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Topic: Executive Order 9981


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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  
  Executive Order 9981 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.
It expanded on Executive Order 8802 by establishing equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races.
Among the order's effects was the elimination of Montford Point as a segregated Marine boot camp (the camp became a satellite facility of Camp Lejeune).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Executive_Order_9981   (294 words)

  
 Executive Order 8802 - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Executive Order 8802
The order prohibited discriminatory employment practices by federal agencies and by all unions and companies engaged in war-related work, and it established the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to enforce this policy.
Roosevelt signed the executive order primarily to ensure that there would be no strikes or demonstrations disrupting the manufacture of military supplies as the country prepared for war.
Executive Order 8802 came about after Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, threatened to call for 100,000 fl Americans to march in Washington, DC, to protest about job discrimination in the armed services and the defence industry.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Executive+Order+8802   (251 words)

  
 Executive Order 11051
The Director, under authority of, and in accordance with the provisions of, Executive Order No. 10660 of February 15, 1956, shall develop policies and plans for the provision of an Executive Reserve of personnel capable of filling executive positions in the Government in time of emergency.
The Director, under authority of the provisions of Section 4(d) (2) of Executive Order No. 10900 of January 6, 1961, shall determine from time to time the materials to be contracted for or purchased for a supplemental stockpile with foreign currencies pursuant to the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 (7 U.S.C. 1704(b)).
In carrying out his responsibilities under this order, the Director is authorized to issue such rules and regulations, and directives, consonant with law and Executive order, as he deems necessary and appropriate to the functions involved.
www.disastercenter.com /laworder/11051.htm   (2605 words)

  
 Clinton Executive Order Record
Opponents of executive orders often are frustrated in attempts to galvanize public opinion against arcane language and euphemisms used in writing them, which do not always clearly indicate the author's goal.
Every executive order must cite an authorizing statute and theoretically be aimed at government agencies under the president's purview.
Truman's final order, issued one day before he left office in 1953, created a national security medal of honor for the nation's top spies, which is still highly coveted and often revealed only in the obituary of its recipient.
www.englishfirst.org /13166/13166wtgeneral.html   (1809 words)

  
 Desegregation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Executive Order 9981 was signed on July 26, 1948.
In 1957, in the wake of the Brown decision, U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower enforced the Supreme Court's 1954 school desegregation order by sending troops to Little Rock, Arkansas when the Governor of the state resisted allowing fl students (known as the Little Rock Nine) to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High School.
Still, the United States remains somewhat segregated in housing patterns, although far less so than previously, and very segregated religiously; nearly all of the leading Protestant denominations still have predominantly white and predominantly fl bodies, although there is a slow spread of racially integrated ones, particularly among the Pentecostal and community church movements.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Desegregation   (1358 words)

  
 The Avalon Project : Executive Order 9981   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Committee is authorized on behalf of the President to examine into the rules, procures and practices of the armed services in order to determine in what respect such rules, procedures and practices may be altered or improved with a view to carrying out the policy of this order.
All executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Committee in its work, and to furnish the Committee such information or the services of such persons as the Committee may require in the performance of its duties.
When requested by the Committee to do so, persons in the armed services or in any of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government shall testify before the Committee and shall make available for the use of the Committee such documents and other information as the Committee may require.
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/presiden/execord/eo9981.htm   (417 words)

  
 Pentagram Main Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
While most politicians shied away from mention of the order because of the subject's volatility, Bradley, the newly appointed Army chief of staff, unaware that the executive order had been signed and made public, declared that the Army would have to remain segregated as long as racial segregation was the national pattern.
Bradley had cited the possibility that white soldiers refusing to take orders from fls and that the confidence and interdependence necessary of soldiers in combat would be lost.
In spite of the intent of Executive Order 9981 two years earlier, segregation had hung on to varying degrees throughout the services -- surviving Forrestal as defense secretary and Royall as secretary of the Army.
www.dcmilitary.com /army/pentagram/archives/july17/pt_c71798.html   (2485 words)

  
 Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1948
It was accompanied by Executive Order 9980, which created a Fair Employment Board to eliminate racial discrimination in federal employment.
The true fulfillment of the entire scope of Executive Order 998equality of treatment and opportunitactually required an additional change in Defense Department policy.
Executive Order 10924 - Establishment of the Peace Corps, 1961
www.classbrain.com /artteenst/publish/article_121.shtml   (615 words)

  
 Congressional Limitation of Executive Orders   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
All these kinds of executive orders in the management of the executive department are to be expected, and most of them need not be subjected to the scrutiny of Congress because they are purely and technically and actually a province of the executive.
Executive order authority derives from the President's power, defined in Article II, Section 3, to ''take care that the laws be faithfully executed.'' However, ''laws'' obviously and necessarily means laws that are already passed, not ''laws'' an executive order purports to create.
The President issues an order, whether it is a national security directive or executive order, whatever these orders may be, the President issues an order, and that order either is valid pursuant to his powers delegated by Congress or by the Constitution, or it is not.
commdocs.house.gov /committees/judiciary/hju63865.000/hju63865_0.htm   (15588 words)

  
 Wigton: Exec Orders: PSQ
Executive orders are convenient devices for presidents because they are applicable to many areas of policy and are largely discretionary tools for the executive.
While executive orders in most other areas of policy making are taken under fairly broad statutory and constitutional guidelines, those in the field of trade policy have been subject to increasingly restrictive congressional criteria, timetables, and procedures.
Bush's use of an executive order to outmaneuver his congressional adversaries on the issue of federal support for fetal tissue research was another instance of executive orders serving as tools for legislative strategy.
www.dickinson.edu /~rudaleva/execords.html   (4946 words)

  
 Executive Order 8802
This order is the first presidential action ever taken to prevent employment discrimination by private employers holding government contracts.
President Roosevelt signs the Executive Order primarily to ensure that there are no strikes or demonstrations disrupting the manufacture of military supplies as the country prepares for War.
The Committee shall receive and investigate complaints of discrimination in violation of the provisions of this order and shall take appropriate steps to redress grievances which it finds to be valid.
www.classbrain.com /artteenst/publish/article_71.shtml   (405 words)

  
 The Truman Legacy: Desegregation of the Armed Forces
The order brought an end to racial segregation within the ranks of the United States military forces.
Executive Order 9981 addressed four areas: First, it declared the President's policy of equality of opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.
And fourth, it directed all executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government to cooperate with the Committee in its work.
www.majorcox.com /columns/truman.htm   (659 words)

  
 usnews.com: The People's Vote: Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948)
During World War II, President Roosevelt had responded to complaints about discrimination at home against African Americans by issuing Executive Order 8802 in June 1941, directing that fls be accepted into job-training programs in defense plants, forbidding discrimination by defense contractors, and establishing a Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC).
Executive Order 9981 stated that "there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The order also established an advisory committee to examine the rules, practices, and procedures of the armed services and recommend ways to make desegregation a reality.
There was considerable resistance to the executive order from the military, but by the end of the Korean conflict, almost all the military was integrated.
www.usnews.com /usnews/documents/docpages/document_page84.htm   (433 words)

  
 National and International Issues During the Cold War - My Homepage
Desegregation of the military and the role of the PCCR in Executive Order 9981
Executive Order 9981 directed all departments and agencies of the Federal Government to cooperate fully with the committee and to provide it with any information that it requested.
However, President Truman directive with Executive Order 9981 put the armed forces at the head of the growing Civil Rights Movement to win a fully equivalent role for African American Citizens.
www.piedmontcommunities.us /servlet/go_ProcServ/dbpage=page&gid=01336001151082333253641240   (1014 words)

  
 July 1998 Engineer Update
Black soldiers served only in segregated units until President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on Julu 26, 1948, which began the process of desegregation.
The pressure was on, and Truman responded with Executive Order 9981.
But because the order did not include the word "integration," he obtained assurances from President Truman that he did indeed intend to end segregation.
www.hq.usace.army.mil /cepa/pubs/jul98/story16.htm   (734 words)

  
 Integration of the Armed Forces   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
On 26 July 1948, President Harry S Truman signed Executive Order 9981, establishing the President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services.
The true fulfillment of the entire scope of Executive Order 9981—equality of treatment and opportunity—actually required an additional change in Defense Department policy.
As part of a continuing observance of Executive Order 9981, the U.S. Army Materiel Command requested that each of its major subordinate commands develop a program of events to support this commemoration.
www.redstone.army.mil /history/integrate/welcome.html   (276 words)

  
 Legal Resources, Laws -- Civil Rights
See also, Executive Order 11246 Fact Sheet from the U.S. Department of Labor, which explains the guidelines, and President Lyndon B. Johnson's Commencement Address at Howard University on 4 June 1965: "To Fulfiill These Rights"; which frames the concept underlying affirmative action and is considered one of President Johnson's most eloquent speeches.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower: Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High School (Little Rock, Arkansas) 23 September 1957; allowed the president to "federalize" the Arkansas National Guard and send 1,000 U.S. Army paratroopers from the 101st Airborne Division to assist them in restoring order in Little Rock school integration crisis.
President Harry S. Truman: Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces 26 July 1948; abolished segregation in the armed forces and ordered full integration of all the services.
usinfo.state.gov /usa/civilrights/laws.htm   (918 words)

  
 afamkoreintro   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The ambiguous language of Executive Order 9981 was carefully chosen amid the racially-charged politics of an election year.
The Order neither mentioned the term desegregation nor dictated when each military service ought to achieve racial equality.
As a result, desegregation proceeded slowly and inconsistently and because of their small numbers, African American servicewomen serving during the Korean War era were often the first and, sometimes, the only to train, command, work and live in desegregated settings.
chnm.gmu.edu /courses/rr/s01/cw/students/leeann/historyandcollections/collections/exhibitpages/afamkoreaexhibit/afamkoreaexhintro.htm   (100 words)

  
 Executive order ending segregation in U.S. Armed Forces issued this day in 1948   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Bellow is the text of executive order 9981.
All executive departments and agencies of due Federal Government are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Committee in its work, and to furnish the Committee such information or the services of such persons as the Committee may require on the performance of its duties.
The Committee shall continue to exist until the President shall terminate its existence by Executive order.
emergingminds.org /calendar/event.php?ID=87&Date=2005-07-26   (459 words)

  
 CHAPTER 13
Consequently when the order was mentioned at all, it was usually carried without comment, and the few columnists who treated the subject did so with some caution.
If the President's wooing of the fl voter was good election politics, his executive order was also a successful practical response to the threat of civil disobedience and the failure of the Secretary of Defense to strive actively for racial equality throughout the services.
Speaking to a group of instructors at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and unaware of the President's order and the presence of the press, Bradley declared that the Army would have to retain segregation as long as it was the national pattern.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/books/integration/IAF-13.htm   (12617 words)

  
 Executive Order 11051
The Director shall be responsible for (1) planning for the mobilization of the nation's telecommunications resources in time of national emergency, and (2) carrying out, under the authority of, and in accordance with the provisions of, Executive Order No. 10705 of April 17, 1957, the functions thereby delegated or otherwise assigned to him.
Nothing in this order or in any order amended by this order shall derogate from the provisions of Executive Order No.
(e) Executive Order No. 10582 of December 17, 1954, is hereby amended by striking from Section 3 (d) thereof the words "from any officer of the Government designated by the President to furnish such advice" and by inserting in lieu of the stricken words the following: "from the Director of the Office of Emergency Planning.
www.lib.umich.edu /govdocs/jfkeo/eo/11051.htm   (2439 words)

  
 Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948) - RealOpinion.com Political Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed this executive order establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, committing the government to integrating the segregated military.
Transcript of Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948)
When requested by the Committee to do so, persons in the armed services or in any of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Governemt shall testify before the Committee and shall make available for use of the Committee such documents and other information as the Committee may require.
www.realopinion.com /realboards/showthread.php?t=670   (977 words)

  
 DefenseLINK News: Military Commemorates 50 Years of Racial Integration   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
"His executive order cleared a path for integration and opportunity, decreeing that never again should racism be the rule, regulation or regular practice of the armed forces," Cohen said.
This conference began the same day President Truman signed the executive order in 1948 that integrated the armed forces.
Clinton said the former president showed courage in signing the 1948 executive order integrating the armed forces.
www.pentagon.gov /news/Jul1998/n07311998_9807316.html   (495 words)

  
 Applying Truman order to gays in the military   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
That order states, in part, that "there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin."
The time has come to amend that order to allow men and women to serve in the armed forces without regard to sexual orientation.
At its core, the issue of gays serving in the military is not one of diversity, or tolerance; it is a matter of justice and fair play, and it ought to be addressed head-on in Congress or by the executive branch.
www.sfgate.com /cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/07/26/EDGPUDTBNL1.DTL&type=printable   (784 words)

  
 Student Essay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
4. All executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Committee in its work, and to furnish the Committee such information or the services of such persons as the committee may require in the performance of its duties.
Executive Order 9981 is a direct result of the bravery, tenacity, and accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen.
Although equal rights were a long ways off, the Tuskegee Airmen, the "Red-tailed Angels," took the initial leap toward national racial integration, by inspiring through the excellence of their combat performance, the Executive Order 9981, the most radical integration policy of its time.
ntap.k12.ca.us /whs/projects/history/tuskegee.html   (1350 words)

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