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Topic: Export subsidy

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  Subsidy Allegation
The subsidy must also be "specific." The Department will look to see that the CVD petition addresses each of these elements for each subsidy that is alleged on the basis of "information that is reasonably available" to the petitioner.
An export subsidy is a subsidy that is, in law or in fact, contingent upon export performance, alone or as 1 of 2 or more conditions (Section 771(5A)(B)).
A domestic subsidy that is de jure specific is one where the authority providing the subsidy expressly limits the subsidy to an enterprise or industry or group of enterprises or industries (Section 771(5A)(D)(I) and (ii)).
ia.ita.doc.gov /pcp/pcp-subsidy-allegation.html   (555 words)

 WTO | Agriculture - explanation of the agreement - export competition/subsidies
The proliferation of export subsidies in the years leading to the Uruguay Round was one of the key issues that were addressed in the agricultural negotiations.
All such export subsidies are subject to reduction commitments, expressed in terms of both the volume of subsidized exports and the budgetary outlays for these subsidies.
The Agreement on Agriculture prohibits the use of Article 9.1 export subsidies on any agricultural product which is not subject to a reduction commitment as specified in the relevant part of the Member’s schedule (with the exception, during the implementation, period of those benefiting from special and differential treatment).
www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/agric_e/ag_intro04_export_e.htm   (992 words)

 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - WTO: Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture
Developed countries must reduce budgetary expenditures on export subsidies by at least 36 percent and the volume of subsidized exports by at least 21 percent on a product-specific basis over the 1995-2000 implementation period.
Export subsidy schedules of WTO members specify how much of each commodity can be exported with subsidy and what subsidy expenditures are permitted for each commodity.
The chief users of export subsidies from 1995 to 1998, as reported to the WTO, were the EU, followed by Switzerland, the United States, and Norway.
www.ers.usda.gov /briefing/wto/export.htm   (1162 words)

 Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
Such factors are: use of a subsidy programme by a limited number of certain enterprises, predominant use by certain enterprises, the granting of disproportionately large amounts of subsidy to certain enterprises, and the manner in which discretion has been exercised by the granting authority in the decision to grant a subsidy.
Where the subsidy is tied to the production or sale of a given product, the value of the product shall be calculated as the total value of the recipient firm's sales of that product in the most recent 12-month period, for which sales data is available, preceding the period in which the subsidy is granted.
Subsidies which are non-actionable under relevant provisions of this Agreement shall not be included in the calculation of the amount of a subsidy for the purpose of paragraph 1(a) of Article 6.
www.jurisint.org /pub/06/en/doc/23.htm   (13418 words)

 SICE Dispute Settlement WTO Report WT/DS70/AB/R /F
Conversely, the further removed a subsidy is from sales on the export market, the less the possibility that the facts may demonstrate that the subsidy would not have been granted but for anticipated exportation or export earnings.
The mere fact that a subsidy is granted to enterprises which export shall not for that reason alone be considered to be an export subsidy within the meaning of this provision.
Instead, the existence of this relationship of contingency, between the subsidy and export performance, must be inferred from the total configuration of the facts constituting and surrounding the granting of the subsidy, none of which on its own is likely to be decisive in any given case.
www.sice.oas.org /dispute/wto/ds70/4064d06.asp   (2905 words)

 SICE Dispute Settlement WTO Report WT/DS103/R WT/DS113/R /18
Canada's export subsidy commitment in respect of cheese by volume for 1996/1997 was 11,773 tonnes.
Consequently, an application of an export subsidy to a quantity of exports that was greater than that set forth in a Member's schedule would by definition constitute a circumvention of its obligations under Articles 3, 8 and 9 of the Agreement.
Indeed, seeking to draw a sharp line around the definition of "export subsidy" by means of an exhaustive and prescriptive definition could well encourage the adoption of measures that exhibited the same subsidisation effects as Article 9.1 subsidies but which did not fall strictly within its terms.
www.sice.oas.org /DISPUTE/wto/ds103/103e18r.asp   (3700 words)

The U.S. share had increased from 33.3 percent of world exports in 1970 to 35.5 percent in 1989, while in the case of the EC, it had changed from a net importer (5.5 percent of the world imports) to that of an exporter with 16.8 percent of the world market share.
Its exports in 1990-1991 accounted for 20 million tonnes or 18 percent of world wheat exports, while its stocks stood at 24 million or a quarter of world wheat trade.
While there was an imbalance between GATT rules on agricultural export subsidies and export subsidies in general, it did not follow that there were no GATT disciplines on agricultural export subsidies or that GATT rules and basic principles did not cover Agriculture.
www.sunsonline.org /trade/areas/agricult/09300092.htm   (1166 words)

 Welfare Effects of an Export Subsidy: Large Country
Exporting Country - The aggregate welfare effect for the country is found by summing the gains and losses to consumers and producers.
Since all three components are negative, the export subsidy must result in a reduction in national welfare for the exporting country.
This means that an export subsidy implemented by a "large" exporting country in a perfectly competitive market will raise national welfare in the importing country.
internationalecon.com /v1.0/ch90/90c230.html   (1286 words)

 ERS/USDA Data - WTO Agricultural Trade Policy Commitments Database: WTO Export Subsidy Notifications
World Trade Organization (WTO) member countries are required to submit documents that detail their export subsidy expenditures and the quantities of subsidized exports—under the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, countries agreed to reduce the use of trade-distorting export subsidies.
The notifications, submitted annually, indicate the types of export subsidies, expenditures on export subsidies, and the quantity of subsidized exports during a given year (notification year).
While countries are supposed to submit notifying documents on export subsidies each year, there is a lag between the end of a specific year and that year's associated notification.
www.ers.usda.gov /db/Wto/ExportSubsidy_database   (356 words)

 The Hindu : Rubber exporters form union to press for export subsidy
He said the association would implore the Centre to continue the export subsidy scheme and request the Rubber Board to take measures to increase the yield from the present average of 1,500 kg per hectare.
He said that the export subsidy scheme was in conformity with the World Trade Organisation stipulations and all over the world such incentives for export existed.
The exported rubber which used to suffer a discount of 25 per cent in the international markets could claim a premium if there was a steady stream of quality rubber.
www.hindu.com /2004/02/29/stories/2004022904250500.htm   (439 words)

 Chapter 10
There are two standards sanctioned by WTO rules: selling exports at a price that is lower than the price in the home market (or in third country markets), or selling exports at a price that is lower than the full average cost of production (including a profit margin).
We examine the peculiar economics of all of this, using the case in which the export subsidy lowers the price of exports, and the market is otherwise competitive.
The export subsidies bring a national net loss, with the case of Korean steel as an example.
www.wright.edu /~tran.dung/Chapter10_Pugel.htm   (2386 words)

 networkideas.org - Subsides and Countervailing Measures in WTO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The first exception to the right of use export subsidies arises if a country reaches export competitiveness' in a certain product, the SCM agreement requires that the export subsidy on that product should be phased out over a period of eight years.
As far as export subsidies are concerned, the AoA stipulates that both the amount of export subsidies and quantities that receive export subsidies should be reduced over the implementation period.
Peace Clause states that permissible domestic subsidies cannot be subject to countervailing duties during the implementation period, and that other ("amber") domestic support and export subsidies are subject to Countervailing (CV) action only if a determination of injury or threat thereof is established as per the Subsidies and Countervailing Measures agreement.
www.networkideas.org /eco/may2005/eb03_WTO.htm   (3845 words)

 WTO Agriculture Negotiations Plow Through Export Subsidies
Specific topics to be addressed by the special session include: export subsidies, export credits, state trading enterprises, export restrictions, food security and food safety (see BRIDGES Weekly, 22 May 2001).
It asserts that elimination of remaining export subsidies must be achieved within three years for developed countries, and within six years for developing countries.
The Japanese paper posits that disciplines on the export side are not as rigorous as on the import side and should therefore be commensurately strengthened.
www.ictsd.org /html/weekly/24-07-01/story6.htm   (511 words)

 Export Assist - Tax Advantage - History
The DISC provisions were challenged by the European Union (EU) as providing an impermissible export subsidy that allowed an indefinite deferral of tax on U.S. exporters without an interest charge, thereby violating the terms of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
In November 1997, the European Union formally challenged the FSC provisions in the WTO, stating that the FSC tax exemption was a prohibited export subsidy.
A final decision regarding legislation to replace the U.S. export tax regime is expected to be made by the end of 2003.
www.exportassist.com /tax_history.html   (840 words)

 The International Practice of the European Communities: Current Survey: 2. Other Trade Protection Laws   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
One scheme was considered to have the characteristics of both an export subsidy scheme and a domestic subsidy scheme.
Therefore, the imposition of a countervailing duty covering such export subsidies up to the level of the anti-dumping duty would be contrary to [the basic] Regulation...
It is therefore appropriate to collect countervailing duty only to the extent to which the rate of export subsidies exceeds the dumping margin in force, where this rate (of export subsidies) does not exceed the injury threshold found.
www.ejil.org /journal/Vol2/No2/sr1-02.html   (1349 words)

 IDFA - U.S. Wins Dairy Export Subsidy Challenge
The victory allows the U.S. dairy industry to finally close this long-running dispute, and sets an important precedent by better defining export subsidies under the WTO rules, according to three U.S. dairy industry organizations that supported the U.S. government in bringing the original challenge and providing technical support throughout the process.
Canada's annual export subsidy limits are 9,076 metric tons of cheese, 3,500 tons of butter, 44,953 tons of skim milk powder and 30,282 tons of other products.
From 1997 to 2001, Canada's average annual exports reached 22,993 tons of cheese, 11,619 tons of butter and 35,606 tons of skim milk powder, plus 35,229 tons of evaporated/condensed milk, 7,517 tons of fluid milk and 6,687 tons of ice cream, according to USDEC.
www.idfa.org /news/releases/2002/dairyexportchallenge.cfm   (729 words)

 Price Effects of an Export Subsidy: Large Country Case
The prices must differ by the subsidy because US suppliers of wheat must receive the same price for their product, regardless of whether the product is sold in the US or Mexico and all wheat sold in Mexico must be sold at the same price.
Since a subsidy is paid to US exporters, the only way for these price equalities within countries to arise is if the price differs across countries by the amount of the subsidy.
The export subsidy equilibrium is depicted graphically on the adjoining graph.
internationalecon.com /v1.0/ch90/90c220.html   (381 words)

 NAFTA's Relationship to State Support of Industries and Export Subsidies
The main exception to NAFTA's "silence" on domestic support and export subsidies is the extensive discussion and explicit allowance of such domestic support in the agricultural sector.
Currently, there are export subsidy programs to promote exports to Mexico of many U.S. agricultural commodities, including the export enhancement program, the dairy export incentive program and the cottonseed oil and sunflower seed oil assistance programs.
The report noted that while export subsidies had been virtually eliminated for industrial goods, the Uruguay Round was "designed to begin the reduction of these subsidies in the agriculture sector." [No. 19] All direct export subsidies, according to the report, are "intended to be disciplined.
w3.uchastings.edu /plri/spring95/nafta01.html   (1696 words)

 Export subsidy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Export Subsidy is a government policy to encourage export of goods and discourage sale of goods on the domestic market through low-cost loans or tax relief for exporters, or government financed international advertising or RandD.
The WTO prohibits most subsidies directly linked to the volume of exports.
Export Subsidies are also generated when internal price supports as in a guaranteed minimum price for a commodity creates more production than can be consumed internally in the country.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Export_subsidy   (170 words)

 rediff.com:US aims to cushion EU farm export subsidy decision : Reuters
Brussels, for its part, has been on the defensive in discussions on agriculture as other countries have united around a text calling for negotiations on reducing farm export subsidies "with a view to phasing out".
The EU, which spends more on agricultural export subsidies than anyone else, has objected to that language, saying it would preordain the outcome of negotiations.
A new version of the agriculture text circulated to WTO members on Tuesday leaves the question of how to handle export subsidies open for a final decision by the membership.
www.rediff.com /money/2001/nov/13wto2.htm   (610 words)

 United States - Tax Treatment for Foreign Sales Corporations--Recourse To Article 21.5 of the DSU by the European ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In this case, the U.S. ETI was challenged by the EU on the ground that it continued to provide an export subsidy.
The Appellate Body found that the ETI continued to violate the prohibition of export subsidies, but continued to struggle with the distinction between the "normative baseline" tax system, and the "exceptional" measure under Article 1.1(a)(1)(ii) of the SCM Agreement.
The FSC was found to confer an illegal export subsidy in the original panel and Appellate Body reports.
www.ejil.org /journal/curdevs/sr32.html   (505 words)

 Export Subsidy Services, Ltd. 800-243-1372
Export Subsidy Services, Ltd. was formed by Mr.
Thornton, a Villanova University graduate, formed and operated Export FSC International, Ltd., which in early 1984 opened the first management office in St. Thomas offering only FSC Management services.
The company grew over the years to become the largest of its kind to offer only FSC Management services to some 500 FSC clients until the FSC provisions were repealed by Congress in 2001.
www.exportfsc.com /pages/aboutus.shtml   (333 words)

 The U.S. WTO Agriculture Proposal for Global Trade Reform   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Current WTO rules cap annual budgetary outlays on export subsidies and the quantity of subsidized exports, on a product-specific basis.
Specific caps on the use of export subsidies were derived from export subsidy activity in the 1986-1990 period.
Practices that are inconsistent with these disciplines would be considered export subsidies and subject to the strict rules prohibiting export subsidies.
www.fas.usda.gov /itp/wto/proposal.htm   (1563 words)

 Little hope for export subsidy -DAWN - Business; July 17, 2006
A report prepared by the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, titled ‘Impact of export financing and rebate scheme on exports of Pakistan’ stated in no uncertain terms that there was no direct relationship between export rebate and quantum of exports.
Indian exports with its rival and partner China has increased at astonishingly high rate from a few millions dollars in 2000 to over $13 billion by the end of 2005-06.
Stand alone, Pakistan has doubled its exports in seven years and has increased its trade to GDP ratio from close to 26 per cent in 1999-2000 to an estimated 34 per cent in 2005-6.
www.dawn.com /2006/07/17/ebr1.htm   (1296 words)

 networkideas.org - Subsides and Countervailing Measures in WTO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
By specific subsidy the SCM agreement means subsidies which are specifically provided to a region, an enterprise or industry or group of enterprises or industries.
Prohibited subsidies: A government targets export goods or goods using domestic inputs for subsidization.
However, simultaneous imposition of both countervailing and anti-dumping duties to compensate for the same situation of dumping or export subsidization is not allowed.
www.networkideas.org /eco/may2005/print/prnt030505_WTO.htm   (3833 words)

 Top Ten Arms Export Subsidy & Transparency Issues for 1996
The report would have included the foreign countries or organizations involved, a description and estimated value and quantity of the articles authorized to be produced, the restrictions on third-country transfers and a description of controls incorporated into the agreement to ensure compliance with this.
Specific information on DCS (such as quantity and type of weapons to be exported, manufacturer, dollar volume of the contract, and offsets) is considered "confidential busin ess information" and, while not classified, is unavailable to the general public.
Even the total dollar volume of exports licensed by the State Department in a given year is hidden from the public.
www.fas.org /asmp/library/policy/topten96.html   (3992 words)

 Top Ten Arms Export Subsidy & Transparency Issues for 1998
Inclusion of information in the section 655 report on commercially-negotiated arms exports would force the State Department to compile this data in a timely manner, facilitating government and public oversight of the commercial export program.
The Pentagon exported $500 million of excess defense articles to foreign militaries in 1997, and it has hundreds of millions of dollars of equipment on loan around the world.
Permitting offsets on sales financed in whole or in large part with taxpayer funds is grossly unfair to the general public, which is already being called upon to underwrite the development of the weapons being exported and to pay for the foreign government's purchase of the weapons.
www.fas.org /asmp/library/policy/topten98.html   (3769 words)

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