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Topic: Experiments on Plant Hybridization

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  Experiments on Plant Hybridization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It was not until the early 20th century that Mendel's work was rediscovered and his ideas used to help form the modern synthesis.
It is interesting to note that Mendel happened to choose a plant for which the traits were discrete.
Had Mendel chosen a plant for which multiple genes are needed to express a trait, he may never have arrived at his genetic laws.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Experiments_on_Plant_Hybridization   (331 words)

 Botany online - PUBLIC DOMAIN - G. Mendel: Experiments in Plant Hybridization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Experiments which in previous years were made with ornamental plants have already affording evidence that the hybrids, as a rule, are not exactly intermediate between the parental species.
It was furthermore shown by the whole of the experiments that it is perfectly immaterial whether the dominant character belongs to the seed plant or to the pollen plant; the form of the hybrid remains identical in both cases.
In the first experiment the parental plants differed in the form of the seed and in the color of the albumen; in the second in the form of the seed, in the color of the albumen, and in the color of the seed-coats.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e08_mend/mendel.htm   (11752 words)

 [No title]
In the first and third experiments the dominant characters of form and color, A and B, appear in each union, and are also partly constant and partly in hybrid union with the recessive characters a and b, for which reason they must impress their peculiarity upon the whole of the seeds.
Insignificant as the results of this experiment may be as regards the determination of the relative numbers in which the various forms appeared, it presents, on the other hand, the phenomenon of a remarkable change of color in the flowers and seed of the hybrids.
Among plants which arise from one spontaneous fertilization there are often some who offspring vary widely in the constitution and arrangement of the colors, while that of others shows little deviation, and among a greater number solitary examples occur which transmit the color of the flowers unchanged to their offspring.
www.cs.brown.edu /people/rbb/MendelWeb/archive/Mendel.Experiments.txt   (11246 words)

 Botany: Form and Function   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Plant Anatomy is the study of the internal structure of a plant, such as cell and tissue arrangements.
Morphology is the study of the external structure of plant forms, for example, the placement of leaves along a stem, in addition to the development, life histories, and evolutionary relationships of both non-vascular and vascular plant groups.
Plant Physiology is the study of the functions and life processes of plants such as photosynthesis and mineral nutrition.
www.nbii.gov /disciplines/botany/formfunction.html   (2987 words)

 Botany online: Classic Genetics - Mendelian Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
In contrast to his predecessors MENDEL was not interested in the problem of the sexuality of flowering plants and not in the delimitation of species and varieties, his interest was the numerical registration of the transmission of parental properties to the hybrids.
Their hybrids have to be protected from the influence of any foreign pollen during flowering or it has to be easy to protect them upon need.
So if a plant with red flowers is crossed with a plant with white flowers and red is dominant (white is accordingly recessive), it cannot be operated with the letters r (for red) and w (for white), but the red flowers have to be marked R and the white ones r.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e08/08a.htm   (1548 words)

 Mendelian inheritance - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
Mendel (1822-1884), an Austrian monk, was interested in understanding variances in plants, and between 1856 and 1863 cultivated and tested some 28,000 pea plants.
These are described in his paper "Experiments on Plant Hybridization" that was read to the Natural History Society of Brunn on February 8 and March 8, 1865, and was published in 1866.
Before Gregor Mendel formulated his theories of genetics in 1865, the prevailing theory of biological inheritance was that of blending inheritance, in which the sperm and egg of parent organisms contained a sampling of the parent's "essence" and that they somehow blended together to form the pattern for the offspring.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/m/e/n/Mendelism.html   (844 words)

 Genetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Humans applied knowledge of genetics in prehistory with the domestication and breeding of plants and animals.
Genetically-identical plants grown in colder climates incorporate shorter and less-saturated fatty acids to avoid stiffness.
In his paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments in Plant Hybridization"), presented in 1865 to the Brunn Natural History Society, Gregor Mendel traced the inheritance patterns of certain traits in pea plants and showed that they could be described mathematically.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genetics   (1779 words)

 After Darwin
Although he was not the first researcher to notice similarities between parents and offspring, Mendel was the first to calculate the frequency of specific traits and to conduct a statistical analysis of this data.
For instance, a plant with green seeds crossed with a plant with yellow seeds produced plants with either yellow seeds or green seeds, and not yellow-green seeds.
For instance true-breeding plants with smooth seeds invariably gave rise to plants with smooth seeds, no matter which other plant they were crossed with.
www.galafilm.com /afterdarwin/english/timelines/gen_1866_mendel.html   (303 words)

 Psychology History
After 1850, naturalists were experimenting with plant hybridization and Mendel was aware of and acquainted with the controversy over generation and fertilization at the time.
The plants of genus Pisum have quite distinct characters in seeds and in plants that are easily distinguishable and they yield perfectly fertile hybrids.
In his first experiment, Mendel crossed a purebred round seed with a purebred angular seed and the result was that all of the hybrids were round.
www.muskingum.edu /~psych/psycweb/history/mendel.htm   (1057 words)

 Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : BORAX experiments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
The BORAX Experiments, boiling reactor experiments, were a series of tests using the BORAX-I nuclear reactor which proved Samuel Untermyer's 1952 theory that a reactor using direct boiling of water would be practical, rather than unstable because of the bubble formation in the core.
Subsequently the reactor was used for power excursion tests which showed that rapid conversion of steam to water would safely control the reaction.
Finally, BORAX-II was modified with the addition of a turbine, proved that turbine contamination would not be a problem and went on to be the first nuclear power plant to power a city, providing Arco, Idaho with 200kW of electical power for two hours on 17 July 1955.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /BORAX_experiments   (229 words)

 Botany: Past and Future   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Paleobotany is the study of prehistoric plants on the basis of fossil evidence.
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an important contribution of phytolith analysis (the study of plant opal silica bodies) to archaeology and paleoecology. This website presents a database of diagnostic phytoliths found in the flora of Ecuador.
The principal objective of most plant exploration expeditions is to provide germplasm resources for existing breeding programs, biotechnology, and conservation.
www.nbii.gov /disciplines/botany/pastfuture.html   (854 words)

 MrSci.com: All Science, All the Time
The word genetics was first applied to describe the study of inheritance and the science of variation by English scientist William Bateson in a letter to Adam Sedgwick, dated April 18, 1905.
In his paper "Versuche uber Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments in Plant Hybridization"), presented in 1865 to the Brunn Natural History Society, Gregor Mendel traced the inheritance patterns of certain traits in pea plants and showed that they could be described mathematically.
Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within waterbound ecosystems...
www.mrsci.com /biology/genetics.html   (1625 words)

 Gregor Johann Mendel
He entered the Augustinian monastery in Brno in 1843, taught at a local secondary school, and carried out independent scientific investigations on garden peas and other plants until his election as prelate in 1868.
Mendel was the first to fashion, by means of a controlled pollination technique and careful statistical analysis of his results, a clear, analytic picture of heredity.
and a notable influence in plant and animal breeding.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/people/A0832651.html   (204 words)

 Patterns of Inheritance
This column is the experiment number, the next is the number of fertilizations, this is the number of plants, and here we see the color of pod results in the first filial generation.
Repeat this type genetic cross experiment several times, and then use the other 'special pea' that is 'pure breeding for the purple flowered plant'.
One of the F1 hybrid plants (produced in the first round of genetic crosses) must be one of the parents in the second round of genetic crosses.
www.brooklyn.cuny.edu /bc/ahp/MGInv/MGI.Q3.html   (1176 words)

 Mendel's Paper (English - Plain)
In the second and fourth experiments the round and yellow seeds yielded plants with round and wrinkled yellow and green seeds, AaBb.
This explains the striking fact that the hybrids are able to produce, besides the two parental forms, offspring which are like themselves;
It can hardly fail to be of interest to compare the observations made regarding Pisum with the results arrived at by the two authorities in this branch of knowledge, Kölreuter and Gärtner, in their investigations.
www.mendelweb.org /Mendel.plain.html   (12209 words)

 Untitled Document
"Experiments with Plant Hybrids," in which Mendel described how traits were inherited, has become one of the most enduring and influential publications in the history of science.
Mendel raised and tested over 28,000 pea plants (Pisum sativum) between the years 1856 and 1863, carefully analyzing seven pairs of seed and plant characteristics.
Plants are now created in laboratories to highlight desired characteristics.
oak.cats.ohiou.edu /~bb182696   (564 words)

 Douglas Allchin || "Dissolving Dominance"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
it is now clear that the hybrids form seeds having one or the other of the two differentiating characters, and of these one-half develop again the hybird form, while the other half yield plants which remain constant and receive the dominant or the recessive characters in equal numbers.
That is, hybrids produced equal numbers of hybrid and true-breeding offspring; of the true-breeding forms, half showed the dominant trait and half the recessive.
The dominant characters "in themselves constitute the characters of the hybrids," he said, with no ostensible contribution from the recessive characters which, though present, are "latent" or "withdraw." The recessive characters do not just partially disappear; they "entirely disappear" (§4).
my.pclink.com /~allchin/papers/dissolve.htm   (8310 words)

 Mendel (1865) Worksheet
However, this is probably your first opportunity to read his original paper (actually, a translation -- at least, I didn't ask you to read it in German!).
My hope is that this exercise will provide a deeper appreciation of Mendel's classic experiments, which your text describes as the "prototype genetic analysis".
What was Mendel's objective in undertaking his "experiments in plant hybridization"?
www.wooster.edu /biology/wmorgan/bio306/MendelWorksheet.html   (509 words)

 Mendelian Genetics
You can search for a particular genetic disorder by keyword (e.g., Tay-Sachs), and you will be provided with the results of a number of scientific studies dealing with that particular genetic condition, including a bibliography, a synopsis of the disease and a discussion of allelic variants.
MendelWeb is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in the origins of classical genetics, introductory data analysis, elementary plant science, and the history and literature of science.
This is a reproduction of Mendel's original paper in which he described his experiments on inheritance in peas.
www.mhhe.com /biosci/genbio/guttman/student/olc2/r-weblinks-mendelian.htm   (349 words)

 Natural Selection: subject gateway to the natural world
An introduction to the plant gives its history, the various common names in use, distribution and information on using the species as a genetic model.
The project aims "to extract and index original plant chromosome numbers of naturally occurring and cultivated plants published throughout the world".
Presented in a user-friendly manner, it includes the full text of Mendel's original paper on experiments in plant hybridization in both German and English versions (the latter including an annotated version).
nature.ac.uk /browse/581.38.html   (2201 words)

 Mendel's Experiment
This animation describes Gregor Mendel's experiment as presented in his Experiments in Plant Hybridization (1865).
The animation illustrates the visible patterns of characteristics which emerged in successive generations of pea plants, along with Mendel's mathematical analysis.
It are these patterns that he applied in order to derive his laws of inheritance.
www.mendel-museum.org /eng/1online/experiment.htm   (77 words)

 ANS 378 Web Links to Supplemental Resources
This online web resource is a teaching and learning activity that uses Gregor Mendel's original 1865 paper entitled "Experiments in Plant Hybridization" as a foundation.
"MendelWeb is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in the origins ofclassical genetics, introductory data analysis, elementary plant science, and the history andliterature of science.
Constructed around Gregor Mendel's 1865 paper "Versuche uber Pflanzen-Hybriden" and a revised version of the English translation by C.T. Druery and William Bateson, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization", MendelWeb is offered as a public sourcebook and collaboartive environment compatible with a variety of guided and independent studies.
oregonstate.edu /instruct/ans378f/ANS378WebLinks.html   (619 words)

 Plant Breeding Links
National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG)
Breeding of horticultural crops at the Department of Plant Biology, University of Helsinki
EUCARPIA - The European Association of Plant Breeders
honeybee.helsinki.fi /users/avainola/KJAL   (120 words)

 Science Netlinks: 9-12 E-Sheet
This online activity lets you breed your own hybrid pea plants.
Be sure to jot down what you breed for parents and what the results are for the offspring.
You may refer back to Experiments in Plant Hybridization (1865), if necessary.
www.sciencenetlinks.com /Esheet.cfm?DocID=25   (149 words)

 Amazon.com: Experiments in Plant Hybridisation: Books: Gregor Mendel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Amazon.com: Experiments in Plant Hybridisation: Books: Gregor Mendel
Pamphlet Architecture 11: Hybrid Buildings (Pamphlet Architecture, Volume 11) by Joseph Fenton in Front Matter
Cheap prices and huge selection - in plant on sale.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0674278003?v=glance   (433 words)

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