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Topic: Evolutionary

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  Evolutionary biology - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e.
Evolutionary biology is a kind of meta field because it includes scientists from many traditional taxonomically-oriented disciplines.
Evolutionary biology as an academic discipline in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /evolutionary_biology.htm   (490 words)

 Evolutionary Epistemology
Evolutionary Epistemology is a naturalistic approach to epistemology, which emphasizes the importance of natural selection in two primary roles.
Evolutionary epistemology is the attempt to address questions in the theory of knowledge from an evolutionary point of view.
Evolutionary epistemology involves, in part, deploying models and metaphors drawn from evolutionary biology in the attempt to characterize and resolve issues arising in epistemology and conceptual change.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/epistemology-evolutionary   (5443 words)

 Evolutionary Psychology FAQ
This FAQ is written and maintained by Edward Hagen, formerly of the Center for Evolutionary Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, and now at the Institute for Theoretical Biology in Berlin.
Its purpose is to outline the foundations of evolutionary psychology.
Sullivan RJ and Hagen EH (2002) Psychotropic substance-seeking: evolutionary pathology or adaptation?
www.anth.ucsb.edu /projects/human/evpsychfaq.html   (502 words)

 Evolutionary Game Theory
Since evolutionary game theory successfully explains the predominance of certain behaviors of insects and animals, where strong rationality assumptions clearly fail, this suggests that rationality is not as central to game theoretic analyses as previously thought.
Yet we rarely need an evolutionary game theoretic model to identify a particular social phenomenon as stable or persistent as that can be done by observation of present conditions and examination of the historical records; hence the charge of irrelevancy is raised again.
Evolutionary explanations of social norms have the virtue of making their value commitments explicit and also of showing how other normative commitments (such as fair division in certain bargaining situations, or cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma) may be derived from the principled action of boundedly rational, self-interested agents.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/game-evolutionary   (7277 words)

 Evolutionary Psychology Primer by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby
Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology, in which knowledge and principles from evolutionary biology are put to use in research on the structure of the human mind.
Evolutionary psychology can be thought of as the application of adaptationist logic to the study of the architecture of the human mind.
Evolutionary biologists figure out what adaptive problems a given species encountered during its evolutionary history, and then ask themselves, "What would a machine capable of solving these problems well under ancestral conditions look like?" Against this background, they empically explore the design features of the evolved machines that, taken together, comprise an organism.
www.psych.ucsb.edu /research/cep/primer.html   (13222 words)

 Introduction to Evolutionary Biology
Fitness, in an evolutionary sense, is the average reproductive output of a class of genetic variants in a gene pool.
Evolutionary biologists say this indicates that all mammals are modified descendants of a common ancestor which had the same set of bones.
Thus most evolutionary changes in development are expected to take place at the periphery of development, or in early aspects of development that have no later repercussions.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/faq-intro-to-biology.html   (15764 words)

 Evolutionary Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Evolutionary ethics tries to bridge the gap between philosophy and the natural sciences by arguing that natural selection has instilled human beings with a moral sense, a disposition to be good.
The standard as defended by evolutionary ethics would be something like "Actions that increase the long-term capacity of survival in evolutionary terms are good and actions that decrease this capacity are bad." However, the field has not yet established itself credibly in normative ethics.
Could not human beings have moved beyond their biological roots and transcended their evolutionary origins, in which case they would be able to formulate goals in the pursuit of goodness, beauty, and truth that "have nothing to do directly with survival, and which may at times militate against survival?" (O'Hear, 1997: 203).
www.iep.utm.edu /e/evol-eth.htm   (3039 words)

 Evolutionary Logic: Dembski, William A.
In evolutionary logic we relax both these restrictions: an evolutionary claim is true provided there is an evolutionary argument that supports it.
Instructors in evolutionary biology find that evolutionary logic enables them to make complex ideas readily accessible to students regardless of their preparation or background (indeed, proficiency in evolutionary logic has been shown to be positively correlated with high self-esteem).
In this respect evolutionary logic has a further advantage, namely, the results are not required to be true, thus eliminating a tiresome (and now superfluous) restriction on the growth of evolutionary knowledge.
www.arn.org /docs/dembski/wd_evolutionary_logic.htm   (1139 words)

 What is Evolutionary Psycholgy?
Evolutionary psychology is the approach of explaining human behavior based on the combination of evolutionary biology, anthropology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences.
Evolutionary psychology is not a specific sub field of psychology, such as the study of vision, reasoning, or social behavior.
Evolutionary psychology is the science that seeks to explain through universal mechanisms of behavior why humans act the way they do (See, Assumptions About EP to Help Guide You).
www.evoyage.com /Whatis.html   (3846 words)

 Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary psychology claims that natural selection in the "environment of evolutionary adaptation" led to inherited psychological mechanisms which are modular, specific, and numerous.
In sum, evolutionary psychology postulates that the mind/brain mechanisms that collectively constitute human nature were designed by natural selection in the environment of evolutionary adaptation and must be described as solutions to specific cognitive problems in that environment.
Evolutionary psychology now directly challenges the scientific integrity of the Standard Social Science Model by claiming that culture is the manufactured product of evolved psychological mechanisms situated in individuals living in groups.
www.asa3.org /ASA/topics/Evolution/PSCF9-98Zimmer.html   (5439 words)

 Great Ideas in Personality--Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary psychology is an evolutionary approach to human nature.
Sociobiology (of which evolutionary psychology is a subfield that particularly concerns humans) can be thought of as having, like any research program, a "hard core" of problem solving strategies that provide possible answers to vexing research questions, and a "protective belt" of promising research questions to be addressed by providing actual answers to these questions.
This paper claims that evolutionary psychology represents an improvement over its forerunner, sociobiology, in that evolutionary psychology does not foreswear the mental, and does not aim to map human nature.
www.personalityresearch.org /evolutionary.html   (1043 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Social Sciences: Psychology: Evolutionary Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Evolutionary Psychology: An Emerging Integrative Perspective within the Science and Practice of Psychology - A article on the theory and implications of this theory by Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair.
Evolutionary Psychology Challenges the Current Social Sciences - This article attempts to describe evolutionary psychology and the challenge it poses to traditional social science, and then discusses opportunities evolutionary psychology opens for Christian apologetics.
Evolutionary Psychology Primer by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby - An invaluable primer written by two of the founders of the field.
dmoz.org /Science/Social_Sciences/Psychology/Evolutionary_Psychology   (1803 words)

 Chapter 11 Plant and Animal Species Part 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
It has been said that the foundations of evolutionary theory were laid by the work of *Charles Darwin (1809-1882), but that the principles which Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) discovered, as he worked with garden peas at about the same time that Darwin was writing his book, were the means of abolishing that theory.
If the leading authorities on population genetics confess to this dismal lack of achievement and even chuckle about it, it is altogether fitting and proper for the rank and file to take them at their word.
Evolutionary dogma states that nothing was alive on Planet Earth over 2 billion years ago, and that all the evolving of life-forms has occurred within that brief time span.
www.evolution-facts.org /Ev-Crunch/c11.htm   (9550 words)

 Evolutionary Psychology
The focus of evolutionary psychology has been most clearly defined by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, two researchers currently at UC Santa Barbara.
Evolutionary psychologists (EP) are interested in studying the evolved cognitive structure of the mind.
Evolutionary psychologists are interested in studying psychological mechanisms that are universal, hence having little or no genetic differences among individuals.
www.sfu.ca /~janicki/defn.htm   (794 words)

 Genetic Algorithms - Evolutionary Algorithms
We are glad to welcome you to Evolutionary Computing and Genetic algorithms that define Complexity, the next century science.
Evolutionary computing depends on Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest.
Evolutionary Algorithms major difference with other similar algorithms is that they evolve from population of solutions not from a single source of point.
www.evolutionary-algorithms.com   (166 words)

 evolutionary economics
Evolutionary theory explains the evidence and suggests that economies grow faster when there is diverse participation, competitive survival and replication of success.
Evolutionary economics is a way of thinking, analysis cannot prove what are unknowable 'causes' of the immense complexity of economic growth.
Evolutionary economic concepts are not difficult but 'the penny has to drop'.
www.meister.u-net.com /economics/evolutionary_economics.htm   (1738 words)

 SAGE Publications - Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Development   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Development, Second Edition considers the role of evolutionary theory in the field of developmental psychology to examine important topics of individual human development.
This diverse group of contributors illustrates the enormous power of evolutionary theory by elucidating human behavior and its development and the various ways it is manifested in different environments.
Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Development applies evolutionary theory to such topics as parent-child relationships, the maltreatment of children, psychopathology, cooperation and competition among siblings, and the acquisition of vital resources in different cultural settings from an evolutionary point of view.
www.sagepub.com /book.aspx?pid=10161   (523 words)

 Evolutionary Ethics
Evolutionary Theory and the Foundation of Moral Principles by Bart Voorzanger
Evolutionary Ethics and the Problems of Altruism by Russell A Jacobs.
Notes:: evolutionary ethics, A theory of ethical evolution, A theory od genetics and ethics, Additions to the text by Sarah Bromberg April 18, 2004 at 12:48 PM Send this version out for editing.
www.evolutionaryethics.com   (4477 words)

 Evolutionary Psychology
From an evolutionary perspective, this is a significant limitation in the psychological adaptability of humans.
They will see that they are located in a sequence that has the potential to move from an organism that is organised by evolution to pursue proxies for evolutionary success, to an organism that uses mental modelling to consciously identify and implement whatever actions will contribute most to the evolutionary success of the species.
An individual will be more likely to adopt evolutionary objectives once she can mentally model (and therefore understand) the past psychological evolution of humanity, and the future possibilities.
www4.tpg.com.au /users/jes999/evpsy.htm   (7822 words)

 Evolutionary Psychology [Editor Ian Pitchford PhD, CBiol, MIBiol]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Evolutionary Psychology is an open-access peer-reviewed journal that aims to foster communication between experimental and theoretical work on the one hand and historical, conceptual and interdisciplinary writings across the whole range of the biological and human sciences on the other.
Further, performance was modulated by activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for males and the middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus for females.
Here we present indirect evidence that in a significant proportion of human reproductive couples, the partners show much higher facial resemblances than can be expected by random pair formation, or as the outcome of "matching for attractiveness" or the outcome of competition for the most attractive partner accessible, as had been previously assumed.
human-nature.com /ep   (3208 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Evolutionary Biology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Previous editions of Evolutionary Biology, widely used and translated into five other languages, were praised for their broad scope, synthetic overview, and even-handed treatment of controversial topics.
After introducing the historical, ecological, and genetic foundations of evolutionary study, the text progresses from the history of evolution as inferred from phylogeny and paleobiology, through the genetic mechanisms of evolutionary change and speciation, to the large, challenging themes of macroevolution, the evolution of diversity, and human evolution.
As a teacher and an Evolutionary Biologist, it's disappointing that there aren't many textbooks or scholarly works, particularly in the field of evolution, that are both accessible and scientifically rigorous.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0878931899?v=glance   (1726 words)

 Evolutionary-Leadership.com : Evolutionary Leadership
Evolutionary leadership is a field of practice focused on:
Evolutionary Leadership Action Network (ELAN) is a community of people passionate about evolving that practice, in their own work and together.
ELAN offers to be a catalyst of the wider evolutionary movement and its self-organisation, by providing educational and networking opportunities.
www.evolutionary-leadership.com   (347 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Biology: Ecology: Evolutionary Ecology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Evolution and Diversité Biologique laboratory - The Evolution and Diversité Biologique is a joint Research laboratory between CNRS and the Toulouse University Paul Sabatier.
Evolutionary Ecology Research - A scientific journal which has some sample readings available.
Human Evolutionary Ecology Group - Research group convened by Ruth Mace at University College London studying human behaviour and life history as adaptations to local environments.
dmoz.org /Science/Biology/Ecology/Evolutionary_Ecology   (412 words)

 Area of Study: Evolutionary Biology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Evolutionary biology is the study of patterns and processes of evolution.
Evolutionary biology helps explain the diversity of life.
Some evolutionary biologists spend a large part of their time conducting field research.
www.iseek.org /sv/22030.jsp?id=140704   (418 words)

 SPECIAL SESSION ON   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
It covers all topics in evolutionary computation: from combinatorial to numerical optimization, from supervised to unsupervised learning, from co-evolution to collective behaviors, from evolutionary design to evolvable hardware, from molecular to quantum computing, from ant colony to artificial ecology, etc.
Techniques taken from the field of Evolutionary Computation (specially Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming, but also others) are steadily becoming more and more present in the area of computer security, both in network/host security and in the very demanding area of cryptology.
There is a growing interest from the computer security community toward Evolutionary Computation techniques, as a result of these recent successes, but there still are a number of open problems in the field that should be addressed.
tracer.uc3m.es /CFP-SS-CEC2003.html   (412 words)

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