, the availability of an experimental system adequately designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of duplications would be of general relevance for the study of genome evolution.
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v23/n1/full/7600024a.html   (6189 words)

  
 Microscopic LifeMicroscopic Life
The other kind of cell has a membrane separating the nucleus from the rest of the cytoplasm.
Animals and plants are made of eucaryotic cells.
The dividing of a eucaryotic cell is referred to as a cell division called mitosis.
www.utm.edu /departments/cece/old_site/seventh/li752i2.htm   (1578 words)

  
 Appendix 3
b) cultivating the eucaryotic cell in a medium comprising tetracycline or a tetracycline analogue such that expression of the heterologous protein is inhibited.
b) cultivating the eucaryotic cell in a medium lacking tetracycline or a tetracycline analogue such that expression of the heterologous protein is enhanced.
b) cultivating the eucaryotic cell in a medium lacking tetracycline or a tetracycline analogue such that expression of the heterologous protein is activated.
www.cambia.org /daisy/promoters/768/g1/289   (12817 words)

  
 Cardiff University - PI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Functional investigation of the MCV genes mc002L and mc161R using stably transfected eucaryotic cell lines and a measles virus-B95a infection model.
Functional analysis of poxviral RING proteins (mc026L, fowlpox and parapoxvirus mc026 homologs) in vitro (ubiquitinylation assay) and in sheep, fowl and rabbit animal models (in IAH, Montpellier, Moredun).
Identification of the gene encoding the largest subunit of DNA dependent RNA Polymerase of insect iridescent virus 6; The deduced protein is closely related to the largest subunit of eucaryotic RNA polymerase II.
www.cardiff.ac.uk /dentistry/medicine/medical_microbiology/staff/jjbugert/bugertlab/JJB-lab.htm   (1632 words)

  
 Structural and evolutionary relationships between retroviral and eucaryotic aspartic proteinases.
Three-dimensional crystal structures of the homologous retroviral proteinases from Rous sarcoma virus (RSV PR) and from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 PR) are to a large extent similar and bear close resemblance to the six known structures of the bilobal fungal and mammalian aspartic proteinases.
The most strongly conserved parts correspond to those regions in the N- and C-domains of the eucaryotic enzymes that are related by the interdomain dyad and consist of a combination of secondary structural elements that form the psi loop-alpha helix motif at the active sites of the aspartic proteinases.
There are three highly conserved amino acid sequence stretches, of which two belong to the psi loop-alpha helix motif, that bear moderate sequence similarity with the eucaryotic enzymes.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1991/aug/M9180126.html   (517 words)

  
 eucaryotic cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The following drawing is ment to represent a eucaryotic cell.
Every cell (procaryotic or eucaryotic) is bounded by a plasma membrane.
In addition, eucaryotic cells have many intracellular membranes that define functional areas of the cell.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /biology/bio4fv/page/eucaryo.htm   (99 words)

  
 D-Mannose Research
We conclude that cranberry juice contains at least two inhibitors of lectin-mediated adherence of uropathogens to eucaryotic cells.
Further studies are required to establish whether these inhibitors play a role in vivo.
Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells.
www.discovernutrition.com /research.htm   (1357 words)

  
 Posttranscription
Procaryotic mRNAs are translated while being transcribed, while eucaryotic mRNAs are processed in the nucleus prior to being exported and translated in the cytoplasm: 7_19.htm;
Mature eucaryotic mRNAs are selectively exported from the nucleus (MBC6_40)
Eucaryotic tRNAs are synthesized by RNA pol III
www.fmv.ulg.ac.be /genmol/MODGEN/Posttranscription.htm   (316 words)

  
 [No title]
Explanation: Mitcochondria contain the same type of ribosomes as found in procaryotic cells, they are about the same size as procaryotic cells, and they replicate on their own using their own DNA.
One hypothesis is that mitochondria at one time were primitive bacteria that have formed a permanent symbiotic relationship with eucaryotic cells.
Both procaryotic and eucaryotic cells possess cell membranes.
www.mc.maricopa.edu /~johnson/examoneanswers.html   (1366 words)

  
 Hmmm....differences between bacteria/eukaryote ribosomes?
The size of the ribosoms: the ribosom has 80 S in the centrifuge in eucaryotes, and 70 S in procaryotes
I think ribosomes of procaryotic organisms are sensitive to antibiotics while eucaryotic not.
This could explain why when you intake antibiotics you are not dead while procaryotic organisms in your body are dead (im not sure about it cause eucaryotic have procaryotic ribosomes in mitochondrias and plastids).
www.biology-online.org /biology-forum/post-10382.html   (589 words)

  
 Evidence Supporting Biological Evolution | Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, ...
The oldest evidence of more complex organisms (that is, eucaryotic cells, which are more complex than bacteria) has been discovered in fossils sealed in rocks approximately 2 billion years old.
Multicellular organisms, which are the familiar fungi, plants, and animals, have been found only in younger geological strata.
That is, amphibians will not appear before fishes, nor mammals before reptiles, and no complex life will occur in the geological record before the oldest eucaryotic cells.
bob.nap.edu /readingroom/books/creationism/evidence.html   (4044 words)

  
 Prescott's Microbiology,4/e   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
This chapter focuses on eucaryotic cell structure and function.
Although procaryotic organisms are immensely important in microbiology, eucaryotic microorganisms-such as fungi, algae, and protozoa-are also prominent members of many ecosystems, and some have medical significance as etiological agents of disease as well.
The chapter concludes with a comparison of eucaryotic and procaryotic cells.
www.mhhe.com /biosci/cellmicro/prescott/outlines/ch04.mhtml   (1137 words)

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