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Topic: Experimentation


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In the News (Wed 19 Sep 18)

  
  Experiment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On the other hand, in other cases such as biology, and medicine, it is often hard to ensure that the conditions of an experiment are performed consistently; and in the social sciences, it may even be difficult to determine a method for measuring the outcomes of an experiment in an objective manner.
As a result of these considerations, experimental design in the "hard" sciences tends to focus on the elimination of extraneous effects, while experimental design in the "soft" sciences focuses more on the problems of external validity, often through the use of statistical methods.
In fields such as microbiology and chemistry, where there is very little variation between individuals and the group size is easily in the millions, these statistical methods are often bypassed and simply splitting a solution into equal parts is assumed to produce identical sample groups.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Experiment   (1924 words)

  
 human experimentation.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The evolution from animal experimentation to human experimentation is a logical consequence of laws governing the experimental process, whether in Nazi Germany, or elsewhere, and not the result of preferring humans to animals.
Experimentation on human beings is not the work of a few aberrant doctors; it is systemic, because it is the system by which modern western medicine works.
Animal experimentation is "the core to understanding the whole process of human experimentation," for if the poor, the mentally retarded, the homeless, the orphaned and the imprisoned have little voice, the animals have no voice, and it is voicelessness and rightlessness that invests the whole procedure from animal to orphan to the mentally retarded.
www.micahbooks.com /readingroom/humanexperimentation.html   (3763 words)

  
 Human experimentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Much of the time, the subjects of human experimentation are prisoners, slaves, family members, or the experimenter himself.
In 1940 in the United States, four hundred prisoners in Chicago were infected with malaria to study the effects of new and experimental drugs for the disease.
Despite this, the term is generally recognized as pejorative: one would never refer to life-saving surgery, for example, as "vivisection." The use of the term vivisection when referring to procedures performed on humans almost always implies a lack of consent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Human_experimentation   (1411 words)

  
 Book Review: Experimentation Matters
Using new technologies for experimentation is not easy, and Thomke explains that it requires companies to learn how to manage, organize and structure their innovation processes.
In Experimentation Matters, he shows organizations how they can fully integrate new technologies into their experimentation process by offering six principles for managing experimentation and explaining how they can be used to drive innovative product development.
Since virtual experimentation brings organizations information earlier, managers are able to use results to guide their decisions about the use of major resources and avoid reworking bad designs after a company has committed itself to them.
www.inc.com /articles/2003/09/brexperimentation.html   (687 words)

  
 Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard
This premise underlies all of experimental biology and medicine."25 This is a central element of Bernard's legacy.
The emergence of experimental physiology based on vivisection was therefore an integral part of a general trend in French science away from anything that could be interpreted as speculation towards a science based rigidly, too rigidly perhaps, on laboratory work and experiment.
Moreover, this tendency to conceptualize animal experimentation as the centerpiece of biomedicine has lead researchers to downplay the significance of species differences, and to assume that if a phenomenon cannot be reproduced in animals in controlled laboratory experiments, then it cannot be a genuine human biomedical phenomenon.
www.stpt.usf.edu /hhl/papers/bernard.htm   (6548 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Experimental psychologists have studied the limits of behavioral unpredictability by asking whether human subjects can generate random sequences of responses.
However, experimental reports with data for individual subjects show that between-subject differences are generally differences in the size of the effect, not its direction.
It is hardly in the experimenter’s interest to do a long series of self-experiments based on false or misleading results, to do conventional experiments based on false or misleading results (based on earlier self-experiments), or to publish false or misleading results.
ist-socrates.berkeley.edu /~roberts/self   (15281 words)

  
 Regulation on Animal Experimentation
The Regulation regulates experimentation with animals, and in addition the breeding, rearing and keeping of animals that are to be utilized in experiments.
All animals used in, or intended to be used in experimentation, including breeding stock, are to be provided with the housing and environmental conditions, freedom of movement, and feed and water necessary for their health and prosperity.
The Regulations on biological experimentation with animals, pronounced by the Ministry of Agriculture on December 22, 1977, in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of December 20, 74, nr 73, §§21 and 22, after Royal proclamation of November 19, 1976, is repealed from the same day.
oslovet.veths.no /statute.html   (2918 words)

  
 DefenseLINK News: U.S. ATLANTIC COMMAND DESIGNATED EXECUTIVE AGENT FOR JOINT WARFIGHTING EXPERIMENTATION
Joint warfighting experimentation is one of the primary methods for exploring, testing and validating, or modifying future joint operational concepts that will drive changes in DOTMLP.
Joint warfighting experimentation is necessary to identify and assess those interdependent areas of joint warfare that will leverage Service warfighting capabilities to transform the conduct of future US Armed Forces operations.
Joint experimentation will integrate Service-unique experiments where coordination is required for the successful prosecution of the joint battle.
www.defenselink.mil /releases/1998/b05211998_bt252-98.html   (1149 words)

  
 EXPERIMENTATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In systems analysis, experimentation is the process of determining the results of a proposed course of action or program by conducting an experiment on a smaller scale in which the course of action is applied to a sample drawn from the future target group.
An example would be a test of a new health policy in a restricted region instead of the whole country, or a test on a randomly selected sample of the population.
Experimentation is used whenever current knowledge and understanding of factors such as social attitudes and group preferences are not sufficient to provide dependable model-based predictions.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /ASC/EXPERIMENTA.html   (148 words)

  
 Chapter 6: Experimentation
Whilst it is not always possible to adjust the experimental design so as to eliminate each of these potential threats to the validity of results, it is always possible to measure their impact upon results.
Isolating the effect of the experimental variable is simply a matter of subtracting the difference in the two measurements of the control group from the difference in the two measures taken from the experimental group.
The main forms of experimental design differ according to whether or not a measure is taken both before and after the introduction of the experimental variable or treatment, and whether or not a control group is used alongside the experimental group.
www.fao.org /docrep/W3241E/w3241e07.htm   (5588 words)

  
 Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation
It is evident that scientists use a sufficiently large number of animals in biomedical research to warrant a scientific and moral evaluation of the practice.
We will carefully analyze the scientific, methodological, and epistemological merits of the practice of animal experimentation to sift the argumentative wheat from the chaff, for there are, contrary to some critics, legitimate uses of animals in the context of scientific research.
Animal experimentation is not all of a piece there are different uses of animals, and these must be evaluated differently.
www.stpt.usf.edu /hhl/papers/brutes.htm   (1510 words)

  
 Experimentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
AATEX: Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation The official journal of the Japanese Society of Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (JSAAE).
Big Art Group engaged in inspiriring collaboration, experimentation, and an adventurous spirit in the arts.
Ketamine: First Impressions Details the author's experimentation with the drug, and the effects it had.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Experimentation.html   (679 words)

  
 Nat' Academies Press, The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces (2004)
Experimentation has been key to advances in all forms of naval warfare—gunnery, guided missiles, naval ship propulsion, vertical-capable jet aircraft, very short takeoff and landing rotorcraft, and all other activities related to the shaping and operation of naval forces, including the Fleet Antiterrorism Security Teams and the Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) of today.
Experimentation has resulted in changes in minor equipment items in the field.4 It is clear that naval experimentation is resulting in new doctrine, TTPs, some new concepts, and some minor end items.
Experimentation serves to help develop and refine concepts that lead to capabilities, which in turn are reflected in operations.
www.nap.edu /books/0309088739/html/141.html   (8090 words)

  
 Experimentation
Understand that experimentation for new medical research should be regulated.
Blunders and questionable ethical practices in human experimentation are not only found in studying history.
Compare and contrast the legal, ethical and political concerns in historical experimentation with contemporary and future concerns.
www.nova.edu /~kornblau/LE_class/experimentation.html   (942 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Experimentation Matters: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Of these, experimentation calls for the highest levels of external intervention and as a topic by itself has always been of interest to statisticians who have developed powerful techniques to derive maximum information through the least possible number of experiments.
Experimentation Matters details the technologies that can transform innovation but place just as much emphasis on the changes that must be made to business processes, organization, culture, incentives, and management.
The importance of experimentation in driving innovation is wonderfully highlighted and Thomke discusses important paradigms such as failing often to succeed sooner as well as contemporary issues thrown up by new technologies such as what to do with the opportunity to experiment more.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/1578517508   (1895 words)

  
 The absurdity of animal experimentation - 4 (Part 1)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Thus, the argument which claims animal experimentation ensures the safety of human beings wholly runs aground when there is an examination of the numerous instances of vunerable humans being used in 'research'.
The experimentation was condemned by the American Medical Association, but the principal physician involved did not suffer professionally and in fact he advanced his career.
Experimentation on human beings is not the work of a few aberrant doctors; it is systematic, because it is the system by which modern western medicine now operates.
vivisection-absurd.org.uk /abs04.html   (13382 words)

  
 The Rising Tide of Animal Experimentation: National Statistics - World Laboratory Animal Liberation Week
During fiscal year 2002 the total number of animals used in experimentation for species regulated by the Animal Welfare Act (this excludes rats, mice and other species --the majority of animals used in experimentation) was 1,438,553.
This is the largest number of cats used in experimentation since the USDA began compiling statistics on animal experimentation.
The increase of 46,679 from the 2001 total of 49,382 was one of the largest in history climbing by an astronomical 94.5%.
www.all-creatures.org /wlalw/report-rt-ns.html   (551 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: Experimentation Matters: Unlocking the Potential of New Technologies for Innovation: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
He explains why experimentation is so critical to innovation, underscores the impact of new technologies, and outlines what managers must do to integrate them successfully.
Experimentation has always been the engine of innovation, and Thomke reveals how it works today.
There are some very useful graphical representations of the value of a simulation-based experimentation approach, versus traditional, and/or the combination of them both.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/1578517508   (869 words)

  
 MIND-CONTROL EXPERIMENTATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In due course (and provided financial support is obtained), we hope to be able to acquire the technology and supportive medical expertise to substantiate the claims being made.
Weapons research, which includes the development and testing of "non-lethal" weapons, is not governed by laws restricting the activities of U.S. Intelligence agencies, though it may be presumed that these agencies contribute to and benefit from such research.
The U.S. Government has a past record of having engaged in mind-control experimentation; and various agencies of the Government have a record of circumventing legal restrictions upon their activities.
www.wealth4freedom.com /truth/12/mindcontrol2.htm   (2379 words)

  
 Synesthesia and Artistic Experimentation
ABSTRACT: Richard Cytowic has argued that synesthetic experimentation by modern artists was based on deliberate contrivances of sensory fusion and not on involuntary experiences of cross-modal association.
Their experiments with movement and dissonance are interesting explorations of aspects of synesthesia, which have been hardly studied in the current scientific research of synesthesia.
Contrary to Cytowic's view, I conclude that artistic experimentation is not only historically interesting, but can also contribute to the present synesthesia research.
psyche.cs.monash.edu.au /v3/psyche-3-06-vancampen.html   (2676 words)

  
 Is Experimentation on Primates Increasing? How Much Money is Spent on Primate Experimentation? - The Primate ...
Due to changes in the way that the USDA categorizes primates within research facilities it is impossible to compare fiscal 2002 animal use statistics with those from previous years.
As the table indicates, the use of primates in experimentation has increased by 59.5% in the last ten years.
Again, exact totals are not available regarding the amount of funding that primate experimentation receives from the federal government.
www.all-creatures.org /saen/articles-tpes2003-isexp.html   (435 words)

  
 WG 33 - Warfighting Experimentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
That experimentation is primarily focused on Army Transformation and the Army’s contribution to a joint and/or coalition force.
Using subject matter experts allows experimentation teams to tap into individuals or teams with substantial knowledge or in-depth experience and have them comment and contribute to the various phases of the experimental process.
The use of subject matter experts is influenced by the stage of the experimental process, the types of experiments being conducted (discovery, refinement and confirmation) and by the maturity of the knowledge bases being enriched by the experiment and that the subject matter experts represent.
www.mors.org /publications/abstracts/71morss/wg33_abs.htm   (3760 words)

  
 A History Of US Secret Human Experimentation
The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken fl populations.
1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco.
CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.
www.rense.com /general36/history.htm   (1745 words)

  
 WebQuest of Psychology Experimentation
As described under one and the experimental design is relevant and the critique is clearly relevant.
As described under two & the experimental design is original in that it is beyond the materials presented in the web quest.
This knowledge will, I hope, give you a greater understanding of the thought and planning that goes into experimentation and will enable you to examine the merits and soundness of the experiments you read about.
psychexperiment.tripod.com   (1579 words)

  
 Experimentation - Vanguard Wiki
Experimentation is the process of departing from the set steps or ingredients of a crafting recipe in an attempt to discover new results.
A successful experiment will give a player character access to a new recipe.
Inspiration can be spent to increase the chances of success during experimentation.
wiki.silkyvenom.com /index.php/Experimentation   (66 words)

  
 Let's Talk About: Tailoring Experimentation - Tailor - Star Wars Galaxies Official Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
If experimentation were to be adopted into tailoring I would expect to see far more armorsmith-style vendors than tailor-style vendors.
I'm against experimentation for experimentation's sake, and it's more than a little tough to think of good *and* implementable things to experiment on.
I'd say experimentation on clothing should have two bars, one for sockets, one for durability, and you can put points into either one of these or devide them between the two.
forums.station.sony.com /swg/board/message?board.id=tailor&message.id=30715   (1411 words)

  
 About USJFCOM: About the Distributed Continuous Experimentation Environment (DCEE)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Simply put, it is an experimentation intranet that establishes a permanent laboratory that is capable of continuously conducting various events, either locally at JFCOM or globally, as required by its users.
It is impractical to take a developing concept to a field environment for every potential nuance and excursion that experimenters wish to examine.
The initial stages of concept development are best done in a laboratory setting, and today’s advanced modeling and simulation capabilities can create a virtual battlespace to test concepts, new technologies, new doctrine and new force organizations at a higher level of fidelity than ever before.
www.jfcom.mil /about/fact_dcee.htm   (633 words)

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