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Topic: Eugene Wigner


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  Eugene Wigner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál Jenő) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles".
Wigner was sometimes referred to as the Silent Genius as some of his contemporaries considered him the intellectual equal to Einstein, without the prominence.
Wigner is famous for laying the foundation for the theory of symmetries in quantum mechanics as well as for his research into atomic nuclei, as well as for his several theorems.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Eugene_Wigner   (889 words)

  
 Eugene Wigner - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál Jenő) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian-American physicist and mathematician.
Wigner was one of a group of renowned Jewish-Hungarian scientists and mathematicians from turn-of-the-century Budapest, including Paul Erdos, Edward Teller, John von Neumann, and Leó Szilárd.
Wigner was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary (now Hungary), into a world where middle-class people had no automobiles, radio, gas or electricity — and did not miss those things.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /e/eu/eugene_wigner.html   (1471 words)

  
 Wigner's friend - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wigner's friend is a thought experiment proposed by the physicist Eugene Wigner; it is an extension of the Schrödinger's cat experiment designed as a point of departure for discussing the mind-body problem as viewed by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.
It posits a friend of Wigner who performs the Schrödinger's cat experiment while Wigner is out of the room.
Wigner's essay with discussing this scenario is "Remarks on the mind-body question" in his collection of essays Reflections and Symmetries, 1967.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wigner's_friend   (353 words)

  
 Physics Today October 2002
Wigner and Szilard, whose European-Hungarian background taught them what happens when a country is run by dictators such as Adolf Hitler, became obsessed in their desire to push forward the development of the atomic bomb.
Wigner realized that humanity was in a struggle with the forces of evil, and that whoever made the bomb first would rule the world.
But Wigner had so much confidence in the accuracy of his calculations (backed, of course, by Fermi's experiments) that he insisted that, though the presence of water in the reactor would reduce the multiplication factor by perhaps 3%, enough reactivity would be left to make a reactor of modest size.
www.physicstoday.org /vol-55/iss-10/p42.html   (3140 words)

  
 Eugene Paul Wigner, November 17, 1902 — January 1, 1995 | By Frederick Seitz, Erich Vogt, and Alvin M. Weinberg | ...
While Wigner was strongly attracted to the field of physics, his father, who was of a very practical mind, insisted that instead he attend the Technische Hochschule in Berlin and focus on chemical engineering, so that he might be in a better position to earn a living in Hungary.
For Wigner, in contrast, the transition was a relatively difficult one.
Immediately after the discovery of the neutron in 1932, Wigner studied the early measurements of neutron-proton scattering, the properties of the deuteron, the connection between the saturation property of nuclear binding energies and the short range nature of the inter-nucleon force, and the symmetry properties of the force.
www.nap.edu /readingroom/books/biomems/ewigner.html   (6117 words)

  
 Eugene Wigner: biography and encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Wigner was one of a group of renowned Jewish-Hungarian scientists and mathematicians from turn-of-the-century Budapest, EHandler: no quick summary.
Wigner was born in Budapest[Click link for more facts about this topic], EHandler: no quick summary.
The wigner semicircle distribution, named after the physicist eugene wigner, is the probability distribution supported on the interval [−r, r]...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/e/eu/eugene_wigner.htm   (3293 words)

  
 Eugene Wigner | Biography | atomicarchive.com
Eugene Paul Wigner was born n Budapest, Hungary, on November 17, 1902.
Sadly, she died in 1937, the same year Wigner became a naturalized citizen of the U.S. Princeton invited Wigner back based on his reputation as a superb young physicist, and he accepted, rejoining the Princeton faculty in the fall of 1938.
With the discovery of fission, Wigner began working with Enrico Fermi on the problem of determining whether a fission-induced chain reaction was possible.
www.atomicarchive.com /Bios/Wigner.shtml   (466 words)

  
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Wigner was certainly well aware that there was a positive void coefficient in a water cooled reactor - boiling of water in a channel would increase the reactivity - and the report has a whole paragraph showing how the water reduced the reactivity constant from 1.10 to 1.07.
Eugene rejected the projections, which were common in the early 1970s, that US energy use would continue to double every 10 years as it had in the recent past.
Eugene explained to me his reasons: firstly to be again with his old friend Gregory, but also to catch up on the developments in a field in which he had an interest very early.
www.physics.harvard.edu /~wilson/publications/ppaper848.html   (3181 words)

  
 Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner was born on November 17, 1902, in Budapest, Hungary.
Wigner was sorry to see atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; nevertheless, he remained a defender of the U.S. military.
In 1963, Wigner received the Nobel Prize in Physics, along with Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen, for their contribution to the theory of the atomic nucleus and its particles.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/biography/wigner.html   (345 words)

  
 Paul Wigner   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Paul Wigner was born into a Jewish family in Hungary in 1902.
Wigner emigrated to the United States in 1930 where he became professor of theoretical physics.
Wigner, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Maria Goeppert Mayer and Hans Jensen in 1963, remained at Princeton until 1971.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /SCwigner.htm   (301 words)

  
 Eugene Wigner and Fundamental Symmetry Principles
"[Eugene P.] Wigner's great contribution to science, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, was his insight into the fundamental mathematics and physics of quantum mechanics.
Wigner also played a prominent role in the effort to develop the atomic bomb and, later, to harness that same force to produce energy.
He was one of the handful of scientists who witnessed the birth of the atomic age on Dec. 2 of that year when, in a squash court underneath the west stand of Staff Field, Enrico Fermi lit the first atomic fire, a crucial step toward the completion of the atomic bomb in 1945.
www.osti.gov /accomplishments/wigner.html   (622 words)

  
 Remembering Eugene Wigner and pondering his legacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Although Wigner's book was confined to atomic spectroscopy, he authored group-theory papers also on molecular spectra, solid state, nuclear physics and the infinite unitary representations of the Lorentz group.
Wigner was and remained ambivalent as to this issue, but we can filter out two inconsistent lines within his argument and examine the condition under which they could be reconciled with each other.
Wigner sees that the superior qualities of QM are unaffected by the flaws of its foundations.
www.europhysicsnews.com /full/20/article5/article5.html   (3784 words)

  
 Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Auditorium at ORNL renamed to honor Eugene P. Wigner
Wigner won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his work in the fundamental mathematics and physics of quantum mechanics.
Wigner, who emigrated to the United States in 1930, applied and extended the mathematical theory of groups to the quantum world of the atom, using group theory to organize the quantum energy levels of electrons in atoms.
Wigner left Oak Ridge in 1947; however, he returned in 1953 and spent six months on Project HOPE, an attempt to design a radiochemical plant that would economically reprocess spent fuel elements.
www.ornl.gov /ornlhome/print/press_release_print.cfm?ReleaseNumber=mr19960111-01   (519 words)

  
 The Wigner Medal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Wigner Medal was established in 1977/8 and was awarded for the first time at the Integrative Conference on Group Theory and Mathematical Physics (7th International Group Theory Colloquium 1978) to Eugene P. Wigner and Valentine Bargmann.
The purpose of the Wigner Medal is to recognize outstanding contributions to the understanding of physics through group theory.
The Wigner Medal is awarded for "outstanding contributions to the understanding of physics through group theory." The awardee is chosen by an international selection committee whose members are elected by the Board of Trustees of the Foundation and by the Standing Committee of the International Group Theory Colloquium.
www.ph.utexas.edu /~bohmwww/wigner   (439 words)

  
 Homage to Emmy Noether   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Wigner’s Nobel Prize was “for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles.”  
Wigner received the inspiration to look for regularities in nature from his mentor in his doctoral studies in Berlin, Michael Polanyi.
Wigner was not only an excellent pupil; he became an outstanding mentor himself.
www.physics.umd.edu /robot/wigner/hargittai.htm   (6139 words)

  
 Eugene P. Wigner: Is Mankind Bright Enough to Survive? - John Potjewyd
Wigner is the Thomas D. Jones Emeritus Professor of Mathematical Physics at Princeton University.
It was Wigner, together with his high school friend, John von Neumann, who first brought quantum theory to Princeton in 1930.
Having recently celebrated his 83rd birthday, Wigner remains fit and active, although he readily admits that he can no longer keep up with all of physics and the eighty-four journals which he receives.
www.worldandi.com /specialreport/1986/february/Sa10622.htm   (281 words)

  
 Wigner   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
His work then turned to applying group theory to quantum mechanics and he was working on this during (1928-30) when he lectured in Berlin.
From 1930 to 1933 Wigner spent part of the year at Princeton, part at Berlin.
Wigner's most important work was on quantum mechanics, in particular the concept of the symmetry in space and time that characterises subatomic particles.
physics.rug.ac.be /fysica/geschiedenis/Mathematicians/Wigner.html   (215 words)

  
 Eugene P. Wigner - Patents - 1959 through 1960
A principal feature of the invention is that, in the event radioactive fission products enter the coolant stream, imposed layer of hydrocarbon reduces the intense radioactivity introduced into the layer over the reactors and permits removal of the offending fuel material by personnel shielded by the uncontaminated hydrocarbon layer.
The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.
A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.
www.osti.gov /accomplishments/wignerpat3.html   (995 words)

  
 ANS : Honors and Awards : Eugene P. Wigner Reactor Physicist Award
The selection of the Eugene P. Wigner Reactor Physicist Award is determined by critical review and assessment of submitted credentials and qualifications; hence, due care should be exercised in preparation of the nomination package.
Consideration for the Eugene P. Wigner Reactor Physicist Award requires a willingness and formal acceptance on the part of the candidate to be designated as a Eugene P. Wigner Reactor Physicist.
In addition, members of the RPD Executive, Program and Goals and Planning Committees, the latter being the committee under whose purview the program has been initiated and is being conducted, are excluded as nominators of, as well as candidates for, the award during their respective terms of office.
www.ans.org /honors/va-wigner   (516 words)

  
 Wigner World   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Eugene Wigner was not only a great physicist but also a very interesting person.
We introduced each other and Eugene immediately became concerned that I may have come into contact with poison ivy that was growing nearby.
The opportunity to meet Eugene probably steered me into the nuclear power field where I worked for 27 years in Nuclear Engineering for a CT power company that owned five nuclear power stations.
www.physics.umd.edu /robot/wigner/wstory.html   (840 words)

  
 Amazon.com: The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner: Books: Eugene Paul Wigner,Andrew Szanton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Wigner's versions of key moments in the Manhattan Project and the characters of its major participants--Leslie Groves, Enrico Fermi, Edward Teller--are perhaps generous to a historical fault, especially his loyalty to Hungarian countrymen Jon von Neumann and Leo Szilard, among the period's most misunderstood and controversial scientists (at opposite ends of the atomic question).
Wigner's memory is not self-serving, only loving, and some of this surprisingly durable amiability necessarily must come from his old-country, bourgeois Jewish upbringing, evoked in burnished prose with the assistance of freelance writer Szanton, also a Hungarian-American.
Wigner, more than other contributors, brought group theory to physics, this being an abstract mathematical subject contained in what is called either modern algebra, abstract algebra or, simply, algebra.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0306443260?v=glance   (1505 words)

  
 Citebase - Eugene Paul Wigner- a tribute
This is an informative overview of Wigner's life and work, containing details not easily found elsewhere.
Then a sketch is given of Wigner's scientific contributions, divided into the categories "Structure and content of quantum mechanics", "Nuclear forces, structure and reactions", "Quantum field theory, relativistic classical and quantum mechanics", "Interpretation of quantum mechanics", and "Solid-state physics, reactor theory and technology".
Wigner's key ideas in these areas are explained briefly but effectively.
citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?id=oai:iiscePrints.OAI2:947   (223 words)

  
 Active Skim View of: Eugene Paul Wigner
Later in the 1930s, when beta-decay data and energy levels of light nuclei began to emerge, Wigner, together with Gregory Breit, Eugene Feenberg, and others, developed the supermultiplet theory8 in which spatial symmetry played a key role in the description of nuclear states.
Using ideas he had gained from von Neumann, he was able to show15 that a statistical distribution of level spacing still persisted in the midst of utter randomness.
He retained close consulting and working relations with his former colleagues at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with special emphasis on research devoted to means of providing protection to civilians in the event of nuclear war.
www.nap.edu /nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?isbn=0309060869&chap=364-388   (1260 words)

  
 Peierls Rudolf Ernst Sir 1907 Interview with Rudolph Peierls and Eugene Wigner [videorecording] / 1984. AIP ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Interview with Rudolph Peierls and Eugene Wigner [videorecording] / 1984.
Interviews of Rudolf Peierls in Oxford, England and Eugene Wigner in Princeton, NJ done in 1984 as part of Patricia Rife's dissertation research.
Wigner discusses fission and his work on the first nuclear weapons project at Los Alamos Laboratory; also his memories of Albert Einstein.
www.aip.org /history/catalog/icos/6902.html   (155 words)

  
 Amazon.com: The Collected Works of Eugene Paul Wigner, Part A: The Scientific Papers : Nuclear Energy: Books: Eugene ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Eugene Wigner is one of the very few scientists that may safely be described as creators of 20th-century physics.
In his Introduction and Annotations A.M. Weinberg surveys Wigner's contributions to nuclear-reaction physics and nuclear engineering, at the same time giving a glimpse of the early history of nuclear-reactor technology.
Wigner himself gave a lively and critical account, which is published in this volume for the first time.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0387553436?v=glance   (504 words)

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