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Topic: Evolution of societies

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 Sociocultural evolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
They developed analogies between human society and the biological organism and introduced into sociological theory such biological concepts as variation, natural selection, and inheritance—evolutionary factors resulting in the progress of societies through stages of savagery and barbarism to civilisation, by virtue of the survival of the fittest.
Although he wrote that societies over time progressed, and that progress was accomplished through competition, he stressed that the individual (rather than the collectivity) is the unit of analysis that evolves, that evolution takes place through natural selection and that it affects social as well as biological phenomenon.
The industrial society has a goal of production and trade, is decentralised, interconnected with other societies via economic relations, achieves its goals through voluntary cooperation and individual self-restraint, treats the good of individual as the highest value, regulates the social life via voluntary relations, values initiative, independence and innovation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Evolution_of_societies   (6791 words)

Since one of the consequences of technological advances is that it increases the range of options available to societies and their members, such advance leads to a greater scope for the exercise of beliefs and values.
Because technologically advanced societies have had the advantage, their characteristics have increasingly come to be characteristics of the world system as a whole.
Sociocultural evolution is the process of change and development in human societies that results from cumulative growth in their stores of cultural information.
www.fiu.edu /~grenierg/chapter3.htm   (1868 words)

 [No title]
Moreover, evolution does not consist of the wholesale transformation of a former type into an advanced one during a short period of time, but rather of the progressive increase in the frequency of a given type among all human societies (and the percentage of the world population living in that type).
Lenski has summarized his view of the evolution of social inequality in the graph shown in Figure 2, depicting the trajectories of the "freedom" enjoyed by a member of the elite and by an average member of society in the course of sociocultural evolution.
Societies of the HG and SH types are concentrated in categories 1 and 2, at the low end of the scale.
www.unc.edu /~nielsen/gl02/gl0202.doc   (6634 words)

 Resources of Scholarly Societies - Genetics & Evolution
This is one of a set of subject pages in the Scholarly Societies Project, which facilitates access to websites of scholarly societies across the world.
International Society for Evolutionary Protistology ["...taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of 'protists' - those eukaryotic organisms that cannot be placed among the green plants, multicellular animals or mycelial, nonzoosporic fungi."]
Sociedade Brasileira de Genética = Brazilian Society of Genetics [In Portuguese.]
www.scholarly-societies.org /geneticsevolution_soc.html   (367 words)

 Evolution of societies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
The concept of evolution of societies refers to the progress of a society through succesively better stages.
This concept has been very prevalent in Western societies since the Enlightenment, and is found in a number of political ideologies as diverse as Marxism, modern Gaians, Ecoregional Democracy and the new tribalists.
They use the word "society" to refer to a group with more or less clear boundaries that reproduces itself over time and is relatively autonomous (thus, a family or a football team are social groups, but not societies).
www.eurofreehost.com /ev/Evolution_of_societies.html   (266 words)

To date, anthropological studies of the evolution of societies have focused primarily on either: a) the balance of equality and inequality among hunter-gathers or, b) the development of state organizations.
My research is designed to fill a gap by focusing on small-scale sedentary societies, which occupy an intermediate position between hunter-gatherers and large-scale societies: hunter-gatherers do not have the need or means to achieve these features, and state societies have either modified or discarded them.
Evolution is not a linear process from simplicity to complexity.
www.arts.mcgill.ca /programs/anthro/faculty/rousseau.htm   (300 words)

 SOCI2000: Chapter 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
EVOLUTION: is a term refers to long-term directional patterns of change that scientists have discovered throughout the world of nature.
Technology defines the limits of what is possible for a society, and affects the choices that are made by influencing the costs of various alternatives.
Biological evolution is characterized by continued differentiation and diversification, sociocultural evolution is likely to eventuate in even fewer and less dissimilar societies than exist today.
www.nccu.edu /~huang/ch1303.htm   (841 words)

 Towards Artificial Societies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
As a matter of fact, a new cultural paradigm inherited from the theories of evolution and complexity is already growing: culture itself, aesthetics and intelligence are seen as emergent self-organizing qualities of a collectivity, evolved along time through both genetic and language evolution.
During the evolution the micro-societies characterized by straight lines are filtered because of they are not able to bypass obstacles (high coherence, low flexibility).
In the final part of the evolution, the available space is reduced, and the most suitable phenotypes are micro-societies with short paths, high reproduction rate and medium irrationality.
www.generativeart.com /2000/ANNUNZIATO.HTM   (4715 words)

 Scientific societies support teaching evolution
There are at least 70 resolutions from a broad array of scientific societies and institutions that are united on this matter.
The fundamental tenet of evolution -— descent with modification -— is accepted by the vast majority of biologists.
This Position Statement is an expression of the official position taken by the 2005 Executive Committees of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America on the issue of evolution.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-08/asoa-sss081505.php   (498 words)

 The International Association of Science and Technology for Development
This session is aimed at promoting the networking of scientists using computer simulations of societies as a tool to understand the economic and social issues underlying sustainable economic development and other relevant social, political, and economic features that emerge from the social dynamics of human society.
Klaus Jaffe is Professor at the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, researching the evolution of societies from the perspective of evolutionary biology.
After studying the evolution of societies among social insects, he extended his studies to include tools from thermodynamics and economy, expanding his interests in the last 10 years to the study of the evolution of human societies.
www.iasted.org /conferences/2005/aruba/mso-session2.htm   (201 words)

 The Moral Animal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Darwin's explanation for the evolution of cooperative societies (such as human societies) involved the concept of group selection, an idea that has survived in various forms since he first proposed it in 1859.
If a brave man lived in a society of cowards, the reward for his solitary bravery is likely to be death.
In a primitive society, this might take the form of group hunting, where large animals like mastodons and giant bison can be captured as a group, but are impossible to kill by any one individual.
www.sp.uconn.edu /~bi102vc/102su04/evolpsych2.html   (1656 words)

 Learned Societies and the Evolution of the Disciplines (ACLS Occasional Paper No. 5)
In addressing the problem and trying to shape the direction of change, the learned society must guard against becoming so protective of its organizational territory as to become an end unto itself, thus abandoning its proper role as the means for achieving the expressed needs and desires of its disciplinary practitioners.
But as each society pursues its role of disciplinary core and boundary definition, in an age of interdisciplinary thought and communication, it runs the risk of becoming overly defensive in warding off the perceived encroachment of other disciplines.
While clearly many members of a society are drawn from outside academia, it is the university that serves as training ground for entry into the discipline, and as breeding place and home base of its intellectual leadership.
www.acls.org /op5.htm   (2169 words)

 Evolution of governed human societies
As with the evolution of tribal societies, some systems of myths and religious beliefs were better at underpinning effective external management, and they were favoured in competition between societies.
As externally-managed human societies increased in scale, producing cooperative organisations of peoples from a number of tribal and ethnic backgrounds, the religions that survived and flourished were those that were more inclusive, and did not preach hatred and aggression against others of different ethnicity.
Whenever external competitive pressures are weaker, the alignment of interests between the ruler and the society is lessened, and the pursuit by the ruler of his interests may be inconsistent with the interests of the society.
users.tpg.com.au /users/jes999/15.htm   (6466 words)

 Human evolution bibliography
Kohne, D. E., Chiscon, J. A., and Hoyer, B. H., 1972, Evolution of primate DNA sequences: Journal of Human Evolution, v.
Oxnard, C. E., 1973, Form and Pattern in Human Evolution: Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press, 218 p.
Sibley, C., and Ahlquist, J., 1984, The phylogeny of the homonid primates as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization: Journal of Molecular Evolution, v.
www.talkorigins.org /origins/biblio/human_evolution.html   (887 words)

 Human Evolution
European Sociobiological Society (ESS) Welcome to the website of the ESS The European Sociobiological Society has the objective of serving as a forum for the study of the role of biological factors in the behaviour of animals and man, with special emphasis on
Human Evolution Education Network Bibliographies When teachers call the National Center for Science Education, one of their favorite questions is, "Can you recommend some good books about evolution for me to use in class?" The answer isn't always
Primate Evolution An Anthropology Curriculum for Human Prehistory (University of Washington, Dept. of Anthropology).
home1.gte.net /ericjw1/humanevolution.html   (972 words)

 Learned Societies and the Evolution of the Disciplines (ACLS Occasional Paper No. 5)
Boas, who had been dismayed by his experience in mixed societies in which “the lay members largely outnumber the scientific contributors,” and who was engaged in building an academic anthropology that would provide a rigor analogous to that of his own academic training in physics, favored an “exclusive” principle.
Echoing Boas’ fears of amateur dominance, these younger anthropologists were fearful that the rise of alternative organizations would reduce the Association to an organization of ethnologists, unable to “pull its weight” with the various interdisciplinary research councils, or adequately to “promote anthropology”; in the national science legislation that was then already on the horizon.
In 1945, an attempt was made to found an “American Society of Professional Anthropologists” that could mobilize the resources of the profession for a wide range of both internally and externally oriented activities—in contrast to the Association, which, save for its publication work, was largely dormant between annual meetings.
www.acls.org /op5stock.htm   (1718 words)

 Evolution Symposium
The presentations, which begin Jan. 14, are funded by the College of Arts and Sciences, the Honors Program, the Institute of Ecology and the departments of genetics, botany, anthropology and entomology at UGA.
"The main theme of this year’s symposium is the evolution of sex and mating systems," said Daniel Promislow, an assistant professor of genetics at UGA and an organizer of the event.
"Evolution of Wolbachia: A Widespread Group of Bacteria That Affect Reproduction in Invertebrates." Werren does research into the evolution and ecology of heritable microorganisms and the evolution of parasitic DNA, as well as other areas.
www.uga.edu /news/newsbureau/releases/1999releases/evolvsypm.html   (356 words)

 AISB Symposium: Emerging artificial societies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
AISB The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour
Human societies are self-organising and probably emerged in parallel with the evolution of language and development of cultural artefacts.
The main goal of the project is to realize an evolving artificial society capable of exploring the environment and developing its own image of this environment and the society through cooperation and interaction.
www.soc.surrey.ac.uk /newties/emerging-art-soc.html   (656 words)

 Encyclopedia: Evolution of societies
People who viewed "Evolution of societies" also viewed:
Updated 256 days 6 hours 16 minutes ago.
In this sense, it is the cultural equivalent of biological evolution, though the mechanisms invoked can be different.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Evolution-of-societies   (2161 words)

 soci011 - module 7 (hs3) - evolution of human societies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
in Human Societies is that elements of culture (similar to memes) may be selected to the extent that they differentially affect the survival of individuals in society (intrasocietal selection), or the survival of whole societies (intersocietal selection).
NOTE: intersocietal selection does not always entail the physical elimination of the members of the society that is being selected against, but it often has had this consequence in the course of history (as result of disease, encroachment, or outright genocide).
Q - In sociocultural evolution selection operates at two levels, which are ___ and ____ ?
www.unc.edu /~nielsen/soci011/hs3/hs3.htm   (1371 words)

 Macaque Societies - A Model for the Study of Social Organization
In order to understand how they have evolved, it is necessary to investigate each of the constituent facets including individual abilities and personalities, life-history traits, mating systems, demographic dynamics, gene flows, social relationships, ecology and phylogeny.
By exploring the nature and evolution of macaque social organisation, this book develops our knowledge of the rise of societies and their transformation during the course of evolution.
Macaques are the most comprehensively studied of all monkey groups, and the 20 known species feature a broad diversity in their social relationships making them a particularly good group for exploring the evolution of societies.
www.cplbookshop.com /contents/C1750.htm   (356 words)

 New tribalists -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Almost all are very sympathetic to the situation of (Click link for more info and facts about indigenous peoples) indigenous peoples, and admire their cultures to varying degrees.
Many of these scholars, in the Rousseauian tradition, prefer these societies to European societies of the same period (possibly due to the self-selection of these same historians but just as possibly due to a relatively deep need for stable social support beyond the family).
Other scholars criticize this attitude as a form of romanticism that distorts the cultures and situations of (Click link for more info and facts about indigenous peoples) indigenous peoples.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/n/ne/new_tribalists.htm   (434 words)

 Male Susceptibility To Disease May Play Role In Evolution Of Insect Societies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Among behaviors possibly affected are the division of labor between males and females and the relative social isolation experienced by males in many social insect colonies.
The sick-male theory proposes that female-biased societies, and differences in male and female behavior, may be responses to higher risks of infection to males, he said.
The theory also predicts that in some cases males may be segregated or shunned inside the nest, again to reduce the colony's potential exposure to disease.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2004/05/040524055955.htm   (860 words)

 NSDI and IT Evolution
While developed societies could utilized high levels of ICT benefits having the required development background, developing societies are facing by lack of such an infrastructure [1,2,17].
Besides, the universality of illustrated trends and processes in all societies, the innovational nature of ICT is important too as it necessitates existence of especial economical, social and political backgrounds in different levels of societies for ICT diffusion [6,17].
Reviewing the evolution of information societies and their organizing activities, ICT is being affected considerably in such a process as one of the dynamic and innovational components of SDI and a sustainable development enabler [6,16].
www.gisdevelopment.net /application/miscellaneous/ma03077pf.htm   (2726 words)

In most societies, life changed very little from one generation to the next
This is not a contradiction because almost all of the societies that have survived have been that small minority that have changed and changed greatly
The trait that continues has been selected "for" while the one that is abandoned is selected "against" or becomes extinct.
falcon.tamucc.edu /~pmeyer/week3.htm   (357 words)

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