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Topic: Exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey


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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  
 History of Turkey & Anatolia
However, responsibility for the huge exchange of Christian and Muslim populations between Turkey and Greece is also shared by the Allies and Greece, who also signed the Second Treaty of Versailles in 1922.
Kurds in Turkey are virtually all Muslims and physically appear no different than Turks, but maintain their own Kurdish language, culture, and traditions.
Kurdish feudal lords currently have de facto control over Southeast Turkey: 80% of land is owned by 5% of the population, and 50% of the Kurds own no land.
www.photoseek.com /Turkhist.html   (3027 words)

  
 Foreign & Commonwealth Office Country Profiles
The simultaneous agreement that Turkey and Greece should exchange their respective minority populations added some 1.3 million near-destitute refugees to an existing Greek population of only 5 million, and exacerbated Greece’s economic problems.
Greece shares borders to the east with Turkey and to the north with the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Bulgaria and Albania.
In 1947 the USA had pledged itself under the Truman doctrine to support Greek economic reconstruction, and to prevent Greece from passing under the control of the Soviet Union.
www.fco.gov.uk /servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1019061809946   (3027 words)

  
 Report
Only Pomaks in Thrace were exempted from this mandatory exchange of populations and stayed in Greece: they subsequently were among the most stringent opponents of the Kemalist reforms in Turkey, and therefore of the links between the Muslim minority in Thrace and the secular Turkish state.
After 1923, Pomaks who lived in Greece outside Thrace had to resettle in Turkey because they were exchanged as Muslims in accordance with the Treaty of Lausanne.
The Muslims of Thrace were officially recognized as a minority, and had the rights to education in their own languages and to religious freedom.
www.greekhelsinki.gr /english/reports/pomaks.html   (3027 words)

  
 Greek Thrace Minorities
In a massive transfer of populations after World War I, Muslims living in Greece moved to Turkey and Christians in Turkey went to Greece.
In exchange for the patriarchate of the Orthodox Church remaining in Istanbul where it had always been, a deal was struck to spare two communities from this transfer: Christians living in Istanbul and Muslims are mostly Turks, but they also include some Pomaks (Bulgarian-speaking Muslims) and Gypsies.
Despite this, conditions in Western Thrace deteriorated further after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the economic squeeze was stepped up in 1979 with the virtual expropriation of waqf lands.
www.armory.com /~thrace/islamic.htm   (3027 words)

  
 A Candid Conversation, Part 2 (Boris Shusteff) August, 2001
The exchange of population should be carried out in the same way that Turkey and Greece exchanged their populations.
One of the most well-known population exchanges took place between India and Pakistan in the1950's, when 8,500,000 Sikhs and Hindus from Pakistan fled to India and almost 6,500,000 Muslims moved from India to Pakistan.
The exchange of populations that begun in 1948 – artificially interrupted by Israeli leaders who tried to keep Arabs inside the Jewish state - must resume.
www.freeman.org /m_online/aug01/shusteff3.htm   (3027 words)

  
 Traditional Music in Greece
It was also played in what is now Turkey, in the regions of Kappadokia (often spelled Cappadocia) and the Black Sea region (Pontos) where Greeks lived for many centuries before they were evicted from the new Turkish state in 1922/3 in what is euphemistically called the 'exchange of populations'.
The various tsambounas (and related flutes and pipes) have been played on the islands of Greece for at least a millenium, some of them in what is now Turkey.
In '93 I travelled alone to six Greek islands with a list of musicians--a list given to me by a Greek-American woman who had assisted Simon Karas with the 30-or- more recordings he made of musicians in every region of Greece during the 1960s and 70s.
www.greecetravel.com /music/traditional.html   (3417 words)

  
 Greek and Turkish refugees and deportees 1912-1924
It was in this context and against this historical background that the decision was taken to exchange minority populations between Turkey and Greece.
In other words: the population exchange was seen as an integral part of the nation-building process and the fact that the homogenisation of Anatolia also meant that the precious skills of an entire commercial and industrial middle class had been lost, was seen as a price that had to be paid for full independence.
The fact that the Macedonian deportees were only one among many groups of immigrants and that it concerned a relatively small community (3 percent of the population) in a very large and very empty country, has meant that there has been little interest, either scholarly or popular, in the population exchange.
www.let.leidenuniv.nl /tcimo/tulp/Research/ejz18.htm   (3417 words)

  
 Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey
Since 1920 he is the President of the Committee for the exchange of the Greek and Turkish Populations.
He started out as a Professor, later became Prefect of the county, then Inspector of the Ministry; and he was a Member of Parliament until 1929.
They have been successful to accomplishing the very great task to settle about one million and a half of refugees over the whole Greek territory.
www.dreyblatt.de /whoswho/PopulationExchangebetw.HTML   (3417 words)

  
 A Detailed Chronology of Greek History
Convention signed by Greece and Turkey for the compulsory exchange of minority populations except the Turks in western Thrace and the 100,000 Greeks in Constantinople.
Gives Greece eastern Thrace, the islands of Tenedos and Imbros and administration of the Smyrna district that stays under Turkish sovereignty for five years.
Greece homogenous in population except for 6000 Muslims in Thessaly(Campbell and Sherrard, p143)
www.filetron.com /grkmanual/detailgreekchrono.html   (3417 words)

  
 History of Greece
In a forced exchange of populations, more than 1.3 million Christian refugees from Turkey poured into Greece, creating enormous challenges for the Greek economy and society.
From 1952 to late 1963, Greece was governed by conservative parties--the Greek Rally of Marshal Alexandros Papagos and its successor, the National Radical Union (ERE) of Constantine Karamanlis.
Greece was proclaimed a republic in 1924, but George II returned to the throne in 1935.
www.historyofnations.net /europe/greece.html   (976 words)

  
 A short history of Greece
In a forced exchange of populations, more than 1.3 million Christian refugees from Turkey pour into Greece, creating enormous challenges for the Greek economy and society.
In the upcoming centuries Greece is dominated by wars between Athens and Sparta and between these cities and Persia.
In 197 BC Greece liberates itself from Macedon, but in 146 BC Greece becomes the Egian province of the Roman Empire.
www.electionworld.org /history/greece.htm   (1095 words)

  
 greeceE_2003.rtf
For example, while it is certain that many Christian Roma were sent to Greece during the 1923 exchange of populations between Greece a nd Turkey,}{\fs11\up6\insrsid11609289 58}{\fs20\insrsid11609289 accurate information as to their number, origin and details of their settlement in Greece is not available.
By claiming that the massive and often violent police and municipal actions in places where Roma live are only \'93cleaning operations\'94, authorities in Greece assuage a racist popular opinion into the comfortable view that such actions are harmless.
Hate speech undercurrents have appeared in the recent past in both national and local newspapers.}{\fs11\up6\insrsid11609289 28}{\fs20\insrsid11609289 \par \par Notwithstanding the high levels of hate speech against minorities and migra nts that mire public discourse in Greece, however, the authorities have taken no action to condemn racist statements.
www.greekhelsinki.gr /bhr/english/organizations/ghm/greeceE_2003.rtf   (1095 words)

  
 A Detailed Chronology of Greek History
Convention signed by Greece and Turkey for the compulsory exchange of minority populations except the Turks in western Thrace and the 100,000 Greeks in Constantinople.
Gives Greece eastern Thrace, the islands of Tenedos and Imbros and administration of the Smyrna district that stays under Turkish sovereignty for five years.
Greece mobilizes 250,000 troops, loses 6,000 dead and 25,000 wounded before peace is declared in November
www.filetron.com /grkmanual/detailgreekchrono.html   (9764 words)

  
 A Detailed Chronology of Greek History
Convention signed by Greece and Turkey for the compulsory exchange of minority populations except the Turks in western Thrace and the 100,000 Greeks in Constantinople.
Gives Greece eastern Thrace, the islands of Tenedos and Imbros and administration of the Smyrna district that stays under Turkish sovereignty for five years.
Greece homogenous in population except for 6000 Muslims in Thessaly(Campbell and Sherrard, p143)
www.filetron.com /grkmanual/detailgreekchrono.html   (9764 words)

  
 A Detailed Chronology of Greek History
Convention signed by Greece and Turkey for the compulsory exchange of minority populations except the Turks in western Thrace and the 100,000 Greeks in Constantinople.
Gives Greece eastern Thrace, the islands of Tenedos and Imbros and administration of the Smyrna district that stays under Turkish sovereignty for five years.
Greece homogenous in population except for 6000 Muslims in Thessaly(Campbell and Sherrard, p143)
www.filetron.com /grkmanual/detailgreekchrono.html   (9764 words)

  
 A Detailed Chronology of Greek History
Convention signed by Greece and Turkey for the compulsory exchange of minority populations except the Turks in western Thrace and the 100,000 Greeks in Constantinople.
Gives Greece eastern Thrace, the islands of Tenedos and Imbros and administration of the Smyrna district that stays under Turkish sovereignty for five years.
Greece homogenous in population except for 6000 Muslims in Thessaly(Campbell and Sherrard, p143)
www.filetron.com /grkmanual/detailgreekchrono.html   (9764 words)

  
 A Detailed Chronology of Greek History
Convention signed by Greece and Turkey for the compulsory exchange of minority populations except the Turks in western Thrace and the 100,000 Greeks in Constantinople.
Ottomans capture Thessaloniki and Athens and besiege Constantinople but do not win her; proceeding to Peloponese where "thirty thousand Greeks were removed thence by Bayezid's order, and transported to Asia: and Turkoman and Tartar colonies were settled in their staid in the classic regions of Lakonia, Messinia, Achaia, Argolis and Ellis"
The following is a 28-page historical chronology of Greek history and is intended as a tool for quick historical reference for both the novice and student of Greek culture.
www.filetron.com /grkmanual/detailgreekchrono.html   (9764 words)

  
 Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits, 24 July 1923
Subject to the provisions of Articles 9 and l0 of the present Convention, the rights of property and monetary assets of Greeks in Turkey or Moslems in Greece shall not be prejudiced in consequence of the exchange to be carried out under the present Convention
Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations,
All able-bodied men belonging to the Greek population, whose families have already left Turkish territory, and who are now detained in Turkey, shall constitute the first instalment of Greeks sent to Greece in accordance with the present Convention.
www.lib.byu.edu /~rdh/wwi/1918p/straits.html   (9764 words)

  
 Written statement submitted by the International
It is known that the population exchange according to the Lausanne Treaty (1923) between Greece and Turkey was defined on the basis of religion and not on the basis of the ethnic identity of the populations of both sides.
Even though the islamized Pontians of Pontos were for decades deprived of the right to communicate with the Pontians of Greece and of the countries of the ex-Soviet Union, and even though they suffered, for decades systematic policies of disarticulation of their communities, they continue to insist on their particular Pontian identity.
Under this agenda item, the International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples (LIDLIP) would like to bring before the Commission on Human Rights the case of the Pontians, living in the historic region of Pontos, from Sinope (Sinop) to Trapezous (Trabzon) now in Turkey.
www.unhchr.ch /Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.2002.ngo.30.En   (9764 words)

  
 Peel Commission of 1936-1937
The Peel report suggested that in the last resort, "the exchange would be made compulsory." The precedent cited was the Convention of Lausanne (1923), which provided, on paper, international legal sanction for the compulsory exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey.
With regard to partition, the Peel Commission advised that "the most strenuous effort should be made to obtain an agreement for the exchange of land and population" following Churchill's perceptive comment that the implementation of Zionism presumed a policy of population transfer.
In their Report of July of 1937, the Peel Commission attributed the underlying cause of the Arab revolt to the desire of the Arabs for national independence and their hatred and fear of the establishment of a National Jewish Home.
www.palestinefacts.org /pf_mandate_peel.php   (292 words)

  
 ANN/Groong -- The Lausanne Treaty - 07/24/1923
The separate Convention concluded on the 30th January, 1923, between Greece and Turkey, relating to the exchange of the Greek and Turkish populations, will have as between these two High Contracting Parties the same force and effect as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
Turkey undertakes to respect entirely the right of the sanitary employees whose services have been terminated to compensation to be appropriated out of the funds of the former Superior Council of Health of Constantinople, and all other rights acquired by employees or former employees of the Council, or their representatives.
The separate Convention signed this day respecting the regime for the frontier described in Article 2 of the present Treaty will have equal force and effect in so far as the present High Contracting Parties are concerned as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
groong.usc.edu /treaties/lausanne.html   (292 words)

  
 INTERWAR [FOREIGN POLICY]
The contacts between the governments of Greece and Turkey, in order to raise the impasse to which their relations have come to after the bloody events of 1920-22, finally bore fruit in 1930.
The terms of the convention were clearly advantageous for Turkey and for this reason they met with the reservations of some of the Greek side.
Negotiation contacts were gratified with the signing of the convention, providing for the resolution of bilateral disputes regarding the exchange of populations.
www.fhw.gr /chronos/14/en/1923_1940/foreign_policy/institutions/06.html   (292 words)

  
 Article of the Month
They were forced to leave their homes during the 1919-1922 Greco-Turkish War, which triggered a massive populations exchange of thousands, with Christians moving to Greece and Muslims moving to Turkey.
George was raised in the Greek town of Thessaloniki, hometown of Turkish nationalist leader Kemal Ataturk, who helped bring down the Ottoman Empire and replaced it with the modern state of Turkey in 1923.
In September 1922, under attacks from the Turkish army newly reenergized by Ataturk’s leadership, thousands of Greeks left town when their shops and homes and the historic downtown were destroyed by an enormous fire.
www.geocities.com /samegarden/article2.htm   (292 words)

  
 THE EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES
The entire Byzantine Catholic community was moved to Greece in a general exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s, and an Apostolic Exarchate was established in 1923 in Athens.
The Melkite Patriarch Maximos IV, in the Second Session of the Council, was especially eloquent on collegiality of the bishops, and struck a chord that generally concerned the Bishops at Vatican II.
The Greek or Byzantine liturgy is based on the tradition of St. Basil and the subsequent reform of St. John Chrysostom.
maryourmother.net /Eastern.html   (4548 words)

  
 Vlachs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The religion of the Vlachs is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christianity, but there are some regions where they are Catholics and Protestants (mainly in Transylvania) and a few are even Muslims (former converts from Greece, living in Turkey since the 1923 exchange of populations).
The Vlach languages have a common origin from the Proto-Romanian language, and the Vlachs themselves originally descend from Roman colonists (from various provinces of the Roman Empire) and Romanised indigenous populations (Dacians, Thracians, and/or Illyrians).
In the 10th Century, the Hungarians arrived in the Pannonian plain, and, according to the Gesta Hungarorum written by an anonymous chancellor of King Bela III of Hungary, the plain was inhabited by Slavs, Bulgars, Vlachs and pastores Romanurum (Roman shepherds).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vlachs   (1124 words)

  
 [MGSA-L] MGSA-L digest, Vol 1 #300 - 3 msgs
The treaty, as most on this list should be aware, required an "exchange" of populations between these two countries after the end of a decade of wars, beginning with those in the Balkans 1912-1913 and ending with the Greco-Turkish conflict 1919-1922.
Now, as to the Lausanne Treaty, it is not just an arbitrary document but was the result of an effort to legitimate the resolution of the ethnic minority questions between Greece and Turkey.
Since this purports to be an academic list perhaps the provision of dimension and context to issues being discussed would be more to the point.
maillists.uci.edu /mailman/public/mgsa-l/2003-January/001269.html   (1124 words)

  
 Family_Tree_Leon
After the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey, the family reunited and they moved to Northern Greece (Macedonia) in Lykoi, near Edessa.
In the 30's the whole family moved to the valley, and just before the 2nd world war, they settled down in Kria Vrissi.
web.telia.com /~u86427955/familytre_leon.htm   (1124 words)

  
 Helene Eriksen -- Dances of the Turkic Peoples
There are large Turkic populations in China, Afghanistan and Iran and groups of Turkic peoples in Russia, the Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and until the exchange of populations in the 1920’s, in Greece.
Modern Turkic peoples include the Kazaks, Kirghiz, Uzbeks, Turkmen, Afsharis, Qashqa’i, Azeris, Tatars and the Turks of modern day Turkey among others.
Early Turkic peoples originated in Central Asia and their descendants reached the gates of Vienna.
www.helene-eriksen.de /TurkEng.html   (1296 words)

  
 Kalamaria (Greece)
Most of Kalamaria's people came after 1922 and the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey.
Its population is about 120,000, Kalamaria being the second biggest city in Northern Greece and ninth in the whole country.
The flag of Kalamaria is white the ship of Jason and the Argonauts named Argo.
atlasgeo.span.ch /fotw/flags/gr-kalam.html   (145 words)

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