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Topic: Expectancy effect


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In the News (Thu 20 Jun 19)

  
 Life expectancy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Human life expectancy at various ages and under different circumstances is carefully studied by the insurance and actuarial professions, and is calculated on the basis of historic data as shown on the mortality or annuity table used as a reference.
Life expectancy is also called average life span or mean life span, in particular distinction to maximum life span (the life span of the most long lived members of a class of living beings).
Life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a living being (or the average for a class of living beings) of a given age to live.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Life_expectancy   (2113 words)

  
 Life expectancy at birth - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Life expectancy at birth
In Bangladesh, life expectancy is currently 48; in Nigeria 49.
There is a marked difference between industrialized countries, which generally have an ageing population, and the poorest countries, where life expectancy is much shorter.
In the UK, average life expectancy currently stands at 74 for males and about 80 for females.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Life+expectancy+at+birth   (150 words)

  
 Encyclopedia Baseball
There is an evident feeling of harmony, but the effect is confused and the prevailing tones are uncomfortably warm.
It seemed to Eustace that he was being regarded with a keen expectancy, as though his decision I on the trivial point was of real importance.
I had never before done anything but heads, which I was satisfied to scatter over the canvas like flowers.
encyclopedia_baseball.flowrobot.com   (150 words)

  
 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Age-adjusted life expectancy
Thus the age-adjusted life expectancy for a 50 year old in 2030 will probably be significantly lower than the average for a newborn, although if organ replacement becomes routine the differential could change.
Age-Adjusted Life Expectancy is the estimation of how long a person is expected to live based on their current age.
For example, a person born in 1980, who is 25 in 2005, with a life expectancy of 75, will be expected to die in 2055.
fact-archive.com /encyclopedia/Age-adjusted_life_expectancy   (328 words)

  
 Life Expectancy
Life Expectancy on the rise: (2000)"Human lifespan increased enormously in the 20th century.
Furthermore, because life expectancy continues to increase, not only are an increasing number of people surviving to very old ages but also deaths to the oldest-old are accounting for an increasing proportion of all deaths.
Officials said that they were encouraged by continued improvements in life expectancy, a crude measure of Americans' overall health.
www.efmoody.com /estate/lifeexpectancy.html   (6225 words)

  
 Life Expectancy
Life expectancy at birth--The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
Basic technology, which should have a positive affect on life expectancy, is proxied, for present purposes, by the percent of the population with access to adequate sanitation facilities and an improved water source.
The more traditional view is that life expectancy is unlikely to grow to more than 90 to 100 years, at best, and to obtain the upper end of this range would involve eliminating all current aging-related causes of death.
spot.colorado.edu /~gravesp/WPLifeExpectancy6-6-02.htm   (4262 words)

  
 DEPweb
Life expectancy is higher in high-income countries than in all but a few low- and middle-income countries.
Look at the map and list five countries in which life expectancy at birth is less than 50 years, five in which it is between 50 and 59 years, five in which it is 60 to 69 years, and five in which it is 70 years or more.
Because life expectancy is an average, a major change in the living conditions in a country is needed to bring about a change-for better or worse-in overall life expectancy at birth.
www.worldbank.org /depweb/english/teach/life.html   (6369 words)

  
 Life Expectancy for Social Security
Life expectancy at birth in 1930 was indeed only 58 for men and 62 for women, and the retirement age was 65.
But life expectancy at birth in the early decades of the 20th century was low due mainly to high infant mortality, and someone who died as a child would never have worked and paid into Social Security.
If we look at life expectancy statistics from the 1930s we might come to the conclusion that the Social Security program was designed in such a way that people would work for many years paying in taxes, but would not live long enough to collect benefits.
www.ssa.gov /history/lifeexpect.html   (439 words)

  
 baseball, life expectancy
Life expectancy at age 20 was 39.8 years for a lifetime of 59.8 years, 21.1 years longer than expectancy at birth.
So the decline in life expectancy for those born 1830-50 is for those entering baseball approximately 1850-70.
Problem: There is no national life expectancy data for the 19th century.
www.ac.wwu.edu /~stephan/webstuff/es.19thBB.html   (1358 words)

  
 Africa: Life Expectancy
Life expectancy in several countries in southern Africa has been cut 15-20 years off what the WHO would expect it to be in Africa without HIV.
In Bahrain, the overall healthy life expectancy is 64.4, but 63.9 for male babies and 64.9 for female babies; Qatar, 63.5 overall, and 64.2 for male babies, 62.8 for females; and Kuwait, 63.2 overall, with 63.0 for male babies and 63.4 for female babies.
Japanese have the longest healthy life expectancy of 74.5 years among 191 countries, versus less than 26 years for the lowest-ranking country of Sierra Leone, based on a new way to calculate healthy life expectancy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO).
www.africaaction.org /docs00/life0006.htm   (2189 words)

  
 Life span - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Life expectancy, the average life span expected of a group
The life span of an individual is the period or length of time in which they lived.
Maximum life span, the maximum life span observed in a group
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Lifespan   (120 words)

  
 Diet, Lifestyle and Life Expectancy
The interesting feature of this data is that the increase in life expectancy of adults, at 45 and 65 is not a great deal less than the increase from birth (5 years at birth versus around 3 years for the adult age groups).
To illustrate this, the changes in life expectancy for Swiss women, from the beginning of this century is shown in Figure 1.
It is, of course, impossible to attribute the increase in life expectancy during the last 100 years or so to any one particular reason or factor.
www.eufic.org /gb/heal/heal04.htm   (1479 words)

  
 Life expectancy
Life expectancy is an indication of how long a person can expect to live on average given prevailing mortality rates.
In Australia, life expectancy has increased significantly over the past century, reflecting the considerable falls in mortality rates, initially from infectious diseases and, in later years, from cardiovascular disease (Table 1).
There are many influences on mortality and life expectancy.
www.aihw.gov.au /mortality/data/life_expectancy.cfm   (589 words)

  
 Child Trends DataBank - Life Expectancy
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, "Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age and is based on a given set of age-specific death rates, generally the mortality conditions existing in the period mentioned.
While females have higher life expectancies at birth than males, the gender gap in life expectancy has narrowed since 1979, when the gap was at a peak of 7.8 years.
Estimates of the healthy life expectancy (the number of years of life spent in good health) for each of the member states of the World Health Organization are available for the year 2002 from The World Health Report 2004.
www.childtrendsdatabank.org /indicators/78LifeExpectancy.cfm   (942 words)

  
 Life expectancy
Consistent with other measures of the health of the population, there is an association with socioeconomic factors: life expectancy increases as the rate of unemployment decreases and the level of education increases.
Mortality patterns are similar for men and women in the low life expectancy health regions.
The health regions with the lowest life expectancies tend to be in remote regions or northern parts of certain provinces and have significant Aboriginal populations.
www.statcan.ca /english/indepth/82-003/feature/hrhi1999011003s4a01.htm   (183 words)

  
 Science & Technology at Scientific American.com: Life Expectancy
Life expectancy in humans is the average number of years of life remaining for people of a given age, assuming that everyone will experience, for the remainder of their lives, the risk of death based on a current life table.
Even with precipitous declines in mortality at middle and older ages from those present today, life expectancy at birth is unlikely to exceed 90 years (males and females combined) in the 21st century without scientific advances that permit the modification of the fundamental processes of aging.
Rapid declines in infant, child, maternal and late-life mortality during the 20th century led to an unprecedented 30-year increase in human life expectancy at birth from the 47 years that it was in developed countries in 1900.
www.sciam.com /article.cfm?articleID=000931E9-350F-1CE5-93F6809EC5880000&pageNumber=1&catID=9   (355 words)

  
 Life Expectancy and Health Trends in Modern Society
This popularity of life expectancy at birth figures is perhaps related to the ease with which these figures may be misused to convey a false impression about the effectiveness of modern medical science.
As far as life expectancy is concerned for instance, these workers fail to mention in their media release that the life expectancy of 65 year old Australians has only increased by 1.9 years (men) and 1.5 years (women) during the period 1989 -1999 (48).
Another difficulty with regard to life expectancy figures relates to claims that any years of extra life that have occurred are considered to be extra years with a disability rather than extra years of healthy life (37), however I shall consider this matter a little later.
www.holistichealthtopics.com /HMG/trends.html   (10183 words)

  
 Bend.com - Press Release "OHSU studies 'expectancy effect,' brain disorders": News and information from Bend, Oregon
Expectancy effect is considered a component of placebo effect, a long-studied medical outcome stemming from any clinically prescribed, biologically inert substance or inactive procedure for which there is no direct biological effect, including words, pills, gestures, devices and surgery.
Expectancy effect is considered more broad and includes all processes and influences that may affect the brain's anticipation of a response.
While this so-called "expectancy effect" may not necessarily influence the underlying cause of a disease, evidence suggests it can have an impact on a patient's health outcomes.
www.bend.com /news/ar_view.php?ar_id=20501   (10183 words)

  
 Expectancy effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The expectancy effect (or experimenter effect) is a common problem in
Skeptic's Dictionary on the Experimenter Effect  ( http://skepdic.com/experimentereffect.html)
This page was last modified 01:49, 22 Nov 2004.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Expectancy_effect   (10183 words)

  
 Covert Communication in Classrooms, Clinics, and Courtrooms - Psi Chi
If it was my unintentional interpersonal expectancy effect or my "unconscious experimenter bias" that had led to the puzzling and disconcerting results of my dissertation, then presumably my students and I could produce the phenomenon in our own laboratory, and with several experimenters rather than just one.
A dozen years after the Pygmalion-in-the-classroom study was completed, the research literature on interpersonal expectancy effects had broadened to include 345 experiments in eight domains of research.
Moderator variables are preexisting variables, such as sex, age, and personality, that influence the magnitude of interpersonal expectancy effects; mediating variables are the behaviors by which expectations are communicated.
www.psichi.org /pubs/articles/article_121.asp   (10183 words)

  
 Dean Koontz - Life Expectancy - About the Book
LIFE EXPECTANCY unfolds over the course of these five shattering days, as the breathtaking narrative picks up Jimmy at each of these crisis points in his life and carries the reader along on a thrilling journey that defies all expectation, along a twisting, terrifying, and ultimately triumphant course that only Dean Koontz could devise.
Dean Koontz- Life Expectancy - About the Book
The first is to occur in his 20th year; the second in his 23rd year; the third in his 28th; the fourth in his 29th; the fifth in his 30th.
www.randomhouse.com /bantamdell/koontz/life_book.html   (273 words)

  
 USATODAY.com - Obesity threatens life expectancy
Life expectancy in the USA is now at a high of 77.6 years.
If the researchers' predictions hold true in the next 50 years, it would be the first reversal in life expectancy since the government started keeping track in 1900.
About 16% of kids today are overweight, and another 15% are at risk of becoming too heavy, which increases their chance of ailments such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
www.usatoday.com /news/health/2005-03-16-obesity-lifespan_x.htm   (512 words)

  
 Life Expectancy Tables - Main Page
The life expectancy at birth in 2002-2004 (79.0 years) represents the average number of years that babies born during those years would live if throughout their lives they experienced the age-specific death rates experienced in 2002-2004.
During 1989-1991, life expectancy at birth in Wisconsin was 77.4 years.
These tables show current life expectancy at various ages for Wisconsin's total population and for males and females.
dhfs.wisconsin.gov /stats/lifeexpectancy.htm   (203 words)

  
 National Statistics Online
Life expectancy at birth results for health and local authorities in the United Kingdom are now available for 2002-2004.
This Excel workbook contains examples of life tables which were constructed during a research process undertaken by ONS to compare methodologies to allow the calculation of life expectancy at birth and its standard error for subnational areas in the Unite...
Graduated life tables constucted from the mortality experience of the population of England and Wales during the three years 1990, 1991 and 1992.
www.statistics.gov.uk /CCI/nscl.asp?ID=7528   (604 words)

  
 N C H S - FASTATS - Life Expectancy
Life expectancy at birth, at 65 and 75 years of age by race and sex, 1900-2002
Life expectancy by age, race, and sex, 1900-2002
N C H S - FASTATS - Life Expectancy
www.cdc.gov /nchs/fastats/lifexpec.htm   (41 words)

  
 The Hawthorne effect
Many believe that there are often large positive effects apparently simply from the expectation created in the patient: if true, this is the placebo effect, where the intervention in fact has no material effect, but the belief by the participant does.
The John Henry effect (Zdep and Irvine; 1970) is the opposite of the Hawthorne effect: it is when a supposedly control group, that gets no intervention, compares themselves to the experimental group and through extra effort gets the same effects or results.
However this was about one tenth the size of the effect prophesied, so it would be quite wrong to describe this as "seeing what you expect": it would be more accurate to suggest that experimenters could influence subjects on marginal cases and so systematically bias (only) within the range of experimental "noise".
www.psy.gla.ac.uk /~steve/hawth.html   (41 words)

  
 Incorporating the Effect of Reduced Life Expectancy into Awards for Future Costs of Care
For example, the medical experts might agree that the effect of the plaintiff’s injury is to reduce her life expectancy from 50 years to 30.
Incorporating the Effect of Reduced Life Expectancy into Awards for Future Costs of Care
The size of the discrepancy between the approximate methods and the correct survival distribution depends on several factors, of which the most important are the cost schedule, the discount rate, and the plaintiff’s life expectancy.
www.economica.ca /ew54p1.htm   (41 words)

  
 The Think Drink Effect
Expectancy effects seem to be relatively weak or absent altogether for the mood states that accompany drinking.
More than 25 published studies that use the balance-placebo design have replicated the expectancy effect with a variety of social and affective responses that were previously thought to be influenced primarily by the physiological or chemical properties of alcohol itself.
The studies also suggest that expectancy effects are strongest for behaviors that are believed to be positive or desirable for the drinker, like reduced anxiety, increased assertiveness, or behaviors that are associated with some form of immediate gratification such as sexual or aggressive acting out.
www.coastsociology.org /206/think_drink.htm   (41 words)

  
 JPR Paper
The most obvious interpretation of this change is that the expectancy effect created by a visible incomplete prime is completely absent when the subjects are unaware of the prime.
Whether the eliminated effects are "unwanted" or not depends on one's viewpoint, but whatever position is adopted on this issue, it must be admitted that a comparison of masked and non-masked priming effects is likely to be highly instructive as far as the architecture of the cognitive system is concerned.
These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects.
www.u.arizona.edu /~kforster/research/jpr/jpr.htm   (41 words)

  
 Life Insurance
Life expectancy table: Here is the official life expectancy table issued periodically by the Office of the Insurance Commissioner.
For most people, life insurance falls into that category because it protects a family against a devastating loss of income.
Life Insurance Cautions: Things to beware as consumers weigh the decision to buy life insurance.
www.insurance.wa.gov /consumers/life/lifeinsurance.asp   (141 words)

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